Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Tang KS, Tan JS
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2019 Jan 05;842:133-138.
    PMID: 30385347 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.10.039
    The prevalence of stroke is high in both developing and developed nations. It causes a heavy social and financial burden to the sufferers and their caregivers. Thrombolytic therapy is the only pharmacological treatment available for stroke. However, thrombolytic agents do not provide substantial improvement on long term motor and cognitive disabilities. Thus, there is a need to explore for new compounds that can halt or reverse the deterioration of neurons in the stroke patients' brain. Polydatin, a precursor of resveratrol, is a natural stilbene commonly found in food. This review article describes how different parameters were altered with ischemic injury and polydatin treatment, why it is important and how it could be beneficial or useful in future studies. Our review of polydatin provides convincing evidence regarding the potential of polydatin to be developed into preventive or therapeutic products for ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary in order to properly elucidate the biological mechanisms of polydatin, especially its molecular mechanisms of protection and target proteins, in cerebral ischemia.
  2. Tan JS, Ong Kc KC, Rhodes A
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Aug;38(2):75-82.
    PMID: 27568663 MyJurnal
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that work as molecular chaperones for cellular proteins essential for cell viability and growth as well as having numerous cyto-protective roles. They are sub-categorised based on their molecular weights; amongst which some of the most extensively studied are the HSP90 and HSP70 families. Important members of these two families; Heat shock proteins 70 and heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp70/90), are the glucose regulated proteins (GRP). These stress-inducible chaperones possess distinct roles from that of the other HSPs, residing mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, but they can also be translocated to other cellular locations. Their ability in adapting to stress conditions in the tumour microenvironment suggests novel functions in cancer. GRPs have been implicated in many crucial steps of carcinogenesis to include stabilization of oncogenic proteins, induction of tumour angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis and replicative senescence, and promotion of invasion and metastasis.
  3. Abu Bakar MH, Tan JS
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017 Sep;93:903-912.
    PMID: 28715871 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.021
    Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present investigation evaluated the attributive properties of celastrol at different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40nM) on insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes evoked by palmitate. We demonstrated that celastrol improved mitochondrial functions through significant enhancement of intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, citrate synthase activity and decrease of mitochondrial superoxide productions. Meanwhile, augmented mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content with suppressed DNA oxidative damage were observed following celastrol treatment. Celastrol significantly enhanced fatty acid oxidation rate and increased the level of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates in palmitate-treated cells. Further analysis revealed that the improvement of glucose uptake activity in palmitate-loaded myotubes was partly mediated by celastrol via activation of PI3K-Akt insulin signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings provided evidence for the first time that the protection from palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by celastrol is likely associated with the improvement of mitochondrial functions-related metabolic activities.
  4. Ling Tan JS, Roberts CJ, Billa N
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):504-512.
    PMID: 30132723 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1515225
    This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
  5. Bashokouh F, Abbasiliasi S, Tan JS
    Cytotechnology, 2019 Jul 16.
    PMID: 31312930 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-019-00330-5
    Monoclonal antibody (McAb) has been established as one of the most successful therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. M1A2 (McAb) as a new monoclonal antibody was designed to recognize heat shock protein (HSP60), but its optimum production condition has not been studied. In this study, the cell culture conditions for both Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium (RPMI 1640) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were optimized using artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to obtain maximum production of IgM McAb by hybridoma M1A2 cells. By using a central composite design, an experimental matrix with cultivation parameters of incubation time, temperature and fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration on IgM McAb production was designed. The results was analysed by ANN network with different learning algorithms. From the analysis, batch back propagation (BBP) trained ANN composed of eight hidden nodes using a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function was capable to provide the highest McAb production for both RPMI and DMEM media. Under optimum conditions of 12.5% of FBS, at 33 °C after 3(1/2) days of incubation, maximum McAb production (1132.69 μg/ml) in DMEM was achieved. With PRMI 1640 medium, maximum McAb production (1105.12 μg/ml) was achieved at optimum conditions of 11% of FBS, at 33 °C after 4 days of incubation. The results of this study will provide information for optimum culture conditions of M1A2 McAb production in both DMEM and RPMI 1640 media and also give some clues for the other hybridoma excreting antibodies in the development of in vitro cell culture.
  6. Hii SL, Tan JS, Ling TC, Ariff AB
    Enzyme Res, 2012;2012:921362.
    PMID: 22991654
    The use of pullulanase (EC has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase.
  7. He Z, Tan JS, Lai OM, Ariff AB
    Food Chem, 2015 Aug 15;181:19-24.
