A thrombin-like enzyme, purpurase, was purified from the Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus (mangrove pit viper) venom using high performance ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified sample (termed purpurase) yielded a homogeneous band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 35,000. The N-terminal sequence of purpurase was determined to be VVGGDECNINDHRSLVRIF and is homologous to many other venom thrombin-like enzymes. Purpurase exhibits both arginine ester hydrolase and amidase activities. Kinetic studies using tripeptide chromogenic anilide substrates showed that purpurase is not fastidious towards its substrate. The clotting times of fibrinogen by purpurase were concentration dependent, with optimum clotting activity at 3mg fibronogen/mL. The clotting activity by purpurase was in the following decreasing order: cat fibrinogen>human fibrinogen>dog fibrinogen>goat fibrinogen>rabbit fibrinogen. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the products of action of purpurase on bovine fibrinogen showed that only fibrinopeptide A was released. Indirect ELISA studies showed that anti-purpurase cross-reacted strongly with venoms of most crotalid venoms, indicating the snake venom thrombin-like enzymes generally possess similar epitopes. In the more specific double-sandwich ELISA, however, anti-purpurase cross-reacted only with venoms of certain species of the Trimeresurus complex, and the results support the recent proposed taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.
Indirect ELISA shows that the antibodies to Calloselasma rhodostoma venom hemorrhagin (CR-HMG), thrombin-like enzyme (CR-TLE) and L-amino acid oxidase (CR-LAAO) exhibited strong to moderate cross-reactions with most crotalid and viperid venoms, but only anti-CR-LAAO cross-reacted with the elapid venoms. However, the indirect ELISA failed to detect some antigenic similarities demonstrable by cross-neutralization study. The double-sandwich ELISA for the three anti-C. rhodostoma venom components exhibited a much lower level of cross-reactions than the indirect ELISA.
1. The L-amino acid oxidase of the monocellate cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) venom was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 112,200 as determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, and 57,400 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 8.12 and a pH optimum of 8.5. It showed remarkable thermal stability, and, unlike many venom L-amino acid oxidase, was also stable in alkaline medium. The enzyme was partially inactivated by freezing. 3. The enzyme was very active against L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, moderately active against L-tryptophan, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-norleucine, L-arginine and L-norvaline. Other L-amino acids were oxidized slowly or not oxidized. 4. Kinetic studies suggest the presence of a side-chain binding site in the enzyme, and that the binding site comprises of at least four hydrophobic subsites.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, 5'-nucleotidase, hyaluronidase, arginine ester hydrolase, phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase and protease activities of 31 samples of venom from three species of Agkistrodon (A. bilineatus, A. contortrix and A. piscivorus) and 10 venom samples from five other related species belonging to the same tribe of Agkistrodontini were examined. 2. The results indicate that interspecific differences in certain biological activities of the Agkistrodon venoms are more marked than individual variations of the activities, and that these differences can be used for differentiation of the species. Particularly useful for this purpose are the phosphodiesterase, arginine ester hydrolase and anticoagulant activities of the venoms. 3. Venoms of the subspecies of A. contortrix and A. piscivorus do not differ significantly in their biological activities.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, phosphodiesterase, hyaluronidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, 5'-nucleotidase, arginine ester hydrolase, phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase and protease activities of 26 samples of venoms of 13 taxa of Vipera were determined and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns for some of the venoms were also examined. 2. The results indicate the presence of certain common characteristics among the venoms, particularly if V. russelli is excluded from the comparison. The results also support the recently proposed reassignment of V. russelli to a separate genus. 3. The data show that information on venom biological properties can be used for differentiation of venoms of many species of Vipera. Particularly useful for this purpose are the protease, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A and the procoagulant activities and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns of the venoms.
1. Examination of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) and SDS-PAGE patterns of snake venoms shows that these patterns are useful for species differentiation (and hence identification) for snakes of certain genera but have only limited application for snakes from some other genera, due either to the marked individual variations in the venoms or the lack of marked interspecific differences within the same genus. 2. There is no substantial intersubspecific difference in the electrophoretic patterns of the venoms. 3. In general there are no common characteristics in the electrophoretic patterns of the venom at the generic level because of the wide variations in the electrophoretic patterns of venoms of snakes within the same genus. 4. At the familial level, the venoms of Elapidae exhibited SDS-PAGE patterns distinct from those of Crotalidae.
Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix) venom was found to exhibit an in vitro anticoagulant activity that was much stronger than most common cobra (genus Naja) venoms. The most potent anticoagulants of the venom are two lethal phospholipase A2 enzymes with pI's of 6.15 and 6.20, respectively. The anticoagulant activity of the venom is due to the synergistic effect of the venom phospholipase A2 enzymes and polypeptide anticoagulants. Bromophenacylation of the two phospholipase A2 enzymes reduced their enzymatic activity with a concomitant drop in both the lethal and anticoagulant activities.
An acidic, lethal phospholipase Az was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the venom of the Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix). The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 5.58, a molecular weight of 12000, and a medium lethal dose (LD50) of 0.86 micrograms/g in mice by intravenous injection. The enzyme also exhibited weak anticoagulant and edema-forming activities. The amino acid composition of the enzyme is similar to those of other cobra venom phospholipases Az.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, phosphodiesterase, hyaluronidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, 5'-nucleotidase, arginine ester hydrolase, phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase and protease activities of 30 samples of venoms from nine species (12 taxa) of the old world vipers (Subfamily Viperinae) including snakes from the genera Bitis, Causus, Cerastes, Echis, Eristicophis and Pseudocerastes, were determined and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns for some of the venoms were also examined. 2. Examination of the biological properties of the venoms of the Viperinae tested indicates the presence of common venom biological characteristics at the various phylogenic levels. 3. Venoms of most species of the Viperinae examined exhibited characteristic biological properties at the species level, and this allows the differentiation of the Viperinae species by differences in their biological properties. 4. Particularly useful for this purpose, are the effects of venom on kaolin-cephalin clotting time of platelet poor rabbit plasma and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration pattern and arginine ester hydrolase activity of the venom.
1. The protease, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, L-amino acid oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase, hyaluronidase, arginine ester hydrolase, procoagulant, anticoagulant and hemorrhagic activities of ten samples of venoms from seven taxa of sea snakes were examined. 2. The results show that venoms of sea snakes of both subfamilies of Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae are characterized by a very low level of enzymatic activities, except phospholipase A activity and, for some species, hyaluronidase activity. 3. Because of the low levels of enzymatic activities and the total lack of procoagulant and hemorrhagic activities, venom biological properties are not useful for the differentiation of species of sea snakes. Nevertheless, the unusually low levels of enzymatic activities of sea snake venoms may be used to distinguish sea snake venoms from other elapid or viperid venoms.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, 5'-nucleotidase, hyaluronidase, arginine ester hydrolase, phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase and protease activities of 26 samples of venoms from 13 species of Bothrops were determined, and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns for some of the venoms also examined. 2. The results show that while there are considerable individual variations in the biological activities of many of the Bothrops venoms tested, there are some common characteristics at the genus and species levels. 3. The differences in the biological properties of the Bothrops venoms tested can be used for the differentiation of most Bothrops species examined.
The in vivo interactions between alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxin and two phospholipases A2 (sputa-phospholipase A2-1 and 3) isolated from Malayan cobra venom were assessed by examining the effects of simultaneous injection of sub-LD50 dose of one toxin on (i) i.v. LD50 S of the other toxins in mice; and (ii) mean survival times of mice injected with lethal doses of the other toxins. While LD50 measurements did not reveal any interaction between the toxins in vivo, survival time measurements suggest a synergy between the neurotoxin and sputa-phospholipase A2-1 and between sputa-phospholipase A2-1 and sputa-phospholipase A2-3. Our results also suggest that both sputa-phospholipases A2 interfere with the lethal action of the cardiotoxin, resulting in prolongation of the mean survival time of mice injected with a lethal dose of cardiotoxin. The patterns of in vivo interactions between phospholipase A2 and other venom toxins appear to depend on the nature and mode of pharmacological action of the phospholipase A2.
1. The biological properties of nine venom samples from six taxa of Micrurus were investigated. The venoms exhibited low protease, phosphodiesterase and 5'-nucleotidase activities, moderate to strong phospholipase A and hyaluronidase activities, variable L-amino acid oxidase activity and were devoid of arginine ester hydrolase and thrombin-like activities. Some venom samples exhibited strong acetylcholinesterase activity. Venoms of M. c. dumerili and M. frontalis exhibited exceptionally high alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity while two of the M. f. fulvius venom samples tested exhibited strong hemorrhagic activity in mice. 2. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of the venoms indicate that most of the Micrurus venom proteins are basic proteins. All Micrurus venoms tested exhibited similar SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns, with an intense low mol. wt protein band. 3. The Micrurus venoms appear to exhibit biological properties similar to other elapid venoms found in Asia and Africa. There are, however, no common characteristics in the biological properties of the venoms examined at the generic level.
