METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all children who had liver and/or spleen abscesses on abdominal ultrasonography admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2014 until December 2018.
RESULTS: Fifty-three children had liver and/or spleen abscesses. Spleen abscesses were present in 48 (91%) cases; liver abscesses in 15 (28%). Melioidosis was confirmed by culture in 9 (17%) children; small occult splenic abscesses were present in all cases. In 78% of these cases, the lesions were detected before any positive culture (or serology) results were available. Four (8%) children had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Two (4%) had Staphylococcus aureus infection. Of the remaining 38 (72%) culture-negative cases, 36 (95%) had clinical and imaging characteristics similar to that of children with culture-confirmed melioidosis and improved with empirical melioidosis antibiotic therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: A large number of children in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, were found to have spleen abscesses. Melioidosis was the most common etiology identified in these children. Abdominal ultrasonography is extremely useful in facilitating the diagnosis of pediatric melioidosis.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of culture-confirmed melioidosis among adults admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2016.
Results: One hundred forty-eight adults with culture-confirmed melioidosis were identified. Of 129 (87%) tested, 84 (65%) had gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei. The average annual incidence of melioidosis was 12.3 per 100 000 population, with marked variation between districts ranging from 5.8 to 29.3 per 100 000 population. Rural districts had higher incidences of melioidosis and overwhelmingly larger proportions of gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infection. Significantly more patients with gentamicin-susceptible infection had no identified risk factors, with diabetes less frequently present in this group. Ninety-eight percent had acute presentations. Pneumonia, reported in 71%, was the most common presentation. Splenic abscesses were found in 54% of those imaged. Bacteremia was present in 88%; septic shock occurred in 47%. Forty-five (35%) patients died. No differences in clinical, laboratory, or outcome characteristics were noted between gentamicin-susceptible and gentamicin-resistant infections.
Conclusions: Gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infections are common in Sarawak and dominate in the high-incidence rural interior regions. Clinical manifestations and outcomes are the same as for gentamicin-resistant B pseudomallei infections. Further studies are required to determine if all gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infections in Sarawak are clonal and to ascertain their environmental drivers and niches.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all children aged
METHODS: A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.
FINDINGS: Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster.
CONCLUSIONS: Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.