Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Nasim Karim Hosseini, Jose, Shinsmon, Vidyadaran, S., Syafinaz Amin Nordin
    Introduction: Production of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the main responses elicited by a variety of
    immune cells such as macrophages (e.g. microglia, resident macrophages of brain), during inflammation. Evaluation of NO levels in the inflammatory milieu is considered important to the understanding of the intensity of an immune response; and has been performed using different methods including the Griess assay. To assay NO in culture, an appropriate number of cells are stimulated into an inflammatory phenotype. Common stimuli include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IFN-γ and TNF-α. However, overt stimulation could cause cell cytotoxicity therefore an ideal concentration of LPS should be used. Objective: To set-up a model of BV-2 cell activation that allows the assay of detectable levels of NO. Optimization of BV-2 microglia cell density and LPS concentrations after stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the Griess assay is demonstrated in this study. Methods: BV-2 microglia were cultured at different cell densities, and treated with LPS at three concentrations (1, 5, 10 μg/ml). NO production in culture supernatants were then measured at 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Moreover, methyl tetrazolium assay (MTT) was also performed to ensure that NO measurement is performed at no-cytotoxic concentrations of LPS. Results and Conclusions: NO production follows a temporal pattern. The density of 25000 cells/ well was the ideal seeding density for NO evaluation in BV-2 cells. BV-2 stimulation by LPS is dose dependent, and NO levels are increased proportional to the LPS concentration up to 1.0μg/ml, whereas the higher LPS concentrations are associated with decreased cell viability may be caused by the high toxic levels of LPS or NO. Although Griess assay has been commonly used by the scientists, however, optimization of its parameters on BV-2 cells will be useful for the experiments which will be performed on this particular cell line. The optimized pattern of Griess assay on BV-2 cells was achieved in this study, hence easier and more practical for the future scientists to perform Griess assay on BV-2 cells.
  2. Maqbool M, Vidyadaran S, George E, Ramasamy R
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):296-9.
    PMID: 22299545 MyJurnal
    Functional analysis of neutrophils requires isolation of these cells in the laboratory. Current isolation procedures are time consuming and can potentially activate the resting neutrophils. Thus, in this present study, we have optimised an existing laboratory protocol for human neutrophil isolation from peripheral blood. Twenty ml of blood samples were subjected to optimised density gradient separation and dextran sedimentation to obtain a pure population of neutrophils. The efficacy of the optimised manual post isolation of neutrophils was compared with pre isolation count performed by an automated haematology analyzer. The recovery of neutrophils via our optimised methods was 65.5% in comparison with neutrophils counts at pre-isolation. The morphological analysis of isolated neutrophils indicated the purity level more than 95% using Leishman staining. Our optimised laboratory procedures for neutrophils isolation successfully harvested neutrophils with good viability, purity and post recovery yield. This procedure provides an ideal platform to separate neutrophils for in vitro studies.
  3. Tong CK, Vidyadaran S
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2016 Sep;241(15):1669-75.
    PMID: 27555616 DOI: 10.1177/1535370216664430
    Microglia begin colonizing the developing brain as early as embryonic day 9, prior to the emergence of neurons and other glia. Their ontogeny is also distinct from other central nervous system cells, as they derive from yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors and not neural progenitors. In this review, we feature these unique characteristics of microglia and assess the spatiotemporal similarities between microglia colonization of the central nervous system and embryonic neurogenesis. We also infer to existing evidence for microglia function from embryonic through to postnatal neurodevelopment to postulate roles for microglia in neurogenesis.
  4. Ramasamy, R., Krishna, K., Maqbool, M., Vellasamy, S., Sarmadi, V. H., Abdullah, M., et al.
    Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, non-haematopoietic stem cells that are
    capable of differentiating into different varieties of mature cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myoblasts. There is abundant evidence showing that MSC not only affect the differentiation of haematopoietic progenitors, but also the function of mature cells like lymphocytes and neutrophils. However the effect of MSC on neutrophil function and its responses is not well studied. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effect of MSC on neutrophil nitric oxide production. Method: Neutrophils from heparanised venous blood were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation followed by Dextran sedimentation and red blood cell (RBC) lysis. Isolated neutrophils were on average of 97% purity as determined by morphologic analysis. MSC were generated from human bone marrow and characterised by immunophenotyping (monoclonal antibodies CD105, CD73 and CD34) using a flowcytometer. In order to test the effects of MSC on neutrophil function, isolated neutrophils were co-cultured in the presence or absence of MSC at different ratios for 24 and 48 hours. The amount of nitric oxide released was used as an indication of oxidative burst and measured using the Griess assay. Result: The results indicate that MSC neither elevate the NO level when cocultured with resting neutrophils nor alone. However MSC profoundly inhibit the secretion of nitric oxide in PMA stimulated neutrophils after 24hr of incubation. Conclusion: MSC exert an immunomodulatory effect on neutrophil by suppressing neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro.
