Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Lee P, Sulaiman Z
    Zootaxa, 2015;3962(1):182-90.
    PMID: 26249385 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3962.1.11
    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (P<0.05) and was in agreement with morphological differences. Pairwise differences were significant between Java and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P < 0.05). Closest relationships were found between samples from Brunei/Borneo and Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.
  2. Tengku Ismail TA, Sulaiman Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2010 Jul;17(3):32-9.
    PMID: 22135547
    There is a need to identify the knowledge that mothers have about breastfeeding to help promote it. Therefore, it is important to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to provide useful and comparable data about breastfeeding knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of a Malay version of a questionnaire assessing breastfeeding knowledge and describe the breastfeeding knowledge level among respondents.
  3. Sulaiman Z, Liamputtong P, Amir LH
    J Adv Nurs, 2016 Apr;72(4):825-35.
    PMID: 26749396 DOI: 10.1111/jan.12884
    AIM: To describe the enablers and barriers working women experience in continuing breast milk feeding after they return to work postpartum in urban Malaysia.
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, urban working women have low rates of breastfeeding and struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months exclusive breastfeeding.
    DESIGN: A qualitative enquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods were used to explore women's experiences in depth.
    METHODS: Multiple qualitative methods using face-to-face interview and participant diary were used. Data collection took place in urban suburbs around Penang and Klang Valley, Malaysia from March-September 2011. Participants were 40 employed women with infants less than 24 months.
    FINDINGS: Only 11 of the participants worked from home. Based on the women's experiences, we categorized them into three groups: 'Passionate' women with a strong determination and exclusively breastfed for 6 months, 'Ambivalent' women who initiated breastfeeding, but were unable to sustain exclusive breastfeeding after returning to work and 'Equivalent' women who introduced infant formula prior to returning to work.
    CONCLUSION: Passion and to a lesser extent intention, influenced women's choice. Women's characteristics played a greater role in their infant feeding outcomes than their work environment.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; barriers; breastfeeding; enablers; interviews; nursing; qualitative; working women
  4. Sulaiman Z, Liamputtong P, Amir LH
    Health Soc Care Community, 2018 01;26(1):48-55.
    PMID: 28560792 DOI: 10.1111/hsc.12460
    Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding.
  5. Norhayati MN, Nik Hazlina NH, Sulaiman Z, Azman MY
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):229.
    PMID: 26944047 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2895-2
    Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  6. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Sulaiman Z, Amin RM, Omar K
    J Relig Health, 2017 Dec;56(6):1916-1929.
    PMID: 26809242 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0185-z
    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
  7. Noor NM, Nik Hussain NH, Sulaiman Z, Abdul Razak A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):9S-18S.
    PMID: 26069164 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515589811
    Maternal morbidity is a concept of increasing interest in maternal health. This review aims to assess the contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity over the past one decade worldwide. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted. The search was restricted to articles written in the English language published from 2004 to 2013. Qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 24 full articles were retrieved of which 9 cohort, 7 case-control, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 5 unmentioned designs were included. The contributory factors were divided into 3 components: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) medical and gynecological history, and (c) past and present obstetric performance. This review informs emerging knowledge regarding contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity and has implications for education, clinical practice and intervention. It enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy for maternal morbidity and mortality.
  8. Norhayati MN, Nik Hazlina NH, Asrenee AR, Sulaiman Z
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2017 Jun 15;17(1):189.
    PMID: 28619038 DOI: 10.1186/s12884-017-1377-6
    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality has been the main way of ascertaining the outcome of maternal and obstetric care. However, maternal morbidities occur more frequently than maternal deaths; therefore, maternal near miss was suggested as a more useful indicator for the evaluation and improvement of maternal health services. Our study aimed to explore the experiences of women with maternal near miss and their perception of the quality of care in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach with in-depth interview method was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. All women admitted to labour room, obstetrics and gynaecology wards and intensive care units in 2014 were screened for the presence of any vital organ dysfunction or failure based on the World Health Organization criteria for maternal near miss. Pregnancy irrespective of the gestational age was included. Women younger than 18 years old, with psychiatric disorder and beyond 42 days of childbirth were excluded.