    PMID: 25794715 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.166
    In this study, the methods for extraction and purification of miraculin from Synsepalum dulcificum were investigated. For extraction, the effect of different extraction buffers (phosphate buffer saline, Tris-HCl and NaCl) on the extraction efficiency of total protein was evaluated. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with nickel-NTA was used for the purification of the extracted protein, where the influence of binding buffer pH, crude extract pH and imidazole concentration in elution buffer upon the purification performance was explored. The total amount of protein extracted from miracle fruit was found to be 4 times higher using 0.5M NaCl as compared to Tris-HCl and phosphate buffer saline. On the other hand, the use of Tris-HCl as binding buffer gave higher purification performance than sodium phosphate and citrate-phosphate buffers in IMAC system. The optimum purification condition of miraculin using IMAC was achieved with crude extract at pH 7, Tris-HCl binding buffer at pH 7 and the use of 300 mM imidazole as elution buffer, which gave the overall yield of 80.3% and purity of 97.5%. IMAC with nickel-NTA was successfully used as a single step process for the purification of miraculin from crude extract of S. dulcificum.
  8. Abu Bakar MH, Azmi MN, Shariff KA, Tan JS
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2019 May;188(1):241-259.
    PMID: 30417321 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2920-2
    Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent derived from Withania somnifera plant, has been shown to exhibit many qualifying properties in attenuating several metabolic diseases. The current investigation sought to elucidate the protective mechanisms of WA (1.25 mg/kg/day) on pre-existing obese mice mediated by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following dietary administration of WA, significant metabolic improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines with enhanced glucose tolerance were observed. The hepatic oxidative functions of obese mice treated with WA were improved via augmented antioxidant enzyme activities. The levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and hepatic mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-receptor, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced. Mechanistically, WA increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), glucokinase (GCK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) that were associated with enhanced lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that WA exhibits protective effects against HFD-induced obesity through attenuation of hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in mice.
  9. Tai WY, Tan JS, Lim V, Lee CK
    Biotechnol. Prog., 2019 May;35(3):e2781.
    PMID: 30701709 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2781
    The high cost of cellulases remains the most significant barrier to the economical production of bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of this study was to optimize cellulases and xylanase production by a local indigenous fungus strain (Aspergillus niger DWA8) using agricultural waste (oil palm frond [OPF]) as substrate. The enzyme production profile before optimization indicated that the highest carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), filter paper (FPase), and xylanase activities of 1.06 U/g, 2.55 U/g, and 2.93 U/g were obtained on day 5, day 4, and day 5 of fermentation, respectively. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of several key process parameters in order to optimize cellulase production. Of the five physical and two chemical factors tested, only moisture content of 75% (w/w) and substrate amount of 2.5 g had statistically significant effect on enzymes production. Under optimized conditions of 2.5 g of substrate, 75% (w/w) moisture content, initial medium of pH 4.5, 1 × 106 spores/mL of inoculum, and incubation at ambient temperature (±30°C) without additional carbon and nitrogen, the highest CMCase, FPase, and xylanase activities obtained were 2.38 U/g, 2.47 U/g, and 5.23 U/g, respectively. Thus, the optimization process increased CMCase and xylanase production by 124.5 and 78.5%, respectively. Moreover, A. niger DWA8 produced reasonably good cellulase and xylanase titers using OPF as the substrate when compared with previous researcher finding. The enzymes produced by this process could be further use to hydrolyze biomass to generate reducing sugars, which are the feedstock for bioethanol production.
  10. Md Sidek NL, Tan JS, Abbasiliasi S, Wong FW, Mustafa S, Ariff AB
    PMID: 27262666 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.05.024
    An aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium citrate (NaNO3C6H5O7·2H2O) was considered for primary recovery of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10. The effects of ATPF parameters namely phase composition, tie-line length (TLL), volume ratio between the two phases (VR), amount of crude load (CL), pH, nitrogen gas flow rate (FR) and flotation time (FT) on the performance of recovery were evaluated. BLIS was mainly concentrated into the upper PEG-rich phase in all systems tested so far. The optimum conditions for BLIS purification, which composed of PEG 8000/sodium citrate, were: TLL of 42.6, VR of 0.4, CL of 22% (w/w), pH 7, average FT of 30min and FR of 20mL/min. BLIS was partially purified up to 5.9-fold with a separation efficiency of 99% under this optimal conditions. A maximum yield of BLIS activity of about 70.3% was recovered in the PEG phase. The BLIS from the top phase was successfully recovered with a single band in SDS-gel with molecular weight of about 10-15kDa. ATPF was found to be an effective technique for the recovery of BLIS from the fermentation broth of P. acidilactici Kp10.
