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  1. El-Garj FMA, Wajidi MFF, Avicor SW
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 10;9(10):973-978.
    PMID: 27794391 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.07.024
    OBJECTIVE: To clone cytochrome P450 from Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and determine the characteristics using bioinformatics tools.

    METHODS: Cytochrome P450 of Ae. aegypti was amplified using polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Evolutionary relationship of the sequence was inferred and bioinformatics tools were used to predict subcellular localisation, signal peptide, transmembrane helix, phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, secondary and tertiary structures of the deduced protein.

    RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction rather amplified a cytochrome P450 pseudogene which was named CYP4H44P (GenBank accession number KF779932). The pseudogene has 1537 nucleotides and an open reading frame of 335 amino acids containing cytochrome P450 motifs except the WxxxR motif. It is highly homologous to CYP4H28 and CYP4H28v2. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary divergence showed strong clustering with CYP4H28 alleles and least divergence from the alleles respectively. The deduced protein was predicted to be found in the cytoplasm and likely to be phosphorylated but devoid of signal peptide, transmembrane helix and O-glycosylated sites. The secondary and tertiary structures were also generated.

    CONCLUSIONS: A cytochrome P450 pseudogene, CYP4H44P was cloned from Ae. aegypti. The pseudogene is homologous with CYP4H28 alleles and seems to have recently diverged from this group. Isolating this pseudogene is an important step for evaluating its biological role in the mosquito and for the evolutionary analysis of Ae. aegypti CYPs.

  2. Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Owusu EO
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Sep;24(26):21138-21145.
    PMID: 28730366 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9737-3
    Although evidence of mosquito coils' impact on disease epidemiology is limited, they are popularized as mosquito-borne disease prevention devices. Their usage affects the environment, human and mosquito health. This study investigated the perception, usage pattern and efficacy of coils in a predominantly poor malaria-endemic Ghanaian peri-urban area. Information on protection methods, perception and usage pattern was garnered using questionnaires. The efficacy of commonly used coils in the area was then assessed on the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in a glass chamber. Sole or co-application of mosquito control methods and risky usage practices were reported. Coils were deemed harmful to humans and mosquitoes, and their perceived effectiveness varied, with several factors influencing their purchase. High d-allethrin concentration coils induced quicker mosquito knockdown; however, mortality was less than 85%. The coil usage pattern compromises users' health and can enhance mosquito tolerance to d-allethrin. The coils were ineffective against the vector, outlining a dichotomy between the users' perception of efficacy and the observed efficacy. Hence, the usage of other safer and more effective vector control methods should be encouraged to protect households.
  3. Asekunowo PO, Haque RA, Razali MR, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:601-615.
    PMID: 29550733 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.029
    A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 3.627 × 106) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 106, 8.672 × 105 and 6.665 × 105, respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus.
  4. Luan OG, Yam H, Samian R, Wajidi MFF, Mahadi NM, Mohamad S, et al.
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jul;28(2):57-74.
    PMID: 28890761 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.2.5
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium that causes a globally emerging disease called melioidosis. Approximately one third of the in silico annotated genes in its genome are classified as hypothetical genes. This group of genes is difficult to be functionally characterised partly due to the absence of noticeable phenotypes under conventional laboratory settings. A bioinformatic survey of hypothetical genes revealed a gene designated as BPSL3393 that putatively encodes a small protein of 11 kDA with a CoA binding domain. BPSL3393 is conserved in all the B. pseudomallei genomes as well as various in other species within the genus Burkholderia. Taking into consideration that CoA plays a ubiquitous metabolic role in all life forms, characterisation of BPSL3393 may uncover a previously over-looked metabolic feature of B. pseudomallei. The gene was deleted from the genome using a double homologous recombination approach yielding a null mutant. The BPSL3393 mutant showed no difference in growth rate with the wild type under rich and minimal growth conditions. An extensive metabolic phenotyping test was performed involving 95 metabolic substrates. The deletion mutant of BPSL3393 was severely impaired in its ethanolamine metabolism. The growth rate of the mutant was attenuated when ethanolamine was used as the sole carbon source. A transcriptional analysis of the ethanolamine metabolism genes showed that they were down-regulated in the BPSL3393 mutant. This seemed to suggest that BPSL3393 functions as a positive regulator for ethanolamine metabolism.
  5. Selvarajoo PD, Haque RA, Haziz UFM, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Razali MR
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2017 10;175:232-238.
    PMID: 28800547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.07.030
    New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
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