    RESULTS: Thirty women who had experienced maternal near miss events were included in the analysis. All were Malays between the ages of 22 and 45. Almost all women (93.3%) had secondary and tertiary education and 63.3% were employed. The women's perceptions of the quality of their care were influenced by the competency and promptness in the provision of care, interpersonal communication, information-sharing and the quality of physical resources. The predisposition to seek healthcare was influenced by costs, self-attitude and beliefs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-appraisal of maternal near miss, their perception of the quality of care, their predisposition to seek healthcare and the social support received were the four major themes that emerged from the experiences and perceptions of women with maternal near miss. The women with maternal near miss viewed their experiences as frightening and that they experienced other negative emotions and a sense of imminent death. The factors influencing women's perceptions of quality of care should be of concern to those seeking to improve services at healthcare facilities. The addition of a maternal near miss case review programme, allows for understanding on the factors related to providing care or to the predisposition to seek care; if addressed, may improve future healthcare and patient outcomes.

  9. Norhayati MN, Nik Hazlina NH, Aniza AA, Sulaiman Z
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2016 Jul 26;16(1):185.
    PMID: 27460106 DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-0980-2
    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the factors associated with severe maternal morbidity enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy. However, various definitions of severe maternal morbidity have been applied, leading to inconsistencies between studies. The objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic characteristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric performance and the provision of health care services as associated factors for severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals in 2014. Postpartum women with severe morbidity and without severe morbidity who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were eligible as cases and controls, respectively. The study population included all postpartum women regardless of their age. Pregnancy at less than 22 weeks of gestation, more than 42 days after the termination of pregnancy and non-Malaysian citizens were excluded. Consecutive sampling was applied for the selection of cases and for each case identified, one unmatched control from the same hospital was selected using computer-based simple random sampling. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed using Stata Intercooled version 11.0.

    RESULTS: A total of 23,422 pregnant women were admitted to these hospitals in 2014 and 395 women with severe maternal morbidity were identified, of which 353 were eligible as cases. An age of 35 or more years old [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.6 (1.67, 4.07)], women with past pregnancy complications [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 1.7 (1.00, 2.79)], underwent caesarean section deliveries [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 6.8 (4.68, 10.01)], preterm delivery [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 3.4 (1.87, 6.32)] and referral to tertiary centres [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.7 (1.87, 3.97)] were significant associated factors for severe maternal morbidity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the enhanced screening and monitoring of women of advanced maternal age, women with past pregnancy complications, those who underwent caesarean section deliveries, those who delivered preterm and the mothers referred to tertiary centres as they are at increased risk of severe maternal morbidity. Identifying these factors may contribute to specific and targeted strategies aimed at tackling the issues related to maternal morbidity.

  10. Polgar G, Zaccara S, Babbucci M, Fonzi F, Antognazza CM, Ishak N, et al.
    J Fish Biol, 2017 May;90(5):1926-1943.
    PMID: 28239874 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13276
    A study was conducted on the habitat distribution of four sympatric species of Periophthalmus (the silver-lined mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, the slender mudskipper Periophthalmus gracilis, the kalolo mudskipper Periophthalmus kalolo and the Malacca mudskipper Periophthalmus malaccensis) from northern Sulawesi. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions based on one mtDNA marker (16S) were used to validate the morphological taxa, identifying five molecular clades. Periophthalmus argentilineatus includes two molecular species, which are named Periophthalmus argentilineatus clades F and K. Multivariate direct gradient analysis show that these species form three distinct ecological guilds, with the two molecular species occurring in different guilds. Periophthalmus clade F is ecologically eurytypic; Periophthalmus clade K and P. kalolo are prevalent in ecosystems isolated by strong oceanic currents and at shorter distances from the sea; P. gracilis plus P. malaccensis are prevalent in ecosystems connected by shallow coastal waters, in vegetated habitats at larger distances from the sea. This indicates for the first time that mudskipper species exhibit a range of adaptations to semiterrestrialism not only within genera, but even within morphospecies, delineating a much more complex adaptive scenario than previously assumed.
  11. Johar N, Mohamad N, Saddki N, Tengku Ismail TA, Sulaiman Z
    Korean J Fam Med, 2021 Mar;42(2):140-149.
    PMID: 32423181 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.19.0178
    BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is linked with lower rates of early breastfeeding initiation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of early initiation of breastfeeding among women admitted for elective cesarean delivery in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 171 women admitted for elective cesarean delivery at two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. On day two after cesarean delivery, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the mothers to get information on feeding practice. Descriptive statistics, including simple and multiple logistic regressions, were used for data analysis.

    RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth. Approximately 15.8% and 10.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 24 hours and ≥24 hours, respectively. Skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their infants occurred in 77.8% of cases after cesarean delivery. Breastfeeding initiation was significantly associated with skin-to-skin contact (odds ratio [OR], 14.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.58-58.06), mothers who exclusively breastfed during hospitalization (OR, 36.37; 95% CI, 5.60-236.24), and infants who were not sleepy during attempts at breastfeeding (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.32-20.21).

