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  1. Sharma S, Sudhakara P, Omran AAB, Singh J, Ilyas RA
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Aug 28;13(17).
    PMID: 34502938 DOI: 10.3390/polym13172898
    Electrically-conducting polymers (CPs) were first developed as a revolutionary class of organic compounds that possess optical and electrical properties comparable to that of metals as well as inorganic semiconductors and display the commendable properties correlated with traditional polymers, like the ease of manufacture along with resilience in processing. Polymer nanocomposites are designed and manufactured to ensure excellent promising properties for anti-static (electrically conducting), anti-corrosion, actuators, sensors, shape memory alloys, biomedical, flexible electronics, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs, and adhesive applications with desired-appealing and cost-effective, functional surface coatings. The distinctive properties of nanocomposite materials involve significantly improved mechanical characteristics, barrier-properties, weight-reduction, and increased, long-lasting performance in terms of heat, wear, and scratch-resistant. Constraint in availability of power due to continuous depletion in the reservoirs of fossil fuels has affected the performance and functioning of electronic and energy storage appliances. For such reasons, efforts to modify the performance of such appliances are under way through blending design engineering with organic electronics. Unlike conventional inorganic semiconductors, organic electronic materials are developed from conducting polymers (CPs), dyes and charge transfer complexes. However, the conductive polymers are perhaps more bio-compatible rather than conventional metals or semi-conductive materials. Such characteristics make it more fascinating for bio-engineering investigators to conduct research on polymers possessing antistatic properties for various applications. An extensive overview of different techniques of synthesis and the applications of polymer bio-nanocomposites in various fields of sensors, actuators, shape memory polymers, flexible electronics, optical limiting, electrical properties (batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs), corrosion-protection and biomedical application are well-summarized from the findings all across the world in more than 150 references, exclusively from the past four years. This paper also presents recent advancements in composites of rare-earth oxides based on conducting polymer composites. Across a variety of biological and medical applications, the fact that numerous tissues were receptive to electric fields and stimuli made CPs more enticing.
  2. Sharma S, Sudhakara P, Singh J, Ilyas RA, Asyraf MRM, Razman MR
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Aug 06;13(16).
    PMID: 34451161 DOI: 10.3390/polym13162623
    In the determination of the bioavailability of drugs administered orally, the drugs' solubility and permeability play a crucial role. For absorption of drug molecules and production of a pharmacological response, solubility is an important parameter that defines the concentration of the drug in systemic circulation. It is a challenging task to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs that have poor water solubility. Most drug molecules are either poorly soluble or insoluble in aqueous environments. Polymer nanocomposites are combinations of two or more different materials that possess unique characteristics and are fused together with sufficient energy in such a manner that the resultant material will have the best properties of both materials. These polymeric materials (biodegradable and other naturally bioactive polymers) are comprised of nanosized particles in a composition of other materials. A systematic search was carried out on Web of Science and SCOPUS using different keywords, and 485 records were found. After the screening and eligibility process, 88 journal articles were found to be eligible, and hence selected to be reviewed and analyzed. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials have emerged in the manufacture of therapeutic and pharmacologic devices, such as impermanent implantation and 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration and biomedical applications. Substantial effort has been made in the usage of bio-based polymers for potential pharmacologic and biomedical purposes, including targeted deliveries and drug carriers for regulated drug release. These implementations necessitate unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic, microbiological, metabolic, and degradation characteristics of the materials in order to provide prolific therapeutic treatments. As a result, a broadly diverse spectrum of natural or artificially synthesized polymers capable of enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrolyzing, or enzyme decomposition are being explored for biomedical purposes. This summary examines the contemporary status of biodegradable naturally and synthetically derived polymers for biomedical fields, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, bioengineering, targeted drug discovery and delivery, implantation, and wound repair and healing. This review presents an insight into a number of the commonly used tissue engineering applications, including drug delivery carrier systems, demonstrated in the recent findings. Due to the inherent remarkable properties of biodegradable and bioactive polymers, such as their antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, certain materials have gained significant interest in recent years. These systems are also actively being researched to improve therapeutic activity and mitigate adverse consequences. In this article, we also present the main drug delivery systems reported in the literature and the main methods available to impregnate the polymeric scaffolds with drugs, their properties, and their respective benefits for tissue engineering.
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