Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Hoe LN, Wan KL, Nathan S
    Parasitology, 2005 Dec;131(Pt 6):759-68.
    PMID: 16336729
    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces a family of microneme proteins that are thought to play diverse roles in aiding the parasite's intracellular existence. Among these, TgMIC2 has a putative function in parasite adhesion to the host cell to initiate the invasion process. The invasion process may be localized and inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against the protein(s) involved. Here we report on the construction of a phage-displayed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library from mice immunized with whole T. gondii parasites. The library was subsequently panned against recombinant TgMIC2 (rpTgMIC2) and 2 different groups of antibody clones were obtained, based on fingerprinting and sequencing data. The expressed recombinant scFv antibody was able to recognize rpTgMIC2 in a Western blot detection experiment. These results show that the phage display technology allows quick and effective production of monoclonal antibodies against parasite antigens. By panning the scFv-displayed library, we should be able to obtain a plethora of multi-functional scFv antibodies towards T. gondii proteins.
  2. Wan KL, Chang TL, Ajioka JW
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2004 Jul 31;37(4):474-9.
    PMID: 15469736
    The expressed sequence tag (EST) effort in Toxoplasma gondii has generated a substantial amount of gene information. To exploit this valuable resource, we chose to study tgd057, a novel gene identified by a large number of ESTs that otherwise show no significant match to known sequences in the database. Northern analysis showed that tgd057 is transcribed in this tachyzoite. The complete cDNA sequence of tgd057 is 1169 bp in length. Sequence analysis revealed that tgd057 possibly adopts two polyadenylation sites, utilizes the fourth in-frame ATG for translation initiation, and codes for a secretory protein. The longest open reading frame for the tgd057 gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein (rd57) in Escherichia coli. Western analysis revealed that serum against rd57 recognized a molecule of ~21 kDa in the tachyzoite protein extract. This suggests that the tgd057 gene is expressed in vivo in the parasite.
  3. Chong SP, Jangi MS, Wan KL
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Apr;6(2):123-8.
    PMID: 12186768
    VCP (Valosin-Containing Protein), a member of the AAA (ATPases Associated to a variety of cellular Activities) family of proteins, possesses a duplicated highly conserved ATPase domain. An expressed sequence tag (EST), representing a clone from the Eimeria tenella merozoite cDNA library, was found to have high similarity to VCP genes from other organisms. A complete sequence derived from the corresponding clone (designated eth060) shows amino acid identity of 42-62% with other members of the VCP subfamily. Sequence analysis identified a putative ATPase domain in the eth060 sequence. This domain was PCR-amplified using gene-specific primers and cloned into a pBAD/Thio-TOPO expression vector. Expression in Escherichia coli demonstrated that the putative ATPase domain, which consists of 414 amino acid residues, produced a fusion protein of approximately 60 kDa in size.
  4. Thuraikumar K, Wan KL, Ong KL, Lim SW
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Jul;14(2):141-144.
    PMID: 32983391 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2007.024
    Gouty arthritis commonly affects peripheral joints and is associated with hyperuricaemia. Spinal manifestations of gouty arthritis are not common, and majority of published articles worldwide were case reports. This is a case report of spinal gouty arthritis that presented with spinal vertebrae destruction and cauda equina syndrome. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed destruction of L5/S1end plates with cystic collection mimicking infective changes. The tissue histological examination confirmed presence of urate crystal needles that displayed negative double refraction on light microscopy. Spinal gouty arthritis is part of the differential diagnoses in gouty arthritis patients.
  5. Song BK, Pan MZ, Lau YL, Wan KL
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(3):5803-14.
    PMID: 25117339 DOI: 10.4238/2014.July.29.8
    Commercial flocks infected by Eimeria species parasites, including Eimeria maxima, have an increased risk of developing clinical or subclinical coccidiosis; an intestinal enteritis associated with increased mortality rates in poultry. Currently, infection control is largely based on chemotherapy or live vaccines; however, drug resistance is common and vaccines are relatively expensive. The development of new cost-effective intervention measures will benefit from unraveling the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie host-parasite interactions, including the identification and characterization of genes encoding proteins such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K). We previously identified a PIP5K coding sequence within the E. maxima genome. In this study, we analyzed two bacterial artificial chromosome clones presenting a ~145-kb E. maxima (Weybridge strain) genomic region spanning the PIP5K gene locus. Sequence analysis revealed that ~95% of the simple sequence repeats detected were located within regions comparable to the previously described feature-rich segments of the Eimeria tenella genome. Comparative sequence analysis with the orthologous E. maxima (Houghton strain) region revealed a moderate level of conserved synteny. Unique segmental organizations and telomere-like repeats were also observed in both genomes. A number of incomplete transposable elements were detected and further scrutiny of these elements in both orthologous segments revealed interesting nesting events, which may play a role in facilitating genome plasticity in E. maxima. The current analysis provides more detailed information about the genome organization of E. maxima and may help to reveal genotypic differences that are important for expression of traits related to pathogenicity and virulence.
