The objectives of this study are to assess pediatric radiation exposure in certain barium studies and to quantify the organ and effective doses and radiation risk resultant from patients' irradiation. A total of 69 pediatric barium studies for upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Patients' radiation dose was quantified in terms of Entrance surface air kerma (ESAKs) using exposure parameters and DosCal software. Organ and effective doses (E) were extrapolated using national Radiological Protection Board software (NRPB-R279). The mean ± (SD) and the range of patient doses per procedure were 3.7 ± 0.4 (1.0-13.0)mGy, 7.4 ± 1.7(5.5-8.0)mGy and 1.4 ± 0.9 (0.5-3.6)mGy for barium meal, swallow and enema, respectively. The mean effective doses were 0.3 ± 0.03 (0.08-1.1)mSv, 0.2 ± 1.6 (0.44-0.7)mSv and 0.3 ± 0.9 (0.1-0.8)mSv at the same order. The radiation dose were higher compared to previous studies. Therefore, pediatrics are exposed to avoidable radiation exposure. Certain optimization measures are recommended along with establishing national diagnostic reference level (DRL) to reduce the radiation risk.
A pacemaker, which is used for heart resynchronization with electrical impulses, is used to manage many clinical conditions. Recently, the frequency of pacemaker implantation procedures has increased to more than 50% worldwide. During this procedure, patients can be exposed to excessive radiation exposure. Wide range of doses has been reported in previous studies, suggesting that optimization of this procedure has not been fulfilled yet. The current study evaluated patient radiation exposure during cardiac pacemaker procedures and quantified the patient effective dose. A total of 145 procedures were performed for five pacemaker procedures (VVI, VVIR, VVD, VVDR, and DDDR) at two hospitals. Patient doses were measured using the kerma-area product meter. Effective doses were estimated using software based on Monte Carlo simulation from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB, now The Health Protection Agency). The effective dose values were used to estimate cancer risk from the pacemaker procedure. Patient demographic data and exposure parameters for fluoroscopy and radiography were quantified. The mean patient doses ± SD per procedure (Gycm2) for VVI, VVIR, VVD, VVDR, and DDDR were 1.52 ± 0.13 (1.43-1.61), 3.28 ± 2.34 (0.29-8.73), 3.04 ± 1.67 (1.57-4.86), 6.04 ± 2.326 3.29-8.58), and 8.8 ± 3.6 (4.5-26.20), respectively. The overall patient effective dose was 1.1mSv per procedure. It is obvious that the DDDR procedure exposed patients to the highest radiation dose. Patient dose variation can be attributed to procedure type, exposure parameter settings, and fluoroscopy time. The results of this study showed that patient doses during different pacemaker procedures are lower compared to previous reported values. Patient risk from pacemaker procedure is low, compared to other cardiac interventional procedures. Patients' exposures were mainly influenced by the type of procedures and the clinical indication.
Patient effective doses and the associated radiation risks arising from particular computed tomography (CT) imaging procedures are assessed. The objectives of this research are to measure radiation doses for patients and to quantify the radiogenic risks from CT brain and chest procedures. Patient data were collected from five calibrated CT modality machines in Saudi Arabia. The results are from a study of a total of 60 patients examined during CT procedures using the calibrated CT units. For CT brain and chest, the mean patient effective doses were 1.9 mSv (with a range of 0.6-2.5 mSv) and 7.4 mSv (with a range of 0.5-34.8 mSv) respectively. The radiogenic risk to patients ranged from between 10-5 and 10-4 per procedure. With 65% of the CT procedure cases diagnosed as normal, this prompts re-evaluation of the referral criteria. The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRL) and implementation of radiation dose optimisation measures would further help reduce doses to optimal values.
