Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Tan YY, Tan K
    Clin Med (Lond), 2019 Nov;19(6):511-513.
    PMID: 31732595 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2019-0247
    Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is a subset of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. It typically involves the posterior supratentorial structures, but variations do occur. However, isolated brainstem involvement in HE is rare, with a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of acute hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy in which the patient had mild symptoms with very high blood pressure and normal neurological examination. The computed tomography of the brain showed diffuse hypodensity at brainstem. The patient's symptoms improved drastically after hypertension had been controlled. Marked clinical-radiologic dissociation in this particular case was highly suggestive of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Prompt recognition of the condition and aggressive treatment of hypertension in such patients is crucial to relieve oedema and to prevent life-threatening progression. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of awareness among physicians and radiologists regarding this rare clinical entity.
  2. Tan YY, Hesham R, Qodriyah HM
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):53-7.
    PMID: 21265250 MyJurnal
    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer after breast cancer both in Malaysia and worldwide although it can be mostly prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge level and attitude of University Kebangsaan Malaysia female students in the Faculties of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences on the prevention of cervical cancer. A total of 675 respondents were recruited for this cross-sectional study involving pre-tested questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. There was significant association between grade and mean score of knowledge with different faculties and year of education (p<0.05). However, significant association was shown only between grade of knowledge with different programs in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences. For mean score of knowledge, significant difference only existed among different races (p<0.05). Mass media was the most common source of information. In conclusion, the knowledge level of respondents on cervical cancer and its prevention was not satisfactory despite their positive attitude on prevention. Thus, more awareness programs should be conducted in University campuses to provide students with knowledge on prevention of cervical cancer.
  3. Tan YY, Ho TK, Goo CL
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Sep 19.
    PMID: 34541757 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12722
    INTRODUCTION: The computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has revolutionised dentistry at present. An operator's skills can affect the overall clinical duration and marginal accuracy of the prosthesis fabricated through this workflow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CAD/CAM hands-on training compared with that of a self-instructional video on the performance of dental students in digital impression and fabrication of a CAD/CAM crown.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 30 undergraduate dental students were shown a CEREC demonstration video. Each operator then captured a digital impression using the intra-oral scanner, and a crown was subsequently milled. All participants underwent a training course before repeating the process. Marginal discrepancy for each crown on its abutment tooth was measured before and after training using a stereomicroscope and was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The duration taken for the process was recorded before and after training and evaluated using paired t-test.

    RESULTS: The overall mean ±standard deviation marginal adaptation for the CEREC crowns was 78.15 ± 42.83 μm before training and 52.41 ± 17.12 μm after training. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found significant difference (p 

