Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC), have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP) drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter's weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.
Migration of melamine has been determined for 41 types of retail melamine-ware products in Malaysia. This study was initiated by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, in the midst of public anxiety on the possibility of melamine leaching into foods that come into contact with the melamine-ware. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the level of melamine migration in melamine utensils available on the market. Samples of melamine tableware, including cups and plates, forks and spoons, tumblers, bowls, etc., were collected from various retail outlets. Following the test guidelines for melamine migration set by the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN 2004) with some modifications, the samples were exposed to two types of food simulants (3% acetic acid and distilled water) at three test conditions (25°C (room temperature), 70 and 100°C) for 30 min. Melamine analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS with a HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in water and ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in acetonitrile (95 : 5, v/v). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5 ng/ml. Melamine migration was detected from all samples. For the articles tested with distilled water, melamine migration were [median (interquartile range)] 22.2 (32.6), 49.3 (50.9), 84.9 (89.9) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. In 3% acetic acid, melamine migration was 31.5 (35.7), 81.5 (76.2), 122.0 (126.7) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. This study suggests that excessive heat and acidity may directly affect melamine migration from melamine-ware products. However the results showed that melamine migration in the tested items were well below the specific migration limit (SML) of 30 mg/kg (30,000 ng/ml) set out in European Commission Directive 2002/72/EC.
Tenualosa ilisha was found recently in the Perak River in western Peninsular Malaysia. Molecular phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses suggest that T. ilisha has two genetically distinct populations/groups: (i) Peninsular Malaysia (Malaysia population), and (ii) Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, India and Bangladesh (Indian Ocean population). The results also suggest that the T ilisha population in Peninsular Malaysia is genetically heterogeneous with a typical anadromous migration pattern.
Chitin-encapsulated cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS@CTN QDs) were successfully synthesized from chitin and Cd(NO3)2 precursor using the colloidal chemistry method, toward the development of biocompatible and biodegradable QDs for biomedical applications. CdS@CTN QDs exhibited the nanocrystalline cubic CdS encapsulated by α-chitin. The average particle size of CdS@CTN QDs was estimated using empirical Henglein model to be 3.9 nm, while their crystallite size was predicted using Scherrer equation to be 4.3 nm, slightly larger compared to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdS QDs (3.2 and 3.6 nm, respectively). The mechanism of formation was interpreted based on the spectroscopic data and X-ray crystal structures of CdS@CTN QDs fabricated at different pH values and mass ratios of chitin to Cd(NO3)2 precursor. As an important step to explore potential biomolecular and biological applications of CdS@CTN QDs, their antibacterial activities were tested against four different bacterial strains; i.e. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This study aimed to ascertain the potential of Centratherum anthelminticum seeds methanolic fraction (CAMFs) for the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated complications. CAMFs was initially tested on β-TC6 cells for H(2)O(2)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation effects. The result displayed that CAMFs significantly inhibited NF-κB translocation from cytoplasm into the nucleus, dose-dependently. Furthermore, a 12-week sub-chronic CAMFs study was carried out on streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rat model to evaluate glycemia, essential biochemical parameters, lipid levels, oxidative stress markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines level. Our study result showed that CAMFs reduced hyperglycemia by increasing serum insulin, C-peptide, total protein, and albumin levels, significantly. Whereas, elevated blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipids and enzyme activities were restored to near normal. CAMFs confirmed antioxidant potential by elevating glutathione (GSH) and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in diabetic rats. Interestingly, CAMFs down-regulated elevated tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the tissues and serum of the diabetic rats. We conclude that CAMFs exerted apparent antidiabetic effects and demonstrated as a valuable candidate nutraceutical for insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes and its associated complications such as dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation.
One new indole alkaloid, reflexin A (1), and two known indoles, macusine B (2) and vinorine (3), were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and MS spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 displayed anticancer activity against HCT-116 colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 30.24 ± 0.75 µM. The results implied that the newly isolated 1 induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells, suggesting its possible role as an anticancer agent. In vivo acute toxicity study was performed on compound 1 to evaluate its safety profile.
One new aporphine named tavoyanine A (1), along with four known aporphines laetanine (2), roemerine (3), laurolitsine (4), and boldine (5), and one morphinandienone type sebiferine (6) were isolated from the leaves of Phoebe tavoyana (Meissn.) Hook f. (Lauraceae). The isolation was achieved by chromatographic techniques, and the structural elucidation was performed via spectral methods. This paper also reports the antiplasmodial activity of roemerine (3), laurolitsine (4), boldine (5), and sebiferine (6). The results showed that 3-6 have a potent inhibitory activity against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone, with IC50 values of 0.89, 1.49, 1.65, and 2.76 µg/ml, respectively.