Patient radiation dose and image quality are primary issues in the conduct of nuclear medicine (NM) procedures. A range of protocols are currently used in image acquisition and analysis of quality control (QC) tests, with National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) methods and protocols widely accepted in providing an accurate description, measurement and report of γ-camera performance parameters. However, no standard software is available for image analysis. Present study compares vendor QC software analysis and three types of software freely downloadable from the internet: NMQC, NM Toolkit and ImageJ-NM Toolkit software. These were used for image analysis of QC tests of γ-cameras based on NEMA protocols including non-uniformity evaluation. Ten non-uniformity QC images were obtained using a dual head γ-camera installed in Trieste General Hospital and then analyzed. Excel analysis was used as the baseline calculation for the non-uniformity test according to NEMA procedures. The results of non-uniformity analysis showed good agreement between the independent types of software and Excel calculations (the average differences were 0.3%, 2.9%, 1.3% and 1.6% for the Useful Field of View (UFOV) integral, UFOV differential, Central Field of View (CFOV) integral and CFOV differential, respectively), while significant differences were detected following analysis using the company QC software when compared with Excel analysis (the average differences were 14.6%, 20.7%, 25.7% and 31.9% for the UFOV integral, UFOV differential, CFOV integral and CFOV differential, respectively). Compared to use of Excel calculations use of NMQC software was found to be in close accord. Variation in results obtained using the three types of software and γ-camera QC software was due to the use of different pixel sizes. It is important to conduct independent analyses tests in addition to using the vendor QC software in order to determine the differences between values.
Medical exposure of the general population due to radiological investigations is the foremost source of all artificial ionising radiation. Here, we focus on a particular diagnostic radiological procedure, as only limited data are published with regard to radiation measurements during urethrograpic imaging. Specifically, this work seeks to estimate patient and occupational effective doses during urethrographic procedures at three radiology hospitals. Both staff and patient X-ray exposure levels were calculated in terms of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), obtained by means of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100(LiF:Mg:Cu.P)) for 243 urethrographic examinations. Patient radiation effective doses per procedure were estimated using conversion factors obtained from the use of Public Health England computer software. In units of mGy, the median and range of ESAK per examination were found to be 10.8 (3.6-26.2), 7.0 (0.2-32.3), and 24.3 (9.0-32.0) in Hospitals A, B, and C, respectively. The overall mean and range of staff doses (in µGy) were found to be 310 (4.0-1750) per procedure. With the exception of hospital C, the present evaluations of radiation dose have been found to be similar to those of previously published research. The wide range of patient and staff doses illustrate the need for radiation dose optimisation.
With associated cure rates in excess of 90%, targeted 131I radioactive iodine therapy has clearly improved thyroid cancer survival. Thus said, potential radiation risks to staff represent a particular concern, current study seeking to determine the radiation exposure of staff from 131I patients during hospitalization, also estimating accumulated dose and related risk to staff during preparation of the radioactive iodine. In present study made over the three-month period 1st February to 1st May 2017, a total of 69 patient treatments were investigated (comprising a cohort of 46 females and 23 males), this being a patient treatment load typically reflective of the workload at the particular centre for such treatments. The patients were administered sodium iodide 131I, retained in capsules containing activities ranging from 370 to 5550 MBq at the time of calibration, radioiodine activity depends on many factors such as gender, clinical indication, body mass index and age. The staff radiation dose arising from each patient treatment was measured on three consecutive days subsequent to capsule administration. In units of µSv, the mean and dose-rates range at distances from the patients of 5 cm, 1 m and 2 m were 209 ± 73 (165-294), 6.8 ± 2 (5.3-9.5) and 0.9 ± 0.3 (0.7-1.2). The annual dose (also measured in units of µSv), based on annual records of doses, for medical physicists, technologists and nurses were 604, 680 and 1000 µSv respectively. In regard to current practice and workload, staff exposures were all found to be below the annual dose limit for radiation workers.