  5. Ooi YY, Ramasamy R, Vidyadaran S
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:65-6.
    PMID: 19024986
    Classically, MSC are identified by a CD45-CD106+ phenotype. In this study, we found that mouse MSC achieve this characteristic phenotype only at later passages. With increasing passages, CD45 (hematopoietic marker) expression shifts to negativity, whereas CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) expression becomes increasingly positive. These results demonstrate that MSC cells cultured from mouse bone marrow acquire a classical MSC immunophenotype (CD45-CD106+) in later passages.
  6. Maqbool M, Vidyadaran S, George E, Ramasamy R
    Cell Biol Int, 2011 Dec;35(12):1247-51.
    PMID: 21649586 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110070
    We have previously shown that human MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) inhibit the proliferation of most of the immune cells. However, there are innate immune cells such as neutrophils and other PMN (polymorphonuclear) cells that do not require an extensive proliferation prior to their effector function. In this study, the effect of MSC on neutrophils in the presence of complete and serum-deprived culture media was investigated. In the presence of MSC, the viability of neutrophils increase as measured in 24 h of incubation at various supplementation of serum concentration. We have utilized Annexin V and PI (propidium iodide) staining to confirm whether the enhancement of neutrophil's viability is due to a reduction in PCD (programmed cell death). MSC significantly rescue neutrophils from apoptosis at 1, 5 and 10% of FBS (fetal bovine serum) supplementation. The fractions of viable and dead cells were increased and decreased respectively in the presence of MSC. Our results indicate MSC rescue neutrophils from nutrient- or serum-deprived cell death. However, whether this effect is exerted through a specific signalling pathway or confining neutrophils in resting state by MSC requires further investigation.
  7. Jose S, Tan SW, Ooi YY, Ramasamy R, Vidyadaran S
    J Neuroinflammation, 2014;11:149.
    PMID: 25182840 DOI: 10.1186/s12974-014-0149-8
    Progression of neurodegenerative diseases occurs when microglia, upon persistent activation, perpetuate a cycle of damage in the central nervous system. Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has been suggested as an approach to manage microglia activation based on their immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, we describe the mechanism through which bone marrow-derived MSC modulate the proliferative responses of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia.
  8. Vellasamy S, Sandrasaigaran P, Vidyadaran S, George E, Ramasamy R
    World J Stem Cells, 2012 Jun 26;4(6):53-61.
    PMID: 22993662
    To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).
  9. Tan SW, Ramasamy R, Abdullah M, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Immunol, 2011;271(2):205-9.
    PMID: 21839427 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.07.012
    Anti-inflammatory actions of the vitamin E fragment tocotrienol have not been described for microglia. Here, we screened palm α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol isoforms and Tocomin® 50% (contains spectrum of tocotrienols and tocopherols) for their ability to limit nitric oxide (NO) production by BV2 microglia. Microglia were treated with varying doses of tocotrienols for 24h and stimulated with 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All tocotrienol isoforms reduced NO release by LPS-stimulated microglia, with 50 μM being the most potent tocotrienol dose. Of the isoforms tested, δ-tocotrienol lowered NO levels the most, reducing NO by approximately 50% at 48 h post-LPS treatment (p
  10. Sarmadi VH, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S, Abdullah M, Seow HF, Ramasamy R
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):209-14.
    PMID: 21939170
    We have previously shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) inhibit tumour cell proliferation, thus promising a novel therapy for treating cancers. In this study, MSC were generated from human bone marrow samples and characterised based on standard immunophenotyping. When MSC were co-cultured with BV173 and Jurkat tumour cells, the proliferation of tumour cells were profoundly inhibited in a dose dependent manner mainly via cell to cell contact interaction. Further cell cycle analysis reveals that MSC arrest tumour cell proliferation in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle thus preventing the entry of tumour cells into S phase of cell cycle.
  11. Ramasamy R, Tong CK, Seow HF, Vidyadaran S, Dazzi F
    Cell Immunol, 2008 Feb;251(2):131-6.
