METHODS: Patients fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for TN were prospectively interviewed for their demographic and clinical data. Pain intensity was rated with a visual analog scale (VAS), anxiety and depression were determined by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and QoL was assessed by the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman correlation tests were used to test for differences considering a significance level of P < .05.
RESULTS: Of the 75 included patients, 52 (69.3%) were women with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) onset age of 52.0 ± 12.7 years, and 57.3% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 18.7% Indian. Pain was more common on the right side (69.3%) and in the maxillary and mandibular divisions. VAS scores for pain at its worst were higher in anxious/borderline anxious patients compared to non-anxious patients (89.5 ± 15.9 vs 80.9 ± 17.2, respectively; P < .05), and VAS scores for pain at its least were higher in depressed/borderline depressed subjects compared to non-depressed subjects (38.4 ± 25.8 vs 23.0 ± 19.2, respectively; P < .05). Chinese patients had lower VAS scores for pain at its least compared to Indian patients (19.7 ± 16.1 vs 39.9 ± 24.7; P < .01). TN patients scored lower in all eight domains of the SF-36 compared to the general population. Indian patients had lower scores in role limitations due to physical health (8.9 ± 23.2 vs 49.4 ± 43.8; P < .01) and social function (56.3 ± 13.6 vs 76.5 ± 23.6; P < .01) than Chinese patients, and Malay patients had lower mental health scores compared to Chinese patients (59.1 ± 19.5 vs 73.0 ± 21.0; P < .01).
CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of TN patients were similar to those of other populations. There were differences in pain ratings and QoL between TN patients of different ethnicities, as well as between those with anxiety and depression.
METHODS: Consecutive GBS and MFS patients presenting to our center between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The clinical characteristics, electrophysiological data, and antiganglioside antibody profiles of the patients were utilized in determining the clinical classification.
RESULTS: This study classified 132 patients with GBS and its related disorders according to the new classification criteria as follows: 64 (48.5%) as classic GBS, 2 (1.5%) as pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant, 7 (5.3%) as paraparetic GBS, 29 (22%) as classic MFS, 3 (2.3%) as acute ophthalmoparesis, 2 (1.5%) as acute ataxic neuropathy, 2 (1.5%) as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE), 17 (12.9%) as GBS/MFS overlap, 4 (3%) as GBS/BBE overlap, 1 (0.8%) as MFS/PCB overlap, and 1 (0.8%) as polyneuritis cranialis. The electrodiagnosis was demyelinating in 55% of classic GBS patients but unclassified in 79% of classic MFS patients. Anti-GM1, anti-GD1a, anti-GalNAc-GD1a, and anti-GD1b IgG ganglioside antibodies were more commonly detected in the axonal GBS subtype, whereas the anti-GQ1b and anti-GT1a IgG ganglioside antibodies were more common in classic MFS and its subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients in the present cohort met the criteria of either classic GBS or MFS, but variants were seen in one-third of patients. These findings support the need to recognize variants of both syndromes in order to achieve a more-complete case ascertainment in GBS.
METHODS: The derivation cohort included 90 Malaysian GBS patients with two sets of NCS performed early (1-20days) and late (3-8 weeks). Potential predictors of AIDP were considered in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to develop a predictive model. The model was externally validated in 102 Japanese GBS patients.
RESULTS: Median motor conduction velocity (MCV), ulnar distal motor latency (DML) and abnormal ulnar/normal sural pattern were independently associated with AIDP at both timepoints (median MCV: p = 0.038, p = 0.014; ulnar DML: p = 0.002, p = 0.003; sural sparing: p = 0.033, p = 0.009). There was good discrimination of AIDP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.86-0.89) and this was valid in the validation cohort (AUC 0.74-0.94). Scores ranged from 0 to 6, and corresponded to AIDP probabilities of 15-98% at early NCS and 6-100% at late NCS.
CONCLUSION: The probabilities of AIDP could be reliably predicted based on median MCV, ulnar DML and ulnar/sural sparing pattern that were determined at early and late stages of GBS.
SIGNIFICANCE: A simple and valid model was developed which can accurately predict the probability of AIDP.
