MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information on P. acidus was collected from various electronic database (ACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SciFinder, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Springer, Wiley, Taylor and Mendeley) and also from those published materials (Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations and books) by using a combination of various meaningful keywords.
RESULTS: Phytochemical analyses on barks, leaves, roots and fruits of P. acidus identified triterpene, diterpene, sesquiterpene, and glycosides as predominant classes of bioactive substances found in this plant. P. acidus was reported with various pharmacological activities such as in vivo hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic, in vitro anti-oxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. However, none of these studies are with clinical research. Some of the studies were performed with only a single set of experiments or with a high dose of extract, and thus the validity of the experimental data may be questionable. In addition, most of the studies described were without identifying the effective components. Some of the assays were even without a positive control for comparison which makes results questionable.
CONCLUSION: Although P. acidus has been proven as a valuable medicinal source from its traditional uses. However, the pharmacological experiments conducted were not sufficient to verify its traditional uses. More investigation is required to confirm the traditional claims such as bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive compounds, detailed pharmacological investigations, clinical studies, and its toxicity investigation. Additionally, an experimental design with sufficient data replication, the use of controls and authenticated research materials, and the selection of a rationale dose or concentration for the analysis are keys to providing reproducible experimental data.
METHODS: This prospective comparative study was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Patients with ACL injuries who underwent knee arthroscopy and MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical history and arthroscopic findings reviewed the pre-arthroscopic MR images. The presence and type of meniscal tears on MRI and arthroscopy were recorded. Arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI in the evaluation of meniscal tears were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 65 patients (66 knees) were included. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for the MRI diagnosis of lateral meniscal tears in our patients were 83, 97, 92, 96, and 90 %, respectively, whereas those for medial meniscus tears were 82, 92, 88, 82, and 88 %, respectively. There were five false-negative diagnoses of medial meniscus tears and four false-negative diagnoses of lateral meniscus tears. The majority of missed meniscus tears on MRI affected the peripheral posterior horns.
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity for diagnosing a meniscal tear was significantly higher when the tear involved more than one-third of the meniscus or the anterior horn. The sensitivity was significantly lower for tears located in the posterior horn and for vertically oriented tears. Therefore, special attention should be given to the peripheral posterior horns of the meniscus, which are common sites of injury that could be easily missed on MRI. The high NPVs obtained in this study suggest that MRI is a valuable tool prior to arthroscopy.
METHODS: A randomized trial was performed in a university hospital in Malaysia. Participants were nulliparas at term with unripe cervixes (Bishop Score ≤ 5) admitted for IoL who were randomized to digital or speculum-aided transcervical Foley catheter insertion in lithotomy position. Primary outcomes were insertion duration, pain score [11-point Visual Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS)], and failure. All primary outcomes were recorded after the first insertion.
RESULTS: Data from 86 participants were analysed. Insertion duration (with standard deviation) was 2.72 ± 1.85 vs. 2.25 ± 0.55 min p = 0.12, pain score (VNRS) median [interquartile range] 3.5 [2-5] vs. 3 [2-5] p = 0.72 and failure 2/42 (5%) vs. 0/44 (0%) p = 0.24 for digital vs speculum respectively. There was no significant difference found between the two groups for all three primary outcomes. Induction to delivery 30.7 ± 9.4 vs 29.6 ± 11.5 h p = 0.64, Cesarean section 25/60 (64%) vs 28/64 (60%) RR 0.9 95% CI p = 0.7 and maternal satisfaction VNRS score with the birth process 7 [IQR 6-8] vs 7 [7-8] p = 0.97 for digital vs. speculum arms respectively. Other labor, delivery and neonatal secondary outcomes were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Digital and speculum insertion in nulliparas with unripe cervixes had similar insertion performance. As digital insertion required less equipment and consumables, it could be the preferred insertion method for the equally adept and the insertion technique to train towards.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ISRCTN registration number 13804902 on 15 November 2017.
STUDY DESIGN: A randomised trial was performed in a University hospital, Malaysia from June 2020 to May 2021. 281 term nulliparas who were about to start pushing in the second stage of labour were randomised to combined perineal massage and warm compress or perineal massage alone to the perineum. Primary outcome was suturing for perineal injury (episiotomy or tear). The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data, Student t test to compare means and distributions for normally distributed continuous data and Mann Whitney U test for appropriate ordinal data.
RESULTS: Data from 277 participants (140 MassComp arm, 137 perineal massage alone arm) were analysed based on modified intention to treat basis. Perineal suturing rates were 133/140(95.0%) [MassComp] vs. 128/137(93.4%) [perineal massage alone] RR 1.02(95%CI 0.96-1.08), P = 0.615. Of the secondary outcomes, Likert scale response to recommend allocated treatment to a friend was 103/140(73.6%) vs. 84/137(61.3%) RR 1.20(95%CI 1.02-1.42)NNTb 9(95%CI 4.3-76.4) P = 0.029, participants' satisfaction with care (visual numerical rating scale 0-10) median [interquartile range] 6[6-8] vs. 6[5-8] P = 0.392, intervention to delivery intervals were 25[15-35] vs. 19[14-30] minutes P = 0.012, major perineal injury (episiotomy, second degree or higher tears) rates 116/140(82.9%) vs. 119/137(86.9%) RR 0.95(95%CI 0.86-1.05), P = 0.404, episiotomy rates 97/140(69.3%) vs. 97/140(70.8%) RR 0.98(95%CI 0.84-1.14), P = 0.795, and spontaneous vaginal delivery rates 103/140(73.6%) vs. 106/137(77.4%) RR 0.95(95%CI 0.83-1.09), P = 0.488 for MassComp vs. perineal massage alone respectively. Other maternal and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Massage and warm compress during pushing did not decrease the likelihood of perineal injury requiring suturing in nulliparas when compared to perineal massage alone. Women were more likely to recommend massage and warm compress during pushing to a friend.
METHODS: This study was carried out through a desk review of the secondary source of information covering the impact of COVID-19 in Malaysia particularly in the agri-food aspect, and a wide range of strategies and initiatives as the effective measures to overcome the crisis of this pandemic. Online desk research of the government published data and customer desk research were utilized to complete this study. Search engines such as Google Scholar and the statistical data from the official websites including the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) and the Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region (FFTC-AP), were utilized. Keywords such as impact of COVID-19, pandemic, and agri-food supply chain were used to conduct the searches. The articles identified to be related to the study's objective were then downloaded and included in the study. Descriptive methods were used as the primary analysis technique following the descriptive analysis and visual data analysis in performing the sources obtained.
RESULTS: This devastating impact damages the lives by causing 4.3 million confirmed infections and more than 290,000 deaths. This disease presents an unprecedented challenge to the public health. The lockdown restriction under the movement control order (MCO), for more than of the world's population in the year 2020 to control the virus from spreading, has disrupted most of the economic sectors. The agriculture industry was seen as one of the essential industries and allowed to operate under strict standard operating procedures (SOP). Working under strict regulations came with a huge price paid for almost all industries.
CONCLUSION: This pandemic has affected the national agri-food availability and accessibility in Malaysia. This outbreak created a reflection of opportunity for sharing a more flexible approaches in handling emergencies on agricultural food production and supply chains. Therefore, the government should be ready with the roadmap and enforce the measures to control the pandemic without disrupting the agri-food supply chain in the near future.
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