  11. Mohamed MS, Tan JS, Mohamad R, Mokhtar MN, Ariff AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:948940.
    PMID: 24109209 DOI: 10.1155/2013/948940
    Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.
  12. Tam YJ, Allaudin ZN, Lila MA, Bahaman AR, Tan JS, Rezaei MA
    BMC Biotechnol., 2012;12:70.
    PMID: 23039947 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-12-70
    Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells.
  13. Tan JS, Ambang T, Ahmad-Annuar A, Rajahram GS, Wong KT, Goh KJ
    Muscle Nerve, 2016 May;53(5):822-826.
    PMID: 26789281 DOI: 10.1002/mus.25037
    Choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene mutations cause a rare presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome due to impaired acetylcholine resynthesis.
  14. Azaman SN, Ramakrishnan NR, Tan JS, Rahim RA, Abdullah MP, Ariff AB
    Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2010 Aug;56(4):141-50.
    PMID: 20604747 DOI: 10.1042/BA20100104
    Induction strategies for the periplasmic production of recombinant human IFN-alpha2b (interferon-alpha2b) by recombinant Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami 2(DE3) were optimized in shake-flask cultures using response surface methodology based on the central composite design. The factors included in the present study were induction point, which related to the attenuance of the cell culture, IPTG (isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside) concentration and induction temperature. Second-order polynomial models were used to correlate the abovementioned factors to soluble periplasmic IFN-alpha2b formation and percentage of soluble IFN-alpha2b translocated to the periplasmic space of E. coli. The models were found to be significant and subsequently validated. The proposed induction strategies consisted of induction at an attenuance of 4 (measured as D600), IPTG concentration of 0.05 mM and temperature of 25 degrees C. The optimized induction strategy reduced inclusion-body formation as evidenced by electron microscopy and yielded 323.8 ng/ml of IFN-alpha2b in the periplasmic space with translocation of 74% of the total soluble product. In comparison with the non-optimized condition, soluble periplasmic production and the percentage of soluble IFN-alpha2b translocated to the periplasmic space obtained in optimized induction strategies were increased by approx. 20-fold and 1.4-fold respectively.
  15. Oslan SNH, Halim M, Ramle NA, Saad MZ, Tan JS, Kapri MR, et al.
    Cryobiology, 2017 12;79:1-8.
    PMID: 29037980 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2017.10.004
    The efficacy of attenuated strain of gdhA derivative Pasteurella multocida B:2 mutant as a live vaccine to control haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) disease in cattle and buffaloes has been demonstrated. In order to use P. multocida B:2 mutant as a commercial product, it is essential to optimise its formulation for high viability and stability of the live cells. The effectiveness of freeze-drying process using different protective agent formulations for improving cells viability was explored. Sugar and nitrogen compounds were used as protective agents in freeze-drying and the capability of these compounds in maintaining the viability of mutant P. multocida B:2 during subsequent storage was investigated. A complete loss in viability of freeze-dried mutant P. multocida B:2 was monthly observed until 6-12 months of storage at -30 °C, 4 °C and 27 °C when nitrogen compound or no protective agent was added. Trehalose and sucrose showed significantly high survival rate of 93-95% immediately after freeze-drying and the viability was retained during the subsequent storage at -30 °C and 4 °C. A smooth cell surface without any cell-wall damage was observed for the cells formulated with trehalose under scanning electron micrograph. This study presented a freeze-drying process generating a dried live attenuated vaccine formulation with high stability for commercial applications.
  16. Tan JS, Abbasiliasi S, Kadkhodaei S, Tam YJ, Tang TK, Lee YY, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2018 01 04;18(1):3.
    PMID: 29439680 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-017-1145-9
    BACKGROUND: Demand for high-throughput bioprocessing has dramatically increased especially in the biopharmaceutical industry because the technologies are of vital importance to process optimization and media development. This can be efficiently boosted by using microtiter plate (MTP) cultivation setup embedded into an automated liquid-handling system. The objective of this study was to establish an automated microscale method for upstream and downstream bioprocessing of α-IFN2b production by recombinant Escherichia coli. The extraction performance of α-IFN2b by osmotic shock using two different systems, automated microscale platform and manual extraction in MTP was compared.

    RESULTS: The amount of α-IFN2b extracted using automated microscale platform (49.2 μg/L) was comparable to manual osmotic shock method (48.8 μg/L), but the standard deviation was 2 times lower as compared to manual osmotic shock method. Fermentation parameters in MTP involving inoculum size, agitation speed, working volume and induction profiling revealed that the fermentation conditions for the highest production of α-IFN2b (85.5 μg/L) was attained at inoculum size of 8%, working volume of 40% and agitation speed of 1000 rpm with induction at 4 h after the inoculation.