  4. Sim KS, Tso CP, Tan YY, Lim WK
    J Microsc, 2007 Jun;226(Pt 3):230-43.
    PMID: 17535262
    A proposal to assess the quality of scanning electron microscope images using mixed Lagrange time delay estimation technique is presented. With optimal scanning electron microscope scan rate information, online images can be quantified and improved. The online quality assessment technique is embedded onto a scanning electron microscope frame grabber card for real-time image processing. Different images are captured using scanning electron microscope and a database is built to optimally choose filter parameters. An optimum choice of filter parameters is obtained. With the optimum choice of scan rate, noise can be removed from real-time scanning electron microscope images without causing any sample contamination or increasing scanning time.
  5. Selladurai BM, Jayakumar R, Tan YY, Low HC
    Br J Neurosurg, 1992;6(6):549-57.
    PMID: 1472321
    The outcome of 109 patients with severe head injury was studied in relation to clinical and computed tomographic (CT) criteria on admission, after resuscitation. Age, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and state of pupils strongly correlated with outcome. The presence of hypothalamic disturbances, hypoxia and hypotension were associated with an adverse outcome. The CT indicators associated with poor outcome were perimesencephalic cistern (PMC) obliteration, subarachnoid haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and acute subdural haematoma. The prognostic value of midline shift and mass effect were influenced by concomitant presence of diffuse brain injury. For the subset of patients aged < 20 years, with GCS 6-8 and patent PMC (n = 21), 71.4% correct predictions were made for a good outcome. For the subset of patients aged > 20 years, with GCS 3-5 and partial or complete obliteration of PMC (n = 28), 89.3% correct predictions were made for a poor outcome.
  6. Toufeeq Khan TF, Sherazi ZA, Tan YY
    HPB Surg, 1995 Jun;8(3):185-6.
    PMID: 7547622
    This report highlights the association of a tumour in an acalculous gall bladder with an anomalous pancreatico-biliary junction (PBJ) and a type IVa choledochal cyst. Cholecystectomy and Rouxen-Y hepatico-jejunostomy (RHJ) was performed after division of the common bile duct (CBD) and excision of the dilated segment. The details of the case are presented and the role of an abnormal PBJ in gall bladder carcinogenesis is discussed.
  7. Tan YY, Wade JD, Tregear GW, Summers RJ
    Br J Pharmacol, 1999 May;127(1):91-8.
    PMID: 10369460
    The binding characteristics of the relaxin receptor in rat atria, uterus and cortex were studied using a [33P]-labelled human gene 2 relaxin (B33) and quantitative receptor autoradiography. The binding kinetics of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were investigated in slide-mounted rat atrial sections. The binding achieved equilibrium after 60 min incubation at room temperature (23+/-1 degrees C) and dissociated slowly. The association and dissociation rate constants were 4.31+/-0.34x10(8) M(-1) x min(-1) and 1.55+/-0.38x10(-3) min(-1) respectively. Thus, the kinetic dissociation constant was 3.46+/-0.59 pM. Binding was saturable to a single population of non-interacting sites throughout atria, in uterine myometrium and the 5th layer of cerebral cortex. The binding affinities (pK(D)) of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were 8.92+/-0.09 in atrial myocardium and 8.79+/-0.04 in cerebral cortex of male rats, and 8.79+/-0.10 in uterine myometrium. Receptor densities in the cerebral cortex and atria were higher than in uterine myometrium, indicating that relaxin also has important roles in non-reproductive tissues. In male rats, treatment with 17beta-oestradiol (20 microg in 0.1 ml sesame oil s.c., 18-24 h) significantly decreased the density of relaxin receptors in atria and cerebral cortex. Identical treatment in female rats had no significant effect in atria and cerebral cortex, but it significantly increased the density of relaxin receptors in uterine myometrium. Relaxin binding was competitively displaced by porcine and rat native relaxins. Porcine native relaxin binds to the relaxin receptor in male rat atria (8.90+/-0.02), and cerebral cortex (8.90+/-0.03) and uterine myometrium (8.89+/-0.03) with affinities not significantly different from human gene 2 (B33) relaxin. Nevertheless, rat relaxin binds to the receptors with affinities (8.35+/-0.09 in atria, 8.22+/-0.07 in cerebral cortex and 8.48+/-0.06 in uterine myometrium) significantly less than human gene 2 (B33) and porcine relaxins. Quantitative receptor autoradiography is the method of choice for measurement of affinities and densities of relaxin receptor in atria, uterine myometrium and cerebral cortex. High densities were found in all these tissues. 17beta-oestradiol treatment produced complex effects where it increased the densities of relaxin receptors in uterus but decreased those in atria and cerebral cortex of the male rats, and had no effect on the atria and cerebral cortex of the female rats.
  8. Tan YY, Wade JD, Tregear GW, Summers RJ
    Br J Pharmacol, 1998 Feb;123(4):762-70.
    PMID: 9517397
    1. The receptors for relaxin in the rat atria and uterus were investigated and compared by use of a series of synthetic and native relaxin analogues. The assays used were the positive chronotropic and inotropic effects in rat spontaneously beating, isolated right atrium and electrically driven left atrium and the relaxation of K+ precontracted uterine smooth muscle. 2. Relaxin analogues with an intact A- and B-chain were active in producing powerful chronotropic and inotropic effects in the rat isolated atria at nanomolar concentrations. Single-chain analogues and structural homologues of relaxin such as human insulin and sheep insulin-like growth factor I had no agonist action and did not antagonize the effect of the B29 form of human gene 2 relaxin. 3. Shortening the B-chain carboxyl terminal of human gene 1 (B2-29) relaxin to B2-26 reduced the activity of the peptide and removal of another 2 amino acid residues (B2-24) abolished the activity. This suggests that the B-chain length may be important for determination of the activity of relaxin. More detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of progressive amino acid removal on the structure and the bioactivity of relaxin. 4. Porcine prorelaxin was as active as porcine relaxin on a molar basis, suggesting that the presence of the intact C-peptide did not affect the binding of the prorelaxin to the receptor to produce functional responses. 5. Relaxin caused relaxation of uterine longitudinal and circular smooth muscle precontracted with 40 mM K+. The pEC50 values for human gene 2 and porcine relaxins were lower than those in the atrial assay, but rat relaxin had similar pEC50 values in both atrial and uterine assays. Rat relaxin was significantly less potent than either human gene 2 or porcine relaxin in the atrial assay, but in the uterine assay they were equipotent. The results suggest that the relaxin receptor or the signalling pathway in rat atria may differ from that in the uterus.