    CONCLUSION: Based on our results, it is possible to increase the proportion of mothers initiating breastfeeding within 1 hour among women who undergo elective cesarean delivery. Therefore, it is important that health practitioners educate women beginning in the antenatal period who plan to undergo cesarean delivery by emphasizing the importance of early initiation of breastfeeding.

  12. Abdul Jalil N, Sulaiman Z, Awang MS, Omar M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Oct;16(4):55-65.
    PMID: 22135513
    Chronic pain is a common medical issue. Beside chronic devastating pain, patients also suffer dysfunction more generally, including in the physical, emotional, social, recreational, vocational, financial, and legal spheres. Integrated multidisciplinary and multimodal chronic pain management programmes offer clear evidence for relief of suffering and return to functional lifestyles.
  13. Rahim NCA, Sulaiman Z, Ismail TAT
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Aug;24(4):5-17.
    PMID: 28951685 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.4.2
    Induced lactation is a method of stimulating the production of breast milk in women who have not gone through the process of pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have given such women the opportunity to breastfeed adopted children. Previous studies conducted in Western countries have explored the breastfeeding of adopted children, as well as the experiences, successes and challenges of this process. However, research on procedures for breastfeeding adopted children is lacking in Malaysia. The authors have therefore reviewed literature related to induced lactation in Malaysia to fill this gap. Of the 30 related articles identified, 19 described the breastfeeding practices and experiences of adoptive mothers in Malaysia. Out of 19 articles, there were four journal articles, five circulars and regulations, two books, two post-graduate theses, four blogs posts and forum discussions, and two online newspaper articles. Medical information relating to induced lactation procedures was also reviewed, showing that there was a lack of scientific studies focusing on induced lactation practices among adoptive mothers. Information on religious, specifically Islamic, perspectives on breastfeeding and child adoption laws was gathered from websites, social networks, blogs, magazines and online news sources. In consideration of recent advancements in medical technology and the dire need among Malaysians, it is crucial that evidence-based, accurate and reliable information on induced lactation is made available to professionals and other individuals in this country.
  14. Mohd Hassan S, Sulaiman Z, Tengku Ismail TA
    Malays Fam Physician, 2021 Mar 25;16(1):18-30.
    PMID: 33948139 DOI: 10.51866/rv0997
    Objective: This article aims to review the literature published over the past five decades related to the experiences of women who have undergone induced lactation.

    Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using PubMed, the Library of Congress, Google Scholar, SAGE, and ScienceDirect. The following search keywords were used: adoptive breastfeeding, induced lactation, non-puerperal lactation, extraordinary breastfeeding, and milk kinship. The search was restricted to articles written in English and published from 1956 to 2019. All study designs were included except for practice protocols.

    Results: A total of 50 articles about induced lactation were retrieved. Of these, 17 articles identified the experiences of women who underwent induced lactation. The articles included original papers (n=7), reviews (n=5), and case reports (n=5). Four articles were specifically related to Malaysia, and the others were international. These 17 articles concerning the experiences of women who induced lactation will be reviewed based on four themes related to inducing lactation: (a) understanding women's perception of satisfaction, (b) emotional aspects, (c) enabling factors, and (d) challenges.

    Conclusion: Identifying a total of only 17 articles on induced lactation published over the last 53 years suggests that the subject is understudied. This review provides emerging knowledge regarding the experiences of women who have induced lactation in terms of satisfaction, emotions, enabling factors and challenges related to inducing lactation.

  15. Mohamad N, Sulaiman Z, Tengku Ismail TA, Ahmad S
    Korean J Fam Med, 2021 Jul;42(4):339-341.
    PMID: 32475105 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0057
    "Rusty pipe syndrome" is a condition that needs to be considered in a primiparous woman who presents with bilateral bloody nipple discharge in the early postpartum period. Its prevalence is low and can occur due to physiological condition that arises primarily in primiparous women with increased alveolar and ductal vascularization associated with the onset of lactation. Here, we report a case of a 29-year-old primigravida who presented with bilateral painless bloody nipple discharge after delivery. Her breast examination showed no signs of infection or structural changes, and breast ultrasound did not reveal any significant observations except for a bilateral simple breast cyst. Six days after the onset of lactation, the bloody nipple discharge ceased and lactation continued on demand.
  16. Ahmad RS, Sulaiman Z, Nik Hussain NH, Mohd Noor N
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2022 Jan 31;22(1):85.
    PMID: 35100980 DOI: 10.1186/s12884-021-04304-4
    BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding practice is influenced by the mother's attitude toward and knowledge of breastfeeding. Working mothers face many challenges and need support to maintain breastfeeding. This study aimed to explore working mothers' breastfeeding experiences and challenges that can influenced their practices.