    CONCLUSION: Although the findings at MTP scale did not show perfect scalable results as compared to shake flask culture, but microscale technique development would serve as a convenient and low-cost solution in process optimization for recombinant protein.

  17. Abbasiliasi S, Tan JS, Ibrahim TAT, Ramanan RN, Kadkhodaei S, Mustafa S, et al.
    J Food Sci Technol, 2018 Apr;55(4):1270-1284.
    PMID: 29606741 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-018-3037-x
    This paper deliberates the modelling and validation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) secretion by Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 at different agitation speeds in a stirred tank bioreactor. A range of models namely the re-parameterised logistic, Luedeking-Piret and maintenance energy were assessed to predict the culture performance of the said bacterium. Growth of P. acidilactici Kp10 was enhanced with increased agitation speed up to 600 rpm while BLIS secretion was maximum at 400 rpm but decreased at higher agitation speed. Growth of P. acidilactici aptly subscribed to the re-parameterised logistic model while BLIS secretion and lactose consumption fitted well with the Luedeking-Piret model. The models revealed a relationship between growth of the bacterium and BLIS secretion. Bacterial growth and BLIS secretion were largely affected by the agitation speed of the stirred tank bioreactor which regulated the oxygen transfer to the culture. BLIS secretion by P. acidilactici Kp10 was however enhanced in oxygen-limited culture. The study also assessed BLIS from the perspective of its stability when subjected to factors such as temperature, pH and detergents. Results showed that BLIS produced by this strain was not affected by heat (at 25-100 °C for 20 min and at 121 °C for 15 min), surfactant (Tween 40, 60 and 80 and urea), detergents (up to 1% SDS), organic solvents (50% each of acetone, methanol and ethanol) and stable in a wide range of pH (2-10). The above information are pertinent with reference to commercial applications of this bacterial product in food manufacturing which invariably involve various sterilization processes and subjected to a wide pH range.
  18. Ambang T, Tan JS, Ong S, Wong KT, Goh KJ
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0162760.
    PMID: 27611456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162760
    Telbivudine, a thymidine nucleoside analog, is a common therapeutic option for chronic hepatitis B infection. While raised serum creatine kinase is common, myopathy associated with telbivudine is rare. Reports on its myopathological features are few and immunohistochemical analyses of inflammatory cell infiltrates have not been previously described. We describe the clinical, myopathological and immunohistochemical features of four patients who developed myopathy after telbivudine therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. All four patients presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness, elevation of serum creatine kinase and myopathic changes on electromyography. Muscle biopsies showed myofiber degeneration/necrosis, regeneration, and fibers with cytoplasmic bodies and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. There was minimal inflammation associated with strong sarcolemmal overexpression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I). Upon withdrawal of telbivudine, muscle weakness improved in all patients and eventually completely resolved in three. In our series, telbivudine-associated myopathy is characterized by necrotizing myopathy which improved on drug withdrawal. Although the occasional loss of cytochrome c oxidase is consistent with mitochondrial toxicity, the overexpression of MHC class I in all patients could suggest an underlying immune-mediated mechanism which may warrant further investigation.
  19. Tan JS, Abbasiliasi S, Ariff AB, Ng HS, Bakar MHA, Chow YH
    3 Biotech, 2018 Jun;8(6):288.
    PMID: 29938157 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-018-1295-y
    This study aimed at recovery of thermostable lipase from Escherichia coli BL21 using porous glass beads grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in aqueous impregnated resins system (AIRS). The influencing parameters such as concentration and pH of extraction solution, concentration of NaCl, size of the beads, and pH of the desorption solution on the partition behaviour of lipase were evaluated. Smaller adsorbent (4 mm) had a 65.5% of recovery yield with approximately two-fold higher purification factor compared to that obtained with the larger adsorbent. Recombinant lipase was purified successfully using AIRS with a purification factor of 7.6 and yield of 78.4% under optimum conditions of 18% (w/w) PEG 4000, 10% (w/w) of potassium citrate at pH 9 with 3% (w/w) of NaCl. Optimum desorption was obtained with 4.0 mm of porous glass beads at pH 9.
  20. Abu Bakar MH, Sarmidi MR, Tan JS, Mohamad Rosdi MN
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017 Mar 15;799:73-83.
    PMID: 28161417 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.01.043
    Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance.
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