DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study.
SUBJECTS: Adults aged > 50 years were recruited from the third examination of the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study.
METHODS: All participants underwent a standardized comprehensive examination and spectral-domain OCTA (Optovue) of the macula. OCT angiography scans that revealed pre-existing retinal disease, revealed macular pathology, and had poor quality were excluded.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The normative quantitative vessel densities of the superficial layer, deep layer, and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were evaluated. Ocular and systemic associations with macular retinal vasculature parameters were also evaluated in a multivariable analysis using linear regression models with generalized estimating equation models.
RESULTS: We included 1184 scans (1184 eyes) of 749 participants. The mean macular superficial vessel density (SVD) and deep vessel density (DVD) were 45.1 ± 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8%-51.4%) and 44.4 ± 5.2% (95% CI, 36.9%-53.2%), respectively. The mean SVD and DVD were highest in the superior quadrant (48.7 ± 5.9%) and nasal quadrant (52.7 ± 4.6%), respectively. The mean FAZ area and perimeter were 0.32 ± 0.11 mm2 (95% CI, 0.17-0.51 mm) and 2.14 ± 0.38 mm (95% CI, 1.54-2.75 mm), respectively. In the multivariable regression analysis, female sex was associated with higher SVD (β = 1.25, P ≤ 0.001) and DVD (β = 0.75, P = 0.021). Older age (β = -0.67, P < 0.001) was associated with lower SVD, whereas longer axial length (β = -0.42, P = 0.003) was associated with lower DVD. Female sex, shorter axial length, and worse best-corrected distance visual acuity were associated with a larger FAZ area. No association of a range of systemic parameters with vessel density was found.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provided normative macular vasculature parameters in an adult Asian population, which may serve as reference values for quantitative interpretation of OCTA data in normal and disease states.