The various technological advancements in computed tomography (CT) have resulted in remarkable growth in the use of CT imaging in clinical practice, not the least of which has been its establishment as the most valuable imaging examination for the assessment of cardiovascular system disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the effective radiation dose and radiation risk for patients during cardiac CT procedures, based on studies from four different hospitals equipped with 128 slice CT equipment. A total of eighty-three patients were investigated in this study with different clinical indications. Effective doses were also calculated using software based on Monte Carlo simulation. The mean patient age (years), weight (kg), and body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)) were 49 ± 11, 82 ± 12, and 31 ± 6, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the tube voltage (kVp) and tube current-exposure time product (mAs) ranged between 100 to 140 and 50 to 840 respectively. The overall average patient dose values for the volume CT dose index [(CTDIvol), in mGy)] and dose length product (DLP) (in mGy·cm) were 34.8 ± 15 (3.7-117.0) and 383.8 ± 354 (46.0-3277.0) respectively. The average effective dose (mSv) was 15.2 ± 8 (1.2-61.8). The radiation dose values showed wide variation between different hospitals and even within the same hospital. The results indicate the need to optimize radiation dose and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), also to harmonize the imaging protocols to ensure reduced radiation risk.
This work reports the use of a ternary composite that integrates p-Toluene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI), chitosan, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the active sensing layer of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The SPR sensor is intended for application in the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes through the detection of low concentrations of acetone vapour of less than or equal to 5 ppm, which falls within the range of breath acetone concentration in diabetic patients. The ternary composite film was spin-coated on a 50-nm-thick gold layer at 6000 rpm for 30 s. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of the ternary composite samples were characterized by FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, EDX, AFM, XPS, and TGA and the response to acetone vapour at different concentrations in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5 ppm was measured at room temperature using SPR technique. The ternary composite-based SPR sensor showed good sensitivity and linearity towards acetone vapour in the range considered. It was determined that the sensor could detect acetone vapour down to 0.88 ppb with a sensitivity of 0.69 degree/ppm with a linearity correlation coefficient of 0.997 in the average SPR angular shift as a function of the acetone vapour concentration in air. The selectivity, repeatability, reversibility, and stability of the sensor were also studied. The acetone response was 87%, 94%, and 99% higher compared to common interfering volatile organic compounds such as propanol, methanol, and ethanol, respectively. The attained lowest detection limit (LOD) of 0.88 ppb confirms the potential for the utilisation of the sensor in the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes.
Copper-67 (T1/2 = 61.83 h, Eβ-mean=141 keV, Iβ-total=100%; Eγ = 184.577 keV, Iγ = 48.7%) is a promising radionuclide for theranostic applications especially in radio immunotherapy. However, one of the main drawbacks for its application is related to its limited availability. Various nuclear reaction routes investigated in the last years can result in 67Cu production, although the use of proton beams is the method of choice taken into account in this work. The goal of this work is a revision of the cross-sections aimed at 67Cu yield, which were evaluated for the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reaction route up to 80 MeV proton energy. A well-defined statistical procedure, i.e., the Simultaneous Evaluation on KALMAN (SOK), combined with the least-squares concept, was used to obtain the evaluated data together with the covariance matrix. The obtained evaluated data were also compared to predictions provided by the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS and EMPIRE, and a partial agreement among them has been found. These data may be useful for both existing and potential applications in nuclear medicine, to achieve an improvement and validation of the various nuclear reaction models, and may also find applications in other fields (e.g., activation analysis and thin layer activation).