The present study focused on the evaluation of phytochemical properties, essential mineral elements, and heavy metals contained in raw propolis produced by stingless bees Geniotrigona thoracica, Heterotrigona itama, and Tetrigona binghami found in the same ecological conditions and environment in Brunei Darussalam. The results indicated that propolis of the three stingless bee species mainly consisted of lipids (45.60-47.86%) and very low carbohydrate (0.17-0.48%) and protein contents (0.18-1.18%). The propolis was rich in mineral elements, thus good sources of minerals, while they contained low concentrations of all heavy metals. Propolis of the different bee species could be distinguished based on their mineral compositions. The vibrational and absorption spectra suggested that propolis contains π-conjugated aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as aromatic acids having amine, ester, carbonyl, alkyl, and hydroxyl functional groups which might be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The antioxidant capacity of the propolis, based on radical scavenging activity of their ethanol extract, was in line with their total phenolic content. The ethanol extract of the propolis also showed antimicrobial activities against four bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The propolis showed slightly higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial active compounds could be associated with flavonoids, which were quantified to be approximately comparable in all the propolis.
Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.
Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol (1), and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2), were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with previously published data. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of these compounds on human breast cancer cell-lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) were investigated. MTT results revealed both (1) and (2) were efficient in reducing cell viability of breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that (1) and (2) induced cell death via apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphotidylserine exposure. Both compounds elevated ROS production, leading to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability in breast cancer cells. These effects occurred concomitantly with a dose-dependent activation of caspase 3/7 and 9, a down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and the accumulation of p38 MAPK in the nucleus. Taken together, our data demonstrate that (1) and (2) induce intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which provides the first pharmacological evidence for their future development as anticancer agents.
Bioassay-guided isolation protocol was performed on petroleum ether extract of Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth using column chromatographic techniques. Five compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated via one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, gas chromatography mass sectroscopy (GCMS), liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LCMS), and ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) analyses. Dindygulerione E (a new compound), and two compounds isolated from P. blanda for the first time-namely, dindygulerione A and flavokawain A-are reported herein. Antimicrobial activity was screened against selected pathogenic microbes, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were recorded within the range of 62-250 μg/mL. Assessment of the pharmacotherapeutic potential has also been done for the isolated compounds, using the Prediction of Activity spectra for Substances (PASS) software, and different activities of compounds were predicted. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) calculations have proposed the binding affinity of these compounds toward methylthioadenosine phosphorylase enzyme, which may explain their inhibitory actions.
Pseuduvarines A (1) and B (2), two new dioxoaporphine alkaloids with an amino moiety, were isolated from the stem bark of Pseuduvaria rugosa and their structures were elucidated by combination of 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. Pseuduvarines A (1) and B (2) showed cytotoxicity against MCF7, HepG2, and HL-60 (1: IC₅₀, 0.9, 21.7, and >50.0 µM, respectively, 2: IC₅₀ >50.0, 15.7, and 12.4 µM, respectively).
A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.
The art of Ayurveda and the traditional healing system in India have reflected the ethnomedicinal importance of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa Kurtz, which demonstrates its vast usage in the Ayurvedic preparations as well as in the management of diabetes by the traditional healers.
The current study aimed to ascertain the antidiabetic potential of Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract (PMm) using in vitro mechanistic study models. In particular, the study determined the effect of PMm on cellular viability, 2-NBDG glucose uptake, insulin secretion, and NF-κB translocation in mouse pancreatic insulinoma cells (NIT-1). Furthermore, in vivo acute toxicity and antidiabetic studies were performed using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 and STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rat models to evaluate various biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Five isoquinoline alkaloids and three phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the PMm by LC/MS Triple TOF. The study results showed that PMm is non-toxic to NIT-1 cells and significantly increased the glucose uptake and insulin secretion without affecting the translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the non-toxic effects of PMm were confirmed through an in vivo acute toxicity study, which revealed that the serum insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats and that no significant changes were observed in type 1 diabetic rats. Similarly, PMm was found to downregulate the levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats by alleviating hyperglycemia. Therefore, we conclude that PMm may be developed as an antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-associated conditions.