  9. Loh CY, Tan YY, Rohani R, Weber JF, Bhore SJ
    J Young Pharm, 2013 Sep;5(3):95-7.
    PMID: 24396249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jyp.2013.07.001
    Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications.
  10. Sim KS, Tan YY, Lai MA, Tso CP, Lim WK
    J Microsc, 2010 Apr 1;238(1):44-56.
    PMID: 20384837 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03328.x
    An exponential contrast stretching (ECS) technique is developed to reduce the charging effects on scanning electron microscope images. Compared to some of the conventional histogram equalization methods, such as bi-histogram equalization and recursive mean-separate histogram equalization, the proposed ECS method yields better image compensation. Diode sample chips with insulating and conductive surfaces are used as test samples to evaluate the efficiency of the developed algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in software with a frame grabber card, forming the front-end video capture element.
  11. Selladurai BM, Sherazi ZA, Nair RC, Tan YY, Khadar MA
    J Clin Neurosci, 1995 Jul;2(3):216-23.
    PMID: 18638817
    A study of clinical, computerised tomography (CT) profile and outcome was made of 128 patients, diagnosed to have diffuse axonal injury based on CT criteria. The mean age was 26 years. A lucid interval was present in 37 patients and hypoxia and/or hypotension was present in 43 patients. The depth of "marker lesions" in CT correlated with Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) (p<0.02) and duration of coma (p<0.01). The presence of associated intracranial haematoma >25 ml portended an adverse outcome. A logistic regression analysis revealed age, GCS, state of perimesencephalic cisterns and pupillary dilation to be independent predictors of poor outcome. Residual sequelae (focal deficits, cognitive deficits, postconcussion syndrome) were evident in nearly half of patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and a lucid interval.
  12. Chew BH, Palikat JM, Nur Syamimi A, Nor Azillah A, See JK, Hafiz AR, et al.
    Adequate and proper diabetes care in any practice is paramount and deems to be the fundamental requirement for good diabetes control. This is an audit of type 2 diabetes care process in a public Polyclinic, with the objectives of studying the quality of diabetic care provided in terms of clinical and managerial performance and also to give recommendations on improving its diabetes care delivery. The audit was done on patients' medical records selected via systematic random sampling. Patients who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 2 years, and those who have come for follow-up at least twice in between 1st October 2008 and 30th September 2009 by the medical officer and/or family medicine specialist. Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and Type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. A total of 100 medical records were audited. 51% were female and 82% were in the 40-69 age group. Measurements of blood glucose and blood pressure were done at each follow-up at the polyclinic at 96% and 93% of the times, respectively. Within the past one year, HbA1c was performed in 46% of the patients, while renal profile was screened in 66% of the patients and urine protein was tested in 59% of the diabetics. Only 15% had their eyes screened by fundus camera. The diabetes care process at this public polyclinic was unsatisfactory, as many annual blood tests were not done and complications screening were also omitted. Thus, an urgent intervention is recommend in order to rectify these inadequacies.
  13. Tang ASO, Wong QY, Tan YY, Chieng CH, Ko CT, Ong GB, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 Jan;76(1):51-55.
    PMID: 33510109
    INTRODUCTION: Sarawak has a population that is geographically and characteristically widely varied. This study aimed to determine the demographic profile of patients in Sarawak, Malaysia. Materials and Methods - A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 at four major haemophilia treatment centres in Kuching, Sibu, Bintulu and Miri Hospitals, Sarawak. Demographic and clinical data were collected with consents from patients.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Ninety-six haemophilia patients were identified - 79(82.3%) haemophilia A(HA) and 17(17.7%) haemophilia B(HB). Severe haemophilia patients were noted in 45.6% (36/79) of HA and 64.7% (11/17) of HB. In all 44.3% of the HA and 52.9% of the HB population had no identifiable family history of haemophilia. Two-thirds of the patients with severe HA were on prophylaxis [24/36 (66.7%)] and only onethird [4/11 (36.4%)] in severe HB. Inhibitors developed in 9/79 (11.4%) of the HA population [3/79 (3.8%) high responders]. The median inhibitor titre was not significantly different between the different treatment groups - on demand versus prophylaxis (1.0BU versus 2.0BU; z statistic -1.043, p-value 0.297, Mann-Whitney test). None of the patients developed inhibitory alloantibodies to factor IX. Four HA patients (5.1%) underwent immune tolerance induction where one case had a successful outcome. Three severe HA patients received emicizumab prophylaxis and showed remarkable reduction in bleeding events with no thromboembolic events being reported. One female moderate HA patient received PEGylated recombinant anti-haemophilic factor. Eleven patients underwent radiosynovectomy. One mild HB patient succumbed to traumatic intracranial bleeding. Our data reported a prevalence (per 100,000 males) of 5.40 cases for all severities of HA, 2.46 cases for severe HA; 1.16 cases for all severities of HB, and 0.75 cases for severe HB. The overall incidence of HA and HB was 1 in 11,500 and 1 in 46,000, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study outlines the Sarawakian haemophilia landscape and offers objective standards for forward planning. Shared responsibilities among all parties are of utmost importance to improve the care of our haemophilia population.