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potentiality of Gafchromic external beam therapy 3 (EBT3) film to measure low dosage of solar ultraviolet (SUV; 0-10 600 mJ/cm2) and x-ray (0-750 mGy) radiation. In this experiment, 2 groups of EBT3 films were prepared with size 2 cm × 1 cm. The first group of films was exposed by incremental SUV dose in the middle of the day. The other group was irradiated by x-ray at 100 kVp, 100 mA, and 2 S of tube voltage, tube current, and exposure time, respectively. The measured SUV consists of 90% ultraviolet A (UVA) and 10% ultraviolet B. The film discoloration was represented by visible absorbance spectroscopy technique using Jaz spectrometer from Ocean Optics Inc. Simple linear regression produced high accuracy with coefficients of determination, r2 of 0.9804 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 434.88 mJ/cm2 for the measurement of SUV dose. On the other hand, r2 of 0.98 and RMSE of 31 mGy was produced for the measurement of x-ray dose. The application of multiple linear regression enhanced the measurement accuracy with R2 of 99% and 99.7% and RMSE of 327.06 mJ/cm2 and 15.045 mGy for SUV and x-ray dose, respectively. The spectral analysis shows a promising measurement at selected wavelengths for SUV and x-ray dose.
Lutetium-177 (DOTATATE) (177Lu; T1/2 6.7 days), a labelled β- and Auger-electron emitter, is widely used in treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. During performance of the procedure, staff and other patients can potentially receive significant doses in interception of the gamma emissions [113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%)] that are associated with the particle decays. While radiation protection and safety assessment are required in seeking to ensure practices comply with international guidelines, only limited published studies are available. The objectives of present study are to evaluate patient and occupational exposures, measuring ambient doses and estimating the radiation risk. The results, obtained from studies carried out in Riyadh over an 11 month period, at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, concerned a total of 33 177Lu therapy patients. Patient exposures were estimated using a calibrated Victoreen 451P survey meter (Fluke Biomedical), for separations of 30 cm, 100 cm and 300 cm, also behind a bed shield that was used during hospitalization of the therapy patients. Occupational and ambient doses were also measured through use of calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters and an automatic TLD reader (Harshaw 6600). The mean and range of administered activity (in MBq)) was 7115.2 ± 917.2 (4329-7955). The ambient dose at corridors outside of therapy isolation rooms was 1.2 mSv over the 11 month period, that at the nursing station was below the limit of detection and annual occupational doses were below the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Special concern needs to be paid to comforters (carers) and family members during the early stage of radioisotope administration.
This study analysed thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the polymer pencil lead graphite (PPLG) due to its potential applications in radiation dosimetry. The TL glow curves provide information on the physical parameters of the defects participating in luminescence process. The glow curves for different diameters PPLG samples were obtained with varying temperature from 50 to 300 °C, at a fixed heating rate of 10 °Cs-1. A number of methods (initial rise, peak shape and curve fitting) were used to fit the TL glow peaks of the PPLG samples obtained under photon dose of 200 Gy. From the fitted TL signals, the trap parameters such as the order of kinetics, the activation energy, the frequency factor, etc. for the individual peaks were numerically determined. The lifetimes of TL process were calculated assuming the first-order kinetics. The results are compared among the different methods adopted in this study. Implications about the possible results in glow curve deconvolution are discussed.
Ionizing radiation exposure from medical applications is increasing annually worldwide. It was estimated that 325 million dental procedures were performed in the United States. Radiation exposure from dental radiography consists of intraoral, panoramic, and 3D imaging cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Recent studies reported an association between dental imaging procedures and increased cancer probability of brain and thyroid. Previous studies showed that some dental imaging practices exposed patients and staff to unnecessary radiation doses due to incorrect image acquisition and insufficient radiation protection measures. This study aims to (i) measure the occupational and patients doses during dental procedures and (ii) assess the current imaging techniques and radiation protection practices. Two hundred fourteen patients were evaluated for periapical, bitewing, cephalometric, occlusal, and panoramic procedures. Organ equivalent doses were quantified for the breast, eye lens, and thyroid gland during CBCT procedure. Occupational and ambient dose assessment were assessed using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100(LiF: Mg. Ti). Ambient doses were measure at different locations at the department using TLDs. Patients' radiation doses were quantified using kerma area product (PKA (mGy.cm) and the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK (mGy). Fixed tube voltage (65 kVp) and tube current-time product (7 mAs) were used. The overall mean, sd, and range of patients dose values during intraoral (mGy), panoramic and CBCT examinations were 4.6 ± 0.7 (1.4-7.1), 135 ± 45 (75.2-168.5), and 215 ± 165 (186-2115), respectively. The mean and range of the annual occupational doses (mSv) were 1.4 (0.6-3.7), which below the annual dose limits for radiation workers (20 mSv/y). The study showed that inadequate radiation protection for patients existed in terms of the use of the thyroid shield, the technologist's presence inside the room during radiation exposure. Patients' radiation doses were comparable with the international diagnostic reference level (DRL). Staff education and training in radiation protection aspects are highly recommended.
