METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. All women admitted to labour room, obstetrics and gynaecology wards and intensive care units in 2014 were screened for the presence of any vital organ dysfunction or failure based on the World Health Organization criteria for maternal near miss. Pregnancy irrespective of the gestational age was included. Women younger than 18 years old, with psychiatric disorder and beyond 42 days of childbirth were excluded.
RESULTS: Thirty women who had experienced maternal near miss events were included in the analysis. All were Malays between the ages of 22 and 45. Almost all women (93.3%) had secondary and tertiary education and 63.3% were employed. The women's perceptions of the quality of their care were influenced by the competency and promptness in the provision of care, interpersonal communication, information-sharing and the quality of physical resources. The predisposition to seek healthcare was influenced by costs, self-attitude and beliefs.
CONCLUSIONS: Self-appraisal of maternal near miss, their perception of the quality of care, their predisposition to seek healthcare and the social support received were the four major themes that emerged from the experiences and perceptions of women with maternal near miss. The women with maternal near miss viewed their experiences as frightening and that they experienced other negative emotions and a sense of imminent death. The factors influencing women's perceptions of quality of care should be of concern to those seeking to improve services at healthcare facilities. The addition of a maternal near miss case review programme, allows for understanding on the factors related to providing care or to the predisposition to seek care; if addressed, may improve future healthcare and patient outcomes.
METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals in 2014. Postpartum women with severe morbidity and without severe morbidity who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were eligible as cases and controls, respectively. The study population included all postpartum women regardless of their age. Pregnancy at less than 22 weeks of gestation, more than 42 days after the termination of pregnancy and non-Malaysian citizens were excluded. Consecutive sampling was applied for the selection of cases and for each case identified, one unmatched control from the same hospital was selected using computer-based simple random sampling. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed using Stata Intercooled version 11.0.
RESULTS: A total of 23,422 pregnant women were admitted to these hospitals in 2014 and 395 women with severe maternal morbidity were identified, of which 353 were eligible as cases. An age of 35 or more years old [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.6 (1.67, 4.07)], women with past pregnancy complications [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 1.7 (1.00, 2.79)], underwent caesarean section deliveries [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 6.8 (4.68, 10.01)], preterm delivery [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 3.4 (1.87, 6.32)] and referral to tertiary centres [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.7 (1.87, 3.97)] were significant associated factors for severe maternal morbidity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the enhanced screening and monitoring of women of advanced maternal age, women with past pregnancy complications, those who underwent caesarean section deliveries, those who delivered preterm and the mothers referred to tertiary centres as they are at increased risk of severe maternal morbidity. Identifying these factors may contribute to specific and targeted strategies aimed at tackling the issues related to maternal morbidity.
METHODS: A total of 171 women admitted for elective cesarean delivery at two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. On day two after cesarean delivery, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the mothers to get information on feeding practice. Descriptive statistics, including simple and multiple logistic regressions, were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth. Approximately 15.8% and 10.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 24 hours and ≥24 hours, respectively. Skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their infants occurred in 77.8% of cases after cesarean delivery. Breastfeeding initiation was significantly associated with skin-to-skin contact (odds ratio [OR], 14.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.58-58.06), mothers who exclusively breastfed during hospitalization (OR, 36.37; 95% CI, 5.60-236.24), and infants who were not sleepy during attempts at breastfeeding (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.32-20.21).
CONCLUSION: Based on our results, it is possible to increase the proportion of mothers initiating breastfeeding within 1 hour among women who undergo elective cesarean delivery. Therefore, it is important that health practitioners educate women beginning in the antenatal period who plan to undergo cesarean delivery by emphasizing the importance of early initiation of breastfeeding.
Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using PubMed, the Library of Congress, Google Scholar, SAGE, and ScienceDirect. The following search keywords were used: adoptive breastfeeding, induced lactation, non-puerperal lactation, extraordinary breastfeeding, and milk kinship. The search was restricted to articles written in English and published from 1956 to 2019. All study designs were included except for practice protocols.
Results: A total of 50 articles about induced lactation were retrieved. Of these, 17 articles identified the experiences of women who underwent induced lactation. The articles included original papers (n=7), reviews (n=5), and case reports (n=5). Four articles were specifically related to Malaysia, and the others were international. These 17 articles concerning the experiences of women who induced lactation will be reviewed based on four themes related to inducing lactation: (a) understanding women's perception of satisfaction, (b) emotional aspects, (c) enabling factors, and (d) challenges.
Conclusion: Identifying a total of only 17 articles on induced lactation published over the last 53 years suggests that the subject is understudied. This review provides emerging knowledge regarding the experiences of women who have induced lactation in terms of satisfaction, emotions, enabling factors and challenges related to inducing lactation.
METHODS: The qualitative phenomenological approach involving working mothers in Kota Bharu who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study were recruited using purposive sampling. Sixteen participants aged 24 to 46 years were interviewed using semi-structured in-depth interviews in the study. All interviews were recorded in digital audio, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis.
FINDINGS: Three main themes emerged from the data analysis: perception of breastfeeding, challenges in breastfeeding, and support for breastfeeding. Two subthemes for perceptions were perception towards breastfeeding and towards infant formula. Challenges had two subthemes too which were related to perceived insufficient milk and breastfeeding difficulty. Where else, two subthemes for support were internal support (spouse and family) and external support (friends, employer, and healthcare staff).
CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining breastfeeding after return to work is challenging for working mothers and majority of them need support to continue breastfeeding practice. Support from their spouses and families' influences working mothers' decision to breastfeed. Employers play a role in providing a support system and facilities in the workplace for mothers to express and store breast milk. Both internal and external support are essential for mothers to overcome challenges in order to achieve success in breastfeeding.