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  1. Baharuddin H, Taib T, Zain MM, Ch'ng S
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2016 Oct;19(10):1035-1038.
    PMID: 27456320 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.12916
    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country.
  2. Johar A, Thevarajah S, Heng A, Chan LC, Ch'ng CC, Mohd Safdar NA, et al.
    Dermatol Res Pract, 2019;2019:8923168.
    PMID: 31214257 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8923168
    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting nearly 10% of dermatologic patients in Malaysia. Treatment options include topical agents and phototherapy as well as nonbiologic and biologic systemic therapy. Mild psoriasis can often be managed with topical agents. However, managing moderate to severe psoriasis is more challenging and may require systemic treatment with nonbiologics or biologics. Despite the availability of several biologics, there are many unmet clinical needs, which may be addressed by secukinumab, an IL-17A inhibitor. This position statement is based on an expert panel discussion and is intended to provide dermatologists an overview of existing options as well as to provide a better understanding of secukinumab and how it can be integrated into current practice. During the discussion, panel members examined current approaches and the role of secukinumab in plaque psoriasis management. Panel members estimated that up to 30% of patients have moderate to severe psoriasis but only 1-2% receive biologics. Highlights from the discussion were that (i) the threshold for biologic use should be lower, in line with international guidelines; (ii) studies have shown that secukinumab has several advantages over other biologics which are greater efficacy, sustained efficacy over time, rapid onset of action, and early evidence of possible disease-modifying potential; and (iii) ideal candidates for secukinumab are all patients of moderate to severe psoriasis, including those with history of treatment failure, difficult-to-treat patterns of psoriasis (nail, scalp, and palmoplantar psoriasis), psoriatic arthritis, and comorbidities and those aiming for clear skin. Panel members recommend that secukinumab be considered first line option among biologic therapies.
  3. Azizan NZ, Ambrose D, Sabeera B, Mohsin SS, Pf W, Mohd Affandi A, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(1):39-43.
    PMID: 32284803
    Introduction : Atopic eczema (AE) is a common inflammatory skin dermatosis that is increasing in prevalence. However, it can present in various clinical presentations, which leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition, especially in a primary care setting. The Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Atopic Eczema was developed by a multidisciplinary development group and approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia in 2018. It covers the aspects of diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment, and referral.
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