Worldwide, thyroid cancer accounts for some 10% of total cancer incidence, most markedly for females. Thyroid cancer radiotherapy, typically using 131I (T1/2 8.02 days; β- max energy 606 keV, branching ratio 89.9%), is widely adopted as an adjunct to surgery or to treat inoperable cancer and hyperthyroidism. With staff potentially receiving significant doses during source preparation and administration, radiation protection and safety assessment are required in ensuring practice complies with international guidelines. The present study, concerning a total of 206 patient radioiodine therapies carried out at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center over a 6-month period, seeks to evaluate patient and occupational exposures during hospitalization, measuring ambient doses and estimating radiation risk. Using calibrated survey meters, patient exposure dose-rate estimates were obtained at a distance of 30-, 100- and 300 cm from the neck region of each patient. Occupational and ambient doses were measured using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. The mean and range of administered activity (AA, in MBq) for the thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism treatment groups were 4244 ± 2021 (1669-8066), 1507.9 ± 324.1 (977.9-1836.9), respectively. The mean annual occupational doses were 1.2 mSv, that for ambient doses outside of the isolation room corridors were found to be 0.2 mSv, while ambient doses at the nursing station were below the lower limit of detection. Exposures to staff from patients being treated for thyroid cancer were less compared to hyperthyroidism patients. With a well-defined protocol, also complying with international safety requirements, occupational exposures were found to be relatively high, greater than most reported in previous studies.
This study has sought to evaluate patient exposures during the course of particular diagnostic positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) techniques. A total of 73 patients were examined using two types of radiopharmaceutical: 18F-fluorocholine (FCH, 48 patients) and 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, 25 patients). The mean and range of administered activity (AA) in MBq, and effective dose (mSv) for FCH were 314.4 ± 61.6 (462.5-216.8) and 5.9 ± 1.2 (8.8-4.11), respectively. Quoted in the same set of units, the mean and range of AA and effective dose for 68Ga-PSMA were 179.3 ± 92.3 (603.1-115.1) and 17.9 ± 9.2 (60.3-11.5). Patient effective doses from 18F-FCH being a factor of two greater than the dose resulting from 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT procedures. CT accounts for some 84 and 23% for 18F-FCH and 68Ga-PSMA procedures, accordingly CT acquisition parameter optimization is recommended. Patient doses have been found to be slightly greater than previous studies.
The objective of this study is to estimate the annual effective dose for cardiologists and nurses by measuring Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) during cardiac catheterization procedures. A total of 16 staffs members were working in interventional cardiology during 1 year at a tertiary hospital. The occupational dose was measured using calibrated thermo-luminescent dosemeters (TLD-100, LiF:Mg,Ti). The overall mean and range of the annual Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) (mSv) for cardiologists were 3.7 (0.13-14.5) and 3.2 (0.21-14.7), respectively. Cardiologists were frequently exposed to higher doses compared with nurses and technologists. The exposure showed wide variations, which depend on occupation and workload. Staff is adhered to radiation protection guidelines regarding shielding the trunk, thyroid shield, thus appropriately protected. Lens dose measurement is recommended to ensure that dose limit is not exceeded.
