Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Tan, M. C., Tan, C. P., Ho, C. W
    Henna plant (Lawsonia inermis) is an Indian medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, besides its popularity as a natural dye to colour hand and hair. Research in the recent past has accumulated enormous evidence revealing henna plant to be an excellent source of antioxidants such as total phenolics. In this study, the extraction of total phenolics from henna stems was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A set of single factor experiments was carried out for identifying the optimum condition of each independent variable affecting total phenolic content (TPC) extraction efficiency of henna stems, namely the solvent type, solvent concentration (v/v, %), extraction time (min) and extraction temperature (oC). Generally, high extraction yield was obtained using aqueous acetone (about 40%) as solvent and the extraction yield could further be increased using a prolonged time of 270 min and a higher incubation temperature of 55°C. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of TPC of 5554.15 ± 73.04 mg GAE/100 g DW was obtained.
  2. Tan, M. C., Tan, C. P., Khoo, H. E., Ho, C. W.
    This study aimed to optimise potential extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) for yielding maximum levels of total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging capacity of henna (Lawsonia inermis) stems. The ranges for selected independent variables, namely acetone concentration (20−90%, v/v), extraction time (10−90 min), and extraction temperature (25−45°C) were identified by screening tests. Optimum conditions obtained for extraction of TPC were 47.0% acetone, extraction time of 47.6 min and extraction temperature of 37.3oC. The result also showed that 75.8% acetone, extraction time of 26.2 min and extraction temperature of 41oC yielded the highest DPPH• scavenging capacity. The optimized extraction conditions have resulted in TPC and DPPH• scavenging capacity of 5232.4 mg GAE/100 g DW and 6085.7 mg TE/100 g DW, respectively which similar to the predicted values. Therefore, RSM has successfully optimized the extraction conditions for TPC and radical scavenging capacity of henna stems.
  3. Tan, M. C., Liew, S. L., Wan Aida, W. M., Osman, H., Maskat, M. Y.
    Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in the study to optimize the production of vanillin from isoeugenol through fermentation by Aspergillus niger I-1472. Three factors were studied which include amount of isoeugenol, resin (Amberlite XAD-4) and Span 80. During fermentation, isoeugenol as substrate were vortexed with Span 80 and added into the culture on Day 4. Resin (Amberlite XAD-4) was added into the medium the following day. The predicted optimum medium combination consisted of 3.61 g/L of isoeugenol, 5.8% (g/ mL) of Amberlite XAD-4 resin and 0.37% of Span 80 with an expected vanillin production of 0.137 g/L. Verification test showed that the model produced similar predicted and experimental values.
  4. Loke YK, Tan MH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):107-9.
    PMID: 10968148
    A 35-year-old Malay man underwent treatment for uveitis of the right eye in 1992 but developed marked visual impairment in the affected eye after he failed to attend follow-up. Two years later, he complained of difficulty swallowing and was found to have left sided X and XI cranial nerve palsies. Chest radiograph showed a cavitating lesion in the lower zone of the right lung field. Inflammation and perforation of the nasal septum was found on examination of his upper respiratory tract. Punch biopsies taken from that area showed chronic inflammatory change and necrotizing vasculities. The patient was diagnosed as having Wegener's granulomatosis and made a very good recovery with immunosuppressive therapy.
  5. Loke YK, Tan MH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):172-4.
    PMID: 10968077
    A 69-year-old lady who was referred by her general practitioner with a diagnosis of food poisoning developed cardiorespiratory arrest shortly after arriving at the Casualty Department. Cardiac output was successfully restored with resuscitation but she had to be mechanically ventilated due to the absence of any spontaneous respiratory effort. Assessment 24 hours after admission, showed fixed and dilated pupils with brain stem areflexia. Her family was told that the prognosis was hopeless. Surprisingly, her condition rapidly improved a day later and she eventually had a good recovery. Her condition was actually due to severe tetrodotoxin poisoning after eating roe of the puffer fish and it was fortunate that appropriate aggressive resuscitation was instituted to revive the patient from her critical state.
  6. Mundada P, Tan ML, Soh AW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Aug;70(4):256-8.
    PMID: 26358025
    Although it is common to have extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of presentation, it is extremely rare to have extra-hepatic metastatic HCC without a detectable primary in the liver. We report a unique case in which a patient presented with bilateral large adrenal masses which were subsequently proven to be metastases from HCC. However, there was no tumour seen in the liver on imaging.
  7. Jaafar MH, Mahadeva S, Morgan K, Tan MP
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2015 Feb;19(2):190-7.
    PMID: 25651445 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-014-0527-z
    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate existing studies on the effectiveness of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding compared to nasogastric (NG) feeding for patients with non-stroke related dysphagia.
  8. Loke YK, Tee MH, Tan MH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):100-3.
    PMID: 10968146