Methods: Nerve ultrasound of the median, ulnar, radial, tibial, fibular, and sural nerves was performed in 84 healthy participants at anatomical-defined locations. The CSA at each scanned site was measured by tracing circumferentially inside the hyperechoic rim of each nerve. Comparisons were made between genders and ethnic groups. Correlations with age, ethnicity, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.
Results: CSA values and reference ranges in healthy participants were generated. Nerve CSA was significantly different in different gender (P = 0.002-0.032) and ethnic groups (P = 0.006-0.038). Men had larger nerve CSA than women, and Malay participants had larger nerve CSA compared to other ethnic groups. Nerve CSA had significant correlations to age, height, weight, and BMI (r = 0.220-0.349, P = 0.001-0.045).
Conclusion: This study provides normative values for CSA of peripheral nerves in a multiethnic Malaysian population, which serves as reference values in the evaluation of peripheral nerve disorders. The ethnic differences in nerve CSA values should be considered during nerve ultrasound.
METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was done to explore the association between dengue serotypes and the various complications. All patients who underwent dengue serotyping from 1st January to 31st December 2018 in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital were selected. Serotypes were randomly done for admitted dengue patients. Notes were then retrieved for data collection. Secondary outcomes like length of stay and highest lactate level were also studied. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.
RESULT: A total of 193 patient records were included in the analysis. Chi-square test for independence indicated that the proportion of dengue complications between male and female were significantly different (χ2(1) = 11.37, p = 0.001). Dengue serotype was not associated with the development of dengue complications, total number of dengue complications, length of admission, lactate level and survival among the serotypes. Results of the binary logistic regression showed that men have thrice the odds (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 6.7) for developing dengue complications. One patient was found to be co-infected with serotype 2 and 3.
CONCLUSION: Our study did not reveal any association between the different dengue virus serotypes and its complications. Therefore, all dengue infection should be approached with equal meticulousness. There are possibilities that apart from serotype, dengue genotype and lineage would determine clinical outcome. However, more studies are required to study such associations.
METHODS: GBS patients were consecutively recruited and the results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A series of autonomic function tests including computation-dependent tests (power spectrum analysis of HRV and BRS at rest) and challenge maneuvers (deep breathing, eyeball compression, active standing, the Valsalva maneuver, sustained handgrip, and the cold pressor test) were performed.
RESULTS: Ten GBS patients (six men; mean age = 40.1 ± 13.9 years) and ten gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The mean GBS functional grading scale at disease plateau was 3.4 ± 1.0. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. Low-frequency HRV (p = 0.027), high-frequency HRV (p = 0.008), and the total power spectral density of HRV (p = 0.015) were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. The mean up slope (p = 0.034), down slope (p = 0.011), and total slope (p = 0.024) BRS were significantly lower in GBS patients. The diastolic rise in blood pressure in the cold pressor test was significantly lower in GBS patients compared to controls (p = 0.008).
INTERPRETATION: Computation-dependent tests (HRV and BRS) were more useful for detecting autonomic dysfunction in GBS patients, whereas the cold pressor test was the only reliable challenge test, making it useful as a bedside measure of autonomic function in GBS patients.
METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive thyrotoxicosis patients seen at the endocrine clinic of a tertiary medical center. Thyroid status was determined biochemically before prolonged exercise test. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes postexercise were compared against pre-exercise amplitudes and recorded as percentage of mean baseline CMAP amplitude. Comparisons of time-dependent postexercise CMAP amplitudes and mean CMAP amplitude decrement were made between hyperthyroid and nonhyperthyroid groups.
RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were recruited, 23 (31%) men, 30 (41%) Chinese, and the mean age was 48.5 ± 16.8 years. Of 74 patients, 32 (43%) were hyperthyroid and 42 (57%) were nonhyperthyroid viz. euthyroid and hypothyroid. Time-dependent CMAP amplitudes from 10 to 45 minutes after exercise were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared with nonhyperthyroid patients (P < 0.01). Mean CMAP amplitude decrement postexercise was significantly greater in hyperthyroid than nonhyperthyroid patients (23.4% ± 11.4% vs. 17.3% ± 10.5%; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Compound muscle action potential amplitude declines on prolonged exercise test were significantly greater in hyperthyroid patients compared with nonhyperthyroid patients. Muscle membrane excitability is highly influenced by thyroid hormone level. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis occurs from increased levels of thyroid hormone activity in susceptible patients.