METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all the patients who had undergone colonoscopy at Gastroenterology endoscopy unit, Serdang Hospital from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2016. Patients who had a history of colorectal cancer, polyp or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. Data collected which included patients' demography, indication for colonoscopy, colonoscopy finding, and histopathology results. Data was analysed with SPSS version 16.
RESULTS: Among the 559 patients who had fulfilled the inclusion criteria (68 males, 44 females), 112 patients were found to have at least one polyp giving the polyp detection rate (PDR) of 20% and 168 polypectomies were performed. The PDR among male patients was higher than that of females (22.5% vs 17.1%, p<0.05). The detection rate of polyp was nearly equal in Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Others. The polyps were more common in those of age 40 years old and above (p<0.05), with the mean age of 63.0±1.5 years. The commonest morphology of polyp in our patients was sessile (58%) and majority was medium size (5-9mm). Otherwise, the polyps were commonly found in the distal colon those that in proximal colon (55.3% vs 38.7%, p<0.05). The adenoma detection rate (ADR) was 19.1% (107/559).
CONCLUSION: The detection rate of colonic polyp from colonoscopy is 20% in our centre.
MATERIALS & METHODS: BZD9L1 was tested against metastatic CRC cell lines to evaluate cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis, senescence, apoptosis related genes and protein expressions, as well as effect against major cancer signaling pathways.
RESULTS & CONCLUSION: BZD9L1 reduced the viability, cell migration and colony forming ability of both HCT 116 and HT-29 metastatic CRC cell lines through apoptosis. BZD9L1 regulated major cancer pathways differently in CRC with different mutation profiles. BZD9L1 exhibited anticancer activities as a cytotoxic drug in CRC and as a promising therapeutic strategy in CRC treatment.
Methods: BZD9L1 and 5-FU either as single treatment or in combination were tested against CRC cells to evaluate synergism in cytotoxicity, senescence and formation of micronucleus, cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the regulation of related molecular players. The effects of combined treatments at different doses on stress and apoptosis, migration, invasion and cell death mechanism were evaluated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures. In vivo studies include investigation on the combination effects of BZD9L1 and 5-FU on colorectal tumour xenograft growth and an evaluation of tumour proliferation and apoptosis using immunohistochemistry.
Results: Combination treatments exerted synergistic reduction on cell viability on HCT 116 cells but not on HT-29 cells. Combined treatments reduced survival, induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and micronucleation in HCT 116 cells through modulation of multiple responsible molecular players and apoptosis pathways, with no effect in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Combination treatments regulated SIRT1 and SIRT2 protein expression levels differently and changed SIRT2 protein localization. Combined treatment reduced growth, migration, invasion and viability of HCT 116 spheroids through apoptosis, when compared with the single treatment. In addition, combined treatment was found to reduce tumour growth in vivo through reduction of tumour proliferation and necrosis compared with the vehicle control group. This highlights the potential therapeutic effects of BZD9L1 and 5-FU towards CRC.
Conclusion: This study may pave the way for use of BZD9L1 as an adjuvant to 5-FU in improving the therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.