    PMID: 18502411 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2008.04.009
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are non-haematopoietic stem cells that are capable of differentiating into tissues of mesodermal origin. MSC play an important role in supporting the development of fetal and adult haematopoiesis. More recently, MSC have also been found to exhibit inhibitory effect on T cell responses. However, there is little information on the mechanism of this immunosuppression and our study addresses this issue by targeting T cell functions at various level of immune responses. We have generated MSC from human adult bone marrow (BM) and investigated their immunoregulatory function at different phases of T cell responses. MSC showed the ability to inhibit mitogen (CD3/CD28 microbeads)-activated T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In order to evaluate the specificity of this immunosuppression, the proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were measured. MSC equally inhibit CD4(+) and CD8(+) subpopulations of T cells in response to PHA stimulation. However, the antiproliferative effect of MSC is not due to the inhibition of T cell activation. The expression of early activation markers of T cells, namely CD25 and CD69 were not significantly altered by MSC at 24, 48 and 72h. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive effect of MSC mainly targets T cell proliferation rather than their effector function since cytotoxicity of T cells is not affected. This work demonstrates that the immunosuppressive effect of MSC is exclusively a consequence of an anti-proliferative activity, which targets T cells of different subpopulations. For this reason, they have the potential to be exploited in the control of unwanted immune responses such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity.
  12. Ooi YY, Rahmat Z, Jose S, Ramasamy R, Vidyadaran S
    World J Stem Cells, 2013 Jan 26;5(1):34-42.
    PMID: 23362438 DOI: 10.4252/wjsc.v5.i1.34
    To assess the capacity to isolate and expand mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow of CBA/Ca, ICR and Balb/c mice.
  13. Abedi Z, Khaza'ai H, Vidyadaran S, Mutalib MSA
    Biomedicines, 2017 Dec 01;5(4).
    PMID: 29194360 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines5040068
    Astrocytes are known as structural and supporting cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate, as a main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, can be excitotoxic, playing a key role in many chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the potential of vitamin E in protecting glutamate-injured primary astrocytes. Hence, primary astrocytes were isolated from mixed glial cells of C57BL/6 mice by applying the EasySep® Mouse CD11b Positive Selection Kit, cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and supplemented with special nutrients. The IC20 and IC50 values of glutamate, as well as the cell viability of primary astrocytes, were assessed with 100 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 300 ng/mL of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP), as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) detected in primary astrocytes was assessed with the same concentrations of TRF and α-TCP. The expression levels of the ionotropic glutamate receptor genes (Gria2, Grin2A, GRIK1) were independently determined using RT-PCR. The purification rate of astrocytes was measured by a flow-cytometer as circa 79.4%. The IC20 and IC50 values of glutamate were determined as 10 mM and 100 mM, respectively. Exposure to 100 mM of glutamate in primary astrocytes caused the inhibition of cell viability of approximately 64.75% and 61.10% in pre- and post-study, respectively (p < 0.05). Both TRF and α-TCP (at the lowest and highest concentrations, respectively) were able to increase the MMP to 88.46% and 93.31% pre-treatment, and 78.43% and 81.22% post-treatment, respectively. Additionally, the findings showed a similar pattern for the expression level of the ionotropic glutamate receptor genes. Increased extracellular calcium concentrations were also observed, indicating that the presence of vitamin E altered the polarization of astrocytes. In conclusion, α-TCP showed better recovery and prophylactic effects as compared to TRF in the pre-treatment of glutamate-injured primary astrocytes.
  14. Wang H, Vidyadaran S, Mohd Moklas MA, Baharuldin MTH
    PMID: 29358962 DOI: 10.1155/2017/2623163
    Objective: To explore the effect of Ficus deltoidea (FD) aqueous extracts on the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the expression of CD40, and the morphology of microglial cells in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated BV2 cells.

    Methods: The cytotoxicity of FD extract was assessed by MTS solution. BV2 cells were divided into 5 experimental groups, intervened, respectively, by FD (4 mg/mL) and LPS + FD (0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL). Besides, a blank control group was set up without any intervention. TNF-α release was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of CD40 was examined by flow cytometry. Immunocytochemical staining was used to show the morphology of BV2 cells.

    Results: FD extract of different concentrations (1, 2, and 4 mg/mL) had no significant toxic effects on the BV2 cells. FD suppressed the activation of microglia in morphology and reduced TNF-α production and expression of CD40 induced by LPS.

    Conclusion: FD extract has a therapeutic potential against neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. Ismail EN, Jantan I, Vidyadaran S, Jamal JA, Azmi N
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2020 Jul 01;20(1):202.
    PMID: 32611404 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-02961-0
    BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral inflammation but similar studies in the central nervous system are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus (EPA) in LPS-activated BV2 microglial cells.

    METHODS: BV2 microglial cells c for 24 h, pre-treated with EPA for 24 h prior to LPS induction for another 24 h. Surface expression of CD11b and CD40 on BV2 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. ELISA was employed to measure the production of pro-inflammatory mediators i.e. nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Western blotting technique was used to determine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MYD88), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), caspase-1, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK).

    RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the EPA using a validated ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method indicated the presence of phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, ellagic acid, corilagin, gallic acid, phyltetralin, isolintetralin and geraniin. EPA suppressed the production of NO and TNFα in LPS-activated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, EPA attenuated the expression of MyD88, NF-κB and MAPK (p-P38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2). It also inhibited the expression of CD11b and CD40. EPA protected against LPS-induced microglial activation via MyD88 and NF-κB signaling in BV2 microglial cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: EPA demonstrated neuroprotective effects against LPS-induced microglial cells activation through the inhibition of TNFα secretion, iNOS protein expression and subsequent NO production, inhibition of NF-κB and MAPKs mediated by adapter protein MyD88 and inhibition of microglial activation markers CD11b and CD40.

  16. Lye KL, Nordin N, Vidyadaran S, Thilakavathy K
    Cell Biol Int, 2016 Jun;40(6):610-8.
    PMID: 26992453 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10603
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have garnered vast interests in clinical settings, especially in regenerative medicine due to their unique properties-they are reliably isolated and expanded from various tissue sources; they are able to differentiate into mesodermal tissues such as bones, cartilages, adipose tissues, and muscles; and they have unique immunosuppressive properties. However, there are some concerns pertaining to the role of MSCs in the human body. On one hand, they are crucial component in the regeneration and repair of the human body. On the contrary, they are shown to transform into sarcomas. Although the exact mechanisms are still unknown, many new leads have pointed to the belief that MSCs do play a role in sarcomagenesis. This review focuses on the current updates and findings of the role of MSCs in their transformation process into sarcomas.
  17. Jose S, Tan SW, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Biol Int, 2015 Dec;39(12):1355-63.
    PMID: 26194799 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10516
    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
  18. Omar Zaki SS, Kanesan L, Leong MYD, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Biol Int, 2019 Oct;43(10):1201-1204.
    PMID: 30811086 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.11122
    Our work cautions against the use of serum-supplemented culture media in a transwell migration assay when using chemoattractants other than FBS. At 24 h, a 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) gradient caused BV2 microglia to migrate toward the lower compartment of the transwell apparatus. Interestingly, FBS-supplemented media in the absence of a gradient also resulted in notable microglia migration. Serum can therefore confound the interpretation of a transwell migration assay when another chemoattractant is used.
  19. Liy PM, Puzi NNA, Jose S, Vidyadaran S
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2021 11;246(22):2399-2406.
    PMID: 33715528 DOI: 10.1177/1535370221997052
    Nitric oxide is a versatile mediator formed by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases. It has numerous homeostatic functions and important roles in inflammation. Within the inflamed brain, microglia and astrocytes produce large amounts of nitric oxide during inflammation. Excessive nitric oxide causes neuronal toxicity and death and mesenchymal stem cells can be used as an approach to limit the neuronal damage caused by neuroinflammation. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates inflammation and neuronal damage in disease models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neuroinflammatory disorders. Interestingly, we have reported that in vitro, mesenchymal stem cells themselves contribute to a rise in nitric oxide levels through microglial cues. This may be an undesirable effect and highlights a possible need to explore acellular approaches for mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the central nervous system.
  20. Koh RY, Lim CL, Uhal BD, Abdullah M, Vidyadaran S, Ho CC, et al.
    Mol Med Rep, 2015 May;11(5):3808-13.
    PMID: 25585520 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3193
    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic pulmonary disease that is characterized by formation of scar tissue in lungs. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is considered an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of this disease. Hence, the antifibrotic effect of an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor, namely, SB 431542, was investigated in our study. SB 431542 was used to treat TGF-β-treated IMR-90 cells; the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected at the protein level by using an anti-α-SMA antibody, and at the gene level by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The effect of the inhibitor on cell proliferation was determined by a cell growth assay. The inhibitor was also administered into bleomycin-treated mice. Histopathological assessment and determination of total collagen levels were carried out to evaluate the severity of lung fibrosis in these mice. Our results demonstrated that treatment with SB 431542 inhibits TGF-β‑induced α-SMA expression in lung fibroblasts, at both the protein and the mRNA levels (P<0.05). However, the inhibitor did not significantly reduce lung fibroblast proliferation. In the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model, bleomycin treatment caused important morphological changes, accompanied by an increase in the collagen level of the lungs. Early treatment with SB 431542 prevented the manifestation of histopathological alterations, whereas delayed treatment significantly decreased the collagen level (P<0.05). These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-β signaling, via inhibition of the activin receptor-like kinase-5 (ALK-5) by SB 431542, may attenuate pulmonary fibrosis.
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