  14. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

  15. Tang WH, Alip A, Saad M, Phua VC, Chandran H, Tan YH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(5):1901-6.
    PMID: 25773842
    BACKGROUND: Brain metastases occur in about 20-40% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and are usually associated with a poor outcome. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is widely used but increasingly, more aggressive local treatments such as surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are being employed. In our study we aimed to describe the various factors affecting outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving local therapy for brain metastases.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case records of 125 patients with NSCLC and brain metastases consecutively treated with radiotherapy at two tertiary centres from January 2006 to June 2012 were analysed for patient, tumour and treatment-related prognostic factors. Patients receiving SRS/SRT were treated using Cyberknife. Variables were examined in univariate and multivariate testing.

    RESULTS: Overall median survival was 3.4 months (95%CI: 1.7-5.1). Median survival for patients with multiple metastases receiving WBRT was 1.5 months, 1-3 metastases receiving WBRT was 3.6 months and 1-3 metastases receiving surgery or SRS/SRT was 8.9 months. ECOG score (≤2 vs >2, p=0.001), presence of seizure (yes versus no, p=0.031), treatment modality according to number of brain metastases (1-3 metastases+surgery or SRS/SRT±WBRT vs 1-3 metastases+WBRT only vs multiple metastases+WBRT only, p=0.007) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment (yes versus no, p=0.001) emerged as significant on univariate analysis. All four factors remained statistically significant on multivariate analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: ECOG ≤2, presence of seizures, oligometastatic disease treated with aggressive local therapy (surgery or SRS/SRT) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment are favourable prognostic factors in NSCLC patients with brain metastases.

  16. Tan YY, Yap PK, Xin Lim GL, Mehta M, Chan Y, Ng SW, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2020 Sep 25;329:109221.
    PMID: 32768398 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2020.109221
    Cancer continues to be one of the most challenging diseases to be treated and is one of the leading causes of deaths around the globe. Cancers account for 13% of all deaths each year, with cancer-related mortality expected to rise to 13.1 million by the year 2030. Although, we now have a large library of chemotherapeutic agents, the problem of non-selectivity remains the biggest drawback, as these substances are toxic not only to cancerous cells, but also to other healthy cells in the body. The limitations with chemotherapy and radiation have led to the discovery and development of novel strategies for safe and effective treatment strategies to manage the menace of cancer. Researchers have long justified and have shed light on the emergence of nanotechnology as a potential area for cancer therapy and diagnostics, whereby, nanomaterials are used primarily as nanocarriers or as delivery agents for anticancer drugs due to their tumor targeting properties. Furthermore, nanocarriers loaded with chemotherapeutic agents also overcome biological barriers such as renal and hepatic clearances, thus improving therapeutic efficacy with lowered morbidity. Theranostics, which is the combination of rationally designed nanomaterials with cancer-targeting moieties, along with protective polymers and imaging agents has become one of the core keywords in cancer research. In this review, we have highlighted the potential of various nanomaterials for their application in cancer therapy and imaging, including their current state and clinical prospects. Theranostics has successfully paved a path to a new era of drug design and development, in which nanomaterials and imaging contribute to a large variety of cancer therapies and provide a promising future in the effective management of various cancers. However, in order to meet the therapeutic needs, theranostic nanomaterials must be designed in such a way, that take into account the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the drug for the development of effective carcinogenic therapy.
  17. Mohan A, Podin Y, Liew DW, Mahendra Kumar J, Lau PS, Tan YY, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2021 Oct 15;21(1):1069.
    PMID: 34654392 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-021-06754-9
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Although head and neck involvement is common in children, specific disease manifestations differ between geographic regions. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of melioidosis of the head and neck among children in Sarawak, Malaysia, and determine if fine-needle aspiration of suspected head or neck lesions could improve melioidosis diagnosis.

    METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all children aged

  18. Silvestri V, Leslie G, Barnes DR, CIMBA Group, Agnarsson BA, Aittomäki K, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2020 08 01;6(8):1218-1230.
    PMID: 32614418 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2134
    Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population.

    Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview.

    Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P 

  19. Lakeman IMM, van den Broek AJ, Vos JAM, Barnes DR, Adlard J, Andrulis IL, et al.
    Genet Med, 2021 09;23(9):1726-1737.
    PMID: 34113011 DOI: 10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

    METHODS: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS313 and CBC risk.

    RESULTS: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS313 showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS313, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC 

  20. Lecarpentier J, Silvestri V, Kuchenbaecker KB, Barrowdale D, Dennis J, McGuffog L, et al.
    J Clin Oncol, 2017 Jul 10;35(20):2240-2250.
    PMID: 28448241 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2016.69.4935
    Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.
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