1. The intravenous median lethal doses (LD50), protease, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, L-amino acid oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase, hyauronidase and anticoagulant activities of fourteen samples of venoms from the four common species of krait (Bungarus caeruleus, Bungarus candidus, Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus) were examined. 2. The results indicate that even though there are individual variations in the biological properties of the krait venoms, interspecific differences in the properties can be used for differentiation of the venoms from the four species of Bungarus. Particularly useful for this purpose are the LD50's and the contents of 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase of the venoms.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, protease, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, L-amino acid oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, arginine ester hydrolase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase activities of 39 samples of venoms from 13 species (15 taxa) of Australian elapids were determined and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns for some of the venoms were also examined. 2. The results indicate that Australian elapid venoms can be divided into two groups: procoagulant Australian venoms (including N. scutatus, N. ater, O. scutellatus, O. microlepidotus, P. porphyriacus, T. carinatus, H. stephensii and P. textilis) and non-procoagulant Australian venoms (including A. superbus, P. colletti, P. australis, P. guttatus and A. antarcticus). 3. The non-procoagulant Australian venoms exhibited biological properties similar to other elapid venoms, while the procoagulant Australian venoms exhibited some properties characteristic of viperid venoms. 4. The data show that information on venom biological properties can be used for differentiation of many species of Australian elapids. 5. Particularly useful for this purpose are the hyaluronidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, acetylcholinesterase, and the procoagulant activities and the Sephadex G-75 gel filtration patterns of the venoms.
1. The hemorrhagic, procoagulant, anticoagulant, protease, arginine ester hydrolase, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, 5'-nucleotidase, hyaluronidase, phospholipase A and L-amino acid oxidase activities of 50 venom samples from 20 taxa of rattlesnake (genera Crotalus and Sistrurus) were examined. 2. The results show that notwithstanding individual variations in the biological activities of Crotalus venoms and the wide ranges of certain biological activities observed, there are some common characteristics at the genus and species levels. 3. The differences in biological activities of the venoms compared can be used for differentiation of the species. Particularly useful for this purpose are the thrombin-like enzyme, protease, arginine ester hydrolase, hemorrhagic and phospholipase A activities and kaolin-cephalin clotting time measurements.
1. The enzymatic, hemorrhagic, procoagulant and anticoagulant activities of venoms of some animals including snakes, lizards, toads, scorpions, spider, wasps, bees and ants were compared. 2. Snake venom was the richest source of enzymes among the animal venoms. Most other animal venoms were devoid of phosphodiesterase, L-amino acid oxidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities and only a few exhibited arginine ester hydrolase activity. These venoms, however, exhibited wide ranges of protease, 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase activities. Most of the animal venoms examined exhibited some phospholipase A activity. 3. Other than snake venoms, only venoms of the toad Bufo calamita and the lizards were hemorrhagic, and only venoms of the social wasps, social bees and harvester ant exhibited strong anticoagulant activity. Procoagulant activity occurs only in snake venoms.
The major hemorrhagin from C. purpureomaculatus (mangrove pit viper) venom was purified to homogeneity and termed Maculatoxin. Maculatoxin has a molecular weight of 38 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is an acidic protein (pI= 4.2) and exhibited proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities (MHD10 = 0.84 microg in mice) but was not lethal to mice at a dose of 1 microg/g. The hemorrhagic activity of Maculatoxin was completely inactivated by EDTA and partially inhibited by ATP and citrate. The N-terminal sequence of Maculatoxin (TPEQQRFPPTYIDLGIFVDHGMYAT) shares a significant degree of homology with the metalloprotease domain of other venom hemorrhagins. Indirect ELISA showed anti-Maculatoxin cross reacted with protein components of many snake venoms. In the double-sandwich ELISA, however, anti-Maculatoxin cross-reacted only with venoms of certain species of the Trimeresurus (Asia lance-head viper) complex, and the results support the recent proposed taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.
The incidence of premature multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) is on the rise in Malaysia. The pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is multi-factorial with dyslipidaemia being one such risk factor. Elevated total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) levels are primarily responsible. We analysed the fasting pre-operative lipid profiles of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients with symptomatic severe premature CAD. A majority of patients had an elevated LDL cholesterol level despite being on a statin. Similarly, no patient with an elevated TG level was prescribed a fibrate. Pre-operative control of known dyslipidaemia was suboptimal in young adults with angiographially proven severe symptomatic CAD. This is either due to subtherapeutic dose prescribing or failure to commence appropriate anti-lipid drugs. Collectively, general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons must be more diligent in monitoring lipid profiles in such patients and be more meticulous in prescribing therapeutic doses to achieve target control.