Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Tee TT, Azimahtol HL
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13.
    PMID: 16158965
    Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
  2. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Hawariah LP
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30.
    PMID: 17970090
    F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
  3. Bee ST, Nithiyaa M, Sin LT, Tee TT, Rahmat AR
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Oct 15;16(20):1104-12.
    PMID: 24506009
    This study was aimed to investigate the production of methane gas from three different types of food waste (vegetables waste, fruit waste and grain waste) using batch type anaerobic digestion method. The digestion process was conducted by using temperature range of 27 to 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 to yield an optimum condition for the digestion process. The digestion was continued for a period of two weeks with the aid of cow dung as the inoculums. It was found that the grain waste yielded the highest methane 2546 mL due to the high content of carbohydrate. At the mean time, the fruit waste produced the second highest methane gas with 2000 mL as well as the vegetable waste generated the lowest methane gas with volume of 1468 mL. The vegetable waste produced the lowest methane gas because the vegetables waste contains high fibres and cellulose walls but low in glucose amount. For the fertilization test, fruit waste demonstrated the best observation for the growth of plant due to high content of potassium and followed by vegetable waste. The least effective fertilizer was grain waste due to less content of nutrients essential for plants growth.
  4. Sin LT, Bee ST, Tee TT, Kadhum AA, Ma C, Rahmat AR, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2013 Nov 6;98(2):1281-7.
    PMID: 24053804 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.069
    In this study, the interactions of α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in PVOH-starch blends were investigated. α-TOH is an interacting agent possesses a unique molecule of polar chroman "head" and non-polar phytyl "tail" which can improve surface interaction of PVOH and starch. It showed favorable results when blending PVOH-starch with α-TOH, where the highest tensile strengths were achieved at 60 wt.% PVOH-starch blend for 1 phr α-TOH and 50 wt.% for 3 phr α-TOH, respectively. This due to the formation of miscible PVOH-starch as resulted by the compatibilizing effect of α-TOH. Moreover, the enthalpy of melting (ΔHm) of 60 wt.% PVOH-starch and 50 wt.% PVOH-starch added with 1 and 3 phr α-TOH respectively were higher than ΔHm of the neat PVOH-starch blends. The thermogravimetry analysis also showed that α-TOH can be used as thermal stabilizer to reduce weight losses at elevated temperature. The surface morphologies of the compatible blends formed large portion of continuous phase where the starch granules interacted well with α-TOH by acting as compatilizer to reduce surface energy of starch for embedment into PVOH matrix.
  5. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Meenakshii N, Mohd Sharom MY, Azimahtol Hawariah LP
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2012 Apr 20;420(4):834-8.
    PMID: 22465013 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.03.083
    Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.
  6. Cheah YH, Nordin FJ, Tee TT, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z
    Anticancer Res, 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89.
    PMID: 19189649
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
  7. Chai CS, Kho SS, Chan SK, Tee TT, Tie ST
    Clin Med (Lond), 2021 01;21(1):e114-e115.
    PMID: 33479093 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0913
    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) involves injection of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement into vertebral body for relief of pain and strengthening of bone in symptomatic vertebral compression fractures.Passage of bone cement into vertebral venous plexus and then into the lungs is a rare and serious complication of PV. The reported incidence up to 26%.We present an incidental finding of pulmonary cement embolism (PCE) after PV. A 68-year-old woman with history of PV 3 years previously for T11 osteoporotic fracture presented to us with cough for 3 weeks following choking on a fish bone.Chest X-ray showed left lower zone consolidation and a high-density opacity in a tubular branching pattern, corresponding to pulmonary arterial distribution. Contrasted computed tomography of the thorax showed segmental pulmonary cement embolism of both lungs and left lower lobe consolidation.She underwent bronchoscopy with findings of a purulent secretion from the left lower lobe. Her symptoms resolved after 2 weeks of antibiotics. She was managed conservatively for the PCE as she remained asymptomatic.This case highlights the need for a standard post-PV chest X-ray, as patients with cement embolisms can be completely asymptomatic. Measures to minimise the risk of pulmonary cement embolisms during PV need to be taken.
  8. Oon SF, Nallappan M, Kassim NK, Shohaimi S, Sa'ariwijaya MS, Tee TT, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016 09 23;478(3):1403-8.
    PMID: 27576204 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.08.136
    Hyperlipidemia is defined as the presence of either hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia, which could cause atherosclerosis. Although hyperlipidemia can be treated by hypolipidemic drugs, they are limited due to lack of effectiveness and safety. Previous studies demonstrated that xanthorrhizol (XNT) isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb. reduced the levels of free fatty acid and triglyceride in vivo. However, its ability to inhibit cholesterol uptake in HT29 colon cells and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells are yet to be reported. In this study, XNT purified from centrifugal TLC demonstrated 98.3% purity, indicating it could be an alternative purification method. The IC50 values of XNT were 30.81 ± 0.78 μg/mL in HT29 cells and 35.07 ± 0.24 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Cholesterol uptake inhibition study using HT29 colon cells showed that XNT (15 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD uptake by up to 27 ± 3.1% relative to control. On the other hand, higher concentration of XNT (50 μg/mL) significantly suppressed the growth of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (5.9 ± 0.58%) compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (81.31 ± 0.55%). XNT was found to impede adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/mL, where 12.5 μg/mL significantly suppressed 36.13 ± 2.1% of lipid accumulation. We postulate that inhibition of cholesterol uptake, adipogenesis, preadipocyte and adipocyte number may be utilized as treatment modalities to reduce the prevalence of lipidemia. To conclude, XNT could be a potential hypolipidemic agent to improve cardiovascular health in the future.
  9. Perumal N, Nallappan M, Shohaimi S, Kassim NK, Tee TT, Cheah YH
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2022 Jan;145:112401.
    PMID: 34785415 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112401
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus accounts for 90% of most diabetes cases. Many commercial drugs used to treat this disease come with adverse side effects and eventually fail to restore glucose homeostasis. Therefore, an effective, economical and safe antidiabetic remedy from dietary source is considered. Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg and Momordica charantia L. were chosen since both are used for centuries as traditional medicine to treat various ailments and diseases. In this study, the antidiabetic properties of a polyherbal combination of T. officinale and M. charantia ethanol extracts are evaluated. The bioactive solvent extracts of the samples selected from in vitro antidiabetic assays; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition, and glucose-uptake in L6 muscle cells were combined (1:1) to form the polyherbal combination. The antidiabetic efficacy of polyherbal combination was evaluated employing the above stated in vitro antidiabetic assays and in vivo oral glucose tolerance test and streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rat model. A quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LCMS) analysis was done to identify active compounds. The polyherbal combination exerted improved antidiabetic properties; increased DPP-4, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibition. The polyherbal combination tested in vivo on diabetic rats showed optimum blood glucose-lowering activity comparable to that of Glibenclamide and Metformin. This study confirms the polyherbal combination of T. officinale and M. charantia to be rich in various bioactive compounds, which exhibited antidiabetic properties. Therefore, this polyherbal combination has the potential to be further developed as complex phytotherapeutic remedy for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
  10. Oon SF, Nallappan M, Tee TT, Shohaimi S, Kassim NK, Sa'ariwijaya MS, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int, 2015;15:100.
    PMID: 26500452 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-015-0255-4
    Xanthorrhizol (XNT) is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. It has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.
  11. Cheah YH, Nordin FJ, Sarip R, Tee TT, Azimahtol HL, Sirat HM, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int, 2009;9:1.
    PMID: 19118501 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-9-1
    It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study.
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