The present study compares three different multidetector CT (MDCT) scanners for routine brain imaging in terms of image quality and radiation doses. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and effective dose (E) were calculated. Subjective image assessment was obtained based on a scale ranging from 1 (unacceptable) to 5 (optimum). All images scored 3.5 or over, with the 160-slice MDCT images being favoured. For the 4-, 16- and 160-slice MDCT scanners, the respective median values for CTDIvol were 57 mGy, 41 mGy, and 28 mGy; DLP values were 901 mGy.cm, 680 mGy.cm, and 551 mGy.cm; and effective doses were 2 mSv, 1.5 mSv, and 1 mSv, respectively. Compared to the 160-slice MDCT, the dose values for the 4- and 16-slice units were significantly greater. In practice, the CT modality used must be carefully selected to avoid elevated radiation doses and maintain image quality.
While the consumption of seaweed and seaweed-based products is very common amongst East Asian nations, forming a notable component of the daily diet, relatively very few studies have concerned the concentrations of heavy metals in these together with potential effects on human health. The present study analyses the concentrations of 17 elements in locally resourced seaweed, also assessing potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The samples were ground, homogenized, and quantified using the ICP-OES technique. It has been found that the essential elements K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na typically show concentrations somewhat greater than a number of potentially toxic metals, in particular, Cd, Pb, Ag, and As, with exceptions being Ni, Cr-VI, and Si. Statistical analysis indicates all of the latter to have similar origin, with increased concentration of these metals within the marine ecosystem. While the daily estimated intake of most metals is seen to be within the daily dietary allowance level recommended by various international organizations, the noncarcinogenic risk shows a value greater than unity, estimated via the hazard quotient. This indicates a potential for adverse effects to health arising from consumption of the sampled seaweed. The carcinogenic risk resulting from nonessential elements shows values greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reference limit of 10-4. Considering the nonbiodegradability of heavy metals and metalloids and their potential accumulation in seaweed, there is need for critical examination of metal levels in the seaweeds obtained from the present study locations, together with the introduction of practices of removal of heavy metals via bio-adsorbent techniques.
To non-invasively monitor and screen for diabetes in patients, there is need to detect low concentration of acetone vapor in the range from 1.8 ppm to 5 ppm, which is the concentration range of acetone vapor in diabetic patients. This work presents an investigation for the utilization of chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor in the detection of trace concentration acetone vapor in the range of breath acetone in diabetic subjects. The structure, morphology, and elemental composition of the chitosan-PEG sensing layer were characterized using FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, EDX, AFM, and XPS methods. Response testing was conducted using low concentration of acetone vapor in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5 ppm using SPR technique. All the measurements were conducted at room temperature and 50 mL/min gas flow rate. The sensor showed good sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, reversibility, stability, and high affinity toward acetone vapor. The sensor also showed better selectivity to acetone compared to methanol, ethanol, and propanol vapors. More importantly, the lowest detection limit (LOD) of about 0.96 ppb confirmed the applicability of the sensor for the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes.
The current study was aimed to estimate the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, mGy) for adult patients undergoing conventional radiography of Anteroposterior pelvis examination, and finally to establish a local diagnostic reference level (DRL). A total of 500 patients were exposed to diagnostic radiation in four hospitals (coded A, B, C, and D) in Taif and Kharaj city, Saudi Arabia, with different X-ray equipment specifications. Patient demographic data like age (y), body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 as well as exposure factors and X-ray tube output were recorded. ESAK (mGy) was first calculated using the exposure data and tube output values, then the ESAK values were used to estimate entrance surface dose (ESD). The average BMI was 23.9 kg/m2. The mean tube potential used in A, B, C, and D hospitals and the corresponding estimated ESD were found to be 74.2, 69.8, 73, 76,7 kVp, and 2.54, 2.64, 2.94, 3.03 mGy respectively. The correlation coefficient between ESAK and BMI was found to be 0.98. When compared to computed radiography (CR), the conventional X-ray digital radiography reduces the radiation exposure in pelvic imaging by a factor of 1.18. The third quartile of median proposed a lower than the DRL of the previous studies.