    The formation of Kenyir Lake as part of a hydroelectric project in the 1980s caused much forest area to be submerged. From 1991, underwater divers were employed to log these sunken trees at depths of up to 100 meters. At least 6 mishaps involving underwater logging personnel were recorded from March 1994 to August 1996. We retrospectively reviewed 5 cases who were managed in Hospital Kuala Terengganu. The patients presented with marked cardiorespiratory and neurological disturbances. One diver died in the Hospital while another died at the recompression chamber. Three divers were treated with recompression and improved. Average delay before the start of recompression was 14 hours. Underwater logging has definite dangers and steps must be taken to ensure that both the divers and the equipment are appropriate for the task. Availability of a nearby recompression facility would greatly enhance the management of diving accidents, not only for commercial divers but also for recreational divers who frequent the islands nearby.
  9. Loke YK, Murugesan E, Suryati A, Tan MH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):97-100.
    PMID: 10968145
    The presence of rabies in dogs has been well recognized in areas of Malaysia close to the Thai border but it has rarely ever been reported in Terengganu which is a state on the East Coast of Malaysia. From November 1995 to June 1996 six different rabid stray dogs were found to have been involved in dog bite attacks on 9 members of the public. We report these cases to highlight that rabid dog bites may occur even in areas where the disease is thought to be rate. Medical and veterinary staff must keep the possibility of the risk of rabies in mind when faced with patients who have been bitten by dogs.
  10. Tan MY, Seow KH, Tay BK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):63-9.
    PMID: 10968140
    Thirty-one chevron osteotomies for hallux valgus performed over a period of four years were reviewed. Their follow-up period ranged from one to five years. All the patients had pain over the bunion prior to operation. After operation, there was marked decrease of pain over the first matatarsophalangeal joint. The preoperative hallux valgus angle average 27 degrees and the postoperative angle averaged 12 degrees. The preoperative intermetatarsal angle averaged 13 degrees and the postoperative angle, 8 degrees. Ninety-one per cent of the patients were satisfied with the result of the procedure.
  11. Tan MA, Mak JW, Yong HS
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1989 Sep;40(3):317-21.
    PMID: 2617040
    Two out of six monoclonals (McAbs) produced against subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larva (L3) antigens impaired B. malayi L3 motility independently of human buffy coat cells. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed damage to L3 surface and loss of regular cuticular annulations. The two McAbs (BML 1a and BM1 8b) did not affect B. malayi microfilaria (mf). They were IFAT-positive with B. malayi adult and L3 antigens; other McAbs which did not affect mf or L3 motility were IFAT-negative. All six McAbs did not promote cellular adherence of normal human buffy coat cells to mf or L3.
  12. Yadav M, Tan MK, Singh P, Dharmalingam SK
    Clin Oncol, 1984 Dec;10(4):353-61.
    PMID: 6509817
    A total of 52 cases of NPC were found in a five-year survey from 1978 to 1982 in Malaysia. The annual rate of occurrence was 3.4, 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 for Chinese, Malays, Kadazans and Sarawakians, respectively. The age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 were highest for Kadazans (2.34 to 7.59) in comparison to the other races (0.11 to 1.24). The proportion of NPC in young Malaysians formed 1.2% in Chinese, 7.2% in Malays and 6.9% for others. A sexual bias was present in Chinese (male:female = 2.2) and Sarawakians (1.7) but not in Kadazans and Malays (0.9). In most Chinese, the primary tumour histologically is of the poorly differentiated characteristic and this type is the predominant tumour in the country. The Kadazans presented with well differentiated primary tumour and the Malays with all three histological types i.e. well-, poorly- and undifferentiated. At first examination enlarged lymph nodes were found in 95.7% of the patients and 65.2% had epistaxis and growth in the postnasal space. Antibodies to IgA anti-VCA were present in half of the 6 patients serologically studied.
  13. Loke YK, Hwang SL, Tan MH
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 May;26(3):285-9.
    PMID: 9285018
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the time delays between the onset of symptoms and admission to hospital and provision of thrombolytic therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction; and to examine the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis and the therapeutic decision on thrombolysis in these patients. An observational study of 96 patients with suspected myocardial infarction was undertaken over a period of 15 months in the Coronary Care Unit of Hospital Kuala Terengganu. Seventy per cent of the patients arrived in the hospital within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms. After arrival in the emergency room, it took a median time of 85 minutes before the administration of thrombolytic therapy. Of the 67 patients who were given thrombolysis, 46 were treated within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms. About a quarter of patients said that they had delayed seeking treatment at the hospital. Treatment delays occurring in the hospital were mainly due to admission procedures as well as late diagnosis. Eighty-one patients had confirmed myocardial infarction of whom 59 received thrombolytic therapy. Eight patients receiving thrombolytic therapy had no confirmation of myocardial infarctions. Improvements in diagnostic accuracy and reduction of delays in the provision of thrombolytic therapy could be achieved by better training of health care staff as well as by further streamlining of admission procedures.
  14. Jaafar MH, Mahadeva S, Subramanian P, Tan MP
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2017;21(4):473-479.
    PMID: 28346575 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-016-0774-2
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals' (HCPs) in a South East Asian nation towards percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding.

    DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews.

    SETTINGS: A teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 healthcare professionals aged 23-43 years, 82% women.

    RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed five themes that represent HCPs' perceptions in relation to the usage of PEG feeding: 1) knowledge of HCPs, 2) communication, 3) understanding among patients, and 4) financial and affordability.

    CONCLUSION: The rationale for reluctance towards PEG feeding observed in this regions was explained by lack of education, knowledge, communication, team work, and financial support. Future studies should assess the effects of educational programmes among HCPs and changes in policies to promote affordability on the utilization of PEG feeding in this region.

  15. Tan M, Aghaei F, Wang Y, Zheng B
    Phys Med Biol, 2017 01 21;62(2):358-376.
    PMID: 27997380 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa5081
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new method to improve performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of screening mammograms with two approaches. In the first approach, we developed a new case based CAD scheme using a set of optimally selected global mammographic density, texture, spiculation, and structural similarity features computed from all four full-field digital mammography images of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views by using a modified fast and accurate sequential floating forward selection feature selection algorithm. Selected features were then applied to a 'scoring fusion' artificial neural network classification scheme to produce a final case based risk score. In the second approach, we combined the case based risk score with the conventional lesion based scores of a conventional lesion based CAD scheme using a new adaptive cueing method that is integrated with the case based risk scores. We evaluated our methods using a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on 924 cases (476 cancer and 448 recalled or negative), whereby each case had all four images from the CC and MLO views. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC  =  0.793  ±  0.015 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 37.21 as CAD-generated case based detection scores increased. Using the new adaptive cueing method, the region based and case based sensitivities of the conventional CAD scheme at a false positive rate of 0.71 per image increased by 2.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The study demonstrated that supplementary information can be derived by computing global mammographic density image features to improve CAD-cueing performance on the suspicious mammographic lesions.
  16. Saedon NI, Pin Tan M, Frith J
    J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci., 2020 Jan 01;75(1):117-122.
    PMID: 30169579 DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gly188
    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with increased risk of falls, cognitive impairment and death, as well as a reduced quality of life. Although it is presumed to be common in older people, estimates of its prevalence vary widely. This study aims to address this by pooling the results of epidemiological studies.

    METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest were searched. Studies were included if participants were more than 60 years, were set within the community or within long-term care and diagnosis was based on a postural drop in systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥20 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥10 mmHg. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random and quality effects models were used for pooled analysis.

    RESULTS: Of 23,090 identified records, 20 studies were included for community-dwelling older people (n = 24,967) and six were included for older people in long-term settings (n = 2,694). There was substantial variation in methods used to identify OH with differing supine rest duration, frequency and timing of standing BP, measurement device, use of standing and tilt-tables and interpretation of the diagnostic drop in BP. The pooled prevalence of OH in community-dwelling older people was 22.2% (95% CI = 17, 28) and 23.9% (95% CI = 18.2, 30.1) in long-term settings. There was significant heterogeneity in both pooled results (I2 > 90%).