    METHODS: The qualitative phenomenological approach involving working mothers in Kota Bharu who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study were recruited using purposive sampling. Sixteen participants aged 24 to 46 years were interviewed using semi-structured in-depth interviews in the study. All interviews were recorded in digital audio, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis.

    FINDINGS: Three main themes emerged from the data analysis: perception of breastfeeding, challenges in breastfeeding, and support for breastfeeding. Two subthemes for perceptions were perception towards breastfeeding and towards infant formula. Challenges had two subthemes too which were related to perceived insufficient milk and breastfeeding difficulty. Where else, two subthemes for support were internal support (spouse and family) and external support (friends, employer, and healthcare staff).

    CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining breastfeeding after return to work is challenging for working mothers and majority of them need support to continue breastfeeding practice. Support from their spouses and families' influences working mothers' decision to breastfeed. Employers play a role in providing a support system and facilities in the workplace for mothers to express and store breast milk. Both internal and external support are essential for mothers to overcome challenges in order to achieve success in breastfeeding.

  17. Amaran S, Kamaruzaman AZM, Mohd Esa NY, Sulaiman Z
    Korean J Fam Med, 2021 Nov;42(6):425-437.
    PMID: 34871483 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0117
    The year 2020 saw the emergence of a novel coronavirus-the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2- which has led to an unprecedented pandemic that has shaken the entire world. The pandemic has been a new experience for Malaysia, especially during the implementation of large-scale public health and social measures called the Movement Control Order (MCO). This paper seeks to describe the experiences of the Malaysian healthcare system thus far in combatting the pandemic. The Malaysian healthcare system comprises two main arms: public health and medicine. The public health arm focuses on early disease detection, contact tracing, quarantines, the MCO, and risk stratification strategies in the community. The medical arm focuses on the clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; it encompasses laboratory services, the devising of clinical setting adjustments, and hospital management for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Malaysia experienced intense emotions at the beginning of the pandemic, with great uncertainty regarding the pandemic's outcome, as the world saw a frighteningly high COVID-19 mortality. As of writing (May 30, 2020), Malaysia has passed the peak of its second wave of infections. The experience thus far has helped in preparing the country's healthcare system to be vigilant and more prepared for future COVID-19 waves. To date, the pandemic has changed many aspects of Malaysia's life, and people are still learning to adapt to new norms in their lives.
  18. Ismail TA, Sulaiman Z, Jalil R, Muda WM, Man NN
    Int Breastfeed J, 2012;7(1):11.
    PMID: 22929649
    Many women are unable to practice exclusive breastfeeding because they are separated from their infants while working. Expressing their breast milk helps them to continue breastfeeding. This study explores the perception and experiences related to the feasibility, acceptability and safety of breast milk expression among formally employed women in Kelantan, Malaysia.
  19. Sulaiman Z, Mohamad N, Ismail TA, Johari N, Hussain NH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016;25(3):625-30.
    PMID: 27440698 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.08
    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.
  20. Muda CMC, Ismail TAT, Jalil RA, Hairon SM, Sulaiman Z, Johar N
    Women Birth, 2019 Apr;32(2):e243-e251.
    PMID: 30057368 DOI: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.07.008
    BACKGROUND: The first week after childbirth is a crucial period for exclusive breastfeeding initiation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association of postnatal breastfeeding education with knowledge, attitude, and exclusive breastfeeding practice at six months after childbirth among women who delivered at two district hospitals in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study design. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used to determine scoring for baseline and six months after childbirth. The intervention consisted of individualized postnatal breastfeeding education delivered by researchers using flipchart one week after childbirth and breastfeeding diary in addition to usual care. The comparison group received the usual postnatal care by health clinics. Repeated measure analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression analysis were used.

    RESULTS: A total of 116 participants were included in this study (59 in intervention group and 57 in comparison group). Six months after childbirth, the adjusted mean score of knowledge and attitude of the intervention group were significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). More participants in the intervention group (n=26, 44.1%) exclusively breastfed their infants compared with 15 (26.3%) in the comparison group (p=0.046). Postnatal breastfeeding education was significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice six months after childbirth [adjusted odds ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 5.14; p=0.040].

    CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal breastfeeding education was significantly associated with an improvement in women's knowledge, attitude and exclusive breastfeeding practice six months after childbirth.
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