    CONCLUSIONS: OH is very common, affecting one in five community-dwelling older people and almost one in four older people in long-term care. There is great variability in methods used to identify OH.

  17. Tan MY, Magarey JM, Chee SS, Lee LF, Tan MH
    Health Educ Res, 2011 Oct;26(5):896-907.
    PMID: 21715653 DOI: 10.1093/her/cyr047
    We assessed the effectiveness of a brief structured diabetes education programme based on the concept of self-efficacy on self-care and glycaemic control using single-blind study design. One hundred and sixty-four participants with poorly controlled diabetes from two settings were randomized using computer-generated list into control (n = 82) and intervention (n = 82) groups, of which 151 completed the study. Monthly interventions over 12 weeks addressed the self-care practices of diet, physical activity, medication adherence and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). These self-care practices were assessed at Weeks 0 and 12 using pre- and post-questionnaires in both groups together with glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes knowledge. In the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 164), the intervention group improved their SMBG (P = <0.001), physical activity (P = 0.001), HbA1c (P = 0.03), diabetes knowledge (P = <0.001) and medication adherence. At Week 12, HbA1c difference adjusted for SMBG frequency, medication adherence and weight change remained significant (P = 0.03) compared with control group. For within group comparisons, diabetes knowledge (P = <0.001), HbA1c level (P = <0.001), SMBG (P = <0.001) and medication adherence (P = 0.008) improved from baseline in the intervention group. In the control group, only diabetes knowledge improved (P = <0.001). These findings can contribute to the development of self-management diabetes education in Malaysia.
  18. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman S, Myint PK, Tan MP
    Maturitas, 2016 Feb;84:32-7.
    PMID: 26531071 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.10.009
    OBJECTIVE: While the anticholinergic activity of medications has been linked to cognitive decline, few studies have linked anticholinergic burden with falls in older people. We evaluated the relationship between anticholinergic burden and recurrent and injurious falls among community-dwelling older adults.
    STUDY DESIGN: This case-control study was performed on 428 participants aged ≥65 years, 263 cases with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the preceding 12 months, and 165 controls with no falls in the preceding 12 months. Anticholinergic burden was determined using the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale. Upper and lower limb functional abilities were assessed with timed up and go (TUG), functional reach (FR) and grip strength (GS). Logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the mediation effect of TUG, FR and GS on ACB associated falls.
    RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between an ACB score of ≥1 with falls (OR, 1.8; 95% CI; 1.1-3.0; p=0.01) and significantly poorer TUG and FR. The association between ACB≥1 and falls was no longer significant after adjustment for either TUG (OR for ACB associated falls, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.88-2.4; p=0.14) or FR (OR for ACB associated falls, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.89-2.4, p=0.12) but remained significant with GS.
    CONCLUSION: The association between recurrent and injurious falls and the use of any medications listed in the ACB scale was mediated through gait and balance impairment but not by muscular weakness, providing a novel insight into the potential mechanistic link between ACB and falls. Future studies should determine whether TUG and FR measurements could help inform risk to benefit decisions where ACB medications are being considered.
    KEYWORDS: Aged; Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden; Falls; Functional Reach; Scale; Timed up and go
  19. Tan MP, Jamsari AF, Siti Azizah MN
    J. Fish Biol., 2016 May;88(5):1932-48.
    PMID: 27027270 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12956
    Genetic variability and differences in wild striped snakehead Channa striata from Malaysia were analysed by genotyping nine novel nuclear microsatellite loci. Analysis revealed moderate-to-high genetic diversity in most of the populations, indicative of large effective population sizes. The highly diversified populations are admixed populations and, therefore, can be recommended as potential candidates for selective breeding and conservation since they each contain most of the alleles found in their particular region. Three homogenous groups of the wild populations were identified, apparently separated by effective barriers, in accordance with contemporary drainage patterns. The highest population pairwise FST found between members of the same group reflects the ancient population connectivity; yet prolonged geographical isolation resulted in adaptation of alleles to local contemporary environmental change. A significant relationship between genetic distance and geographical isolation was observed (r = 0·644, P < 0·01). Anthropogenic perturbations indicated apparent genetic proximity between distant populations.
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