  6. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
  7. Mohd-Yusof NY, Monroig O, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Tocher DR
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2010 Dec;36(4):827-43.
    PMID: 20532815 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-010-9409-4
    Lates calcarifer, commonly known as the Asian sea bass or barramundi, is an interesting species that has great aquaculture potential in Asia including Malaysia and also Australia. We have investigated essential fatty acid metabolism in this species, focusing on the endogenous highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis pathway using both biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongase (Elovl) cDNAs were cloned and functional characterization identified them as ∆6 Fad and Elovl5 elongase enzymes, respectively. The ∆6 Fad was equally active toward 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, and Elovl5 exhibited elongation activity for C18-20 and C20-22 elongation and a trace of C22-24 activity. The tissue profile of gene expression for ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes, showed brain to have the highest expression of both genes compared to all other tissues. The results of tissue fatty acid analysis showed that the brain contained more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) than flesh, liver and intestine. The HUFA synthesis activity in isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes using [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 as substrate was very low with the only desaturated product detected being 18:4n-3. These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C18 substrates. High expression of ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes in brain may indicate a role for these enzymes in maintaining high DHA levels in neural tissues through conversion of 20:5n-3.
  8. Loo SS, Blake DP, Mohd-Adnan A, Mohamed R, Wan KL
    Parasitology, 2010 Jul;137(8):1169-77.
    PMID: 20233491 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182010000119
    Limitations with current chemotherapeutic and vaccinal control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species continue to prompt development of novel controls, including the identification of new drug targets. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6-PI) has been proposed as a valid drug target for many protozoa, although polymorphism revealed by electrophoretic enzyme mobility has raised doubts for Eimeria. In this study we identified and sequenced the Eimeria tenella G6-PI orthologue (EtG6-PI) from the reference Houghton strain and confirmed its position within the prevailing taxonomic hierarchy, branching with the Apicomplexa and Plantae, distinct from the Animalia including the host, Gallus gallus. Comparison of the deduced 1647 bp EtG6-PI coding sequence with the 9016 bp genomic locus revealed 15 exons, all of which obey the intron-AG-/exon/-GT-intron splicing rule. Comparison with the Weybridge and Wisconsin strains revealed the presence of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion/deletion sites. Three SNPs were exonic and all yielded non-synonymous substitutions. Preliminary structural predictions suggest little association between the coding SNPs and key G6-PI catalytic residues or residues thought to be involved in the coordination of the G6-PI's substrate phosphate group. Thus, the significant polymorphism from its host orthologue and minimal intra-specific polymorphism suggest G6-PI remains a valid anti-coccidial drug target.
  9. Lokanathan Y, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Nathan S
    BMC Genomics, 2010;11:76.
    PMID: 20113487 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-76
    Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins.
  10. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Microbes Infect., 2008 Oct;10(12-13):1335-45.
    PMID: 18761419 DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.07.034
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease of humans and animals. The role of the bacterium's proteins expressed in vivo during human melioidosis continues to remain an enigma. This study's aim was to identify B. pseudomallei target proteins that elicit the humoral immune response in infected humans. A small insert genomic expression library was constructed and immunoscreened to identify peptides that reacted exclusively with melioidosis patients' sera. Sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and annotated, and shown to represent 109 proteins involved in bacterial cell envelope biogenesis, cell motility and secretion, transcription, amino acid, ion and protein metabolism, energy production, DNA repair and unknown hypothetical proteins. Western blot analysis of three randomly selected full-length immunogenic polypeptides with patients' sera verified the findings of the immunome screening. The patients' humoral immune response to the 109 proteins suggests the induction or significant upregulation of these proteins in vivo during human infection and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Identification of B. pseudomallei immunogens has shed new light on the elucidation of the bacterium's pathogenesis mechanism and disease severity. These immunogens can be further evaluated as prophylactic and serodiagnostic candidates as well as drug targets.
  11. Latifah I, Teoh Ky, Wan KL, Normaznah Y, Rahmah M
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Jun;29(1):25-31.
    PMID: 19105325 MyJurnal
    Giardia duodenalis causes diarrhoea and malabsorption. The objectives of the study were to detect local isolates of G. doudenalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to determine their restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). G. doudenalis isolated from stools of patients from Hospital Orang Asli Gombak were cultured axenically using TYI-S-33 medium with 10% foetal calf serum. The commercially designed primer-pair 432/433 was used to amplify a 0.52 kb segment known to encode the homologous cysteine-rich trophozoite surface antigen (tsp11 and tsa417). Results showed that the primer-pair 432/433 could amplify the target region of the local isolates. RFLP study on the identical isolates showed that all the restriction enzymes tested ( HindIII, ClaI, PstI and Kpn) gave a banding pattern similar to that of the WB strain a reference pathogenic strain from human. The reference pathogenic strain were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).
  12. Latifah I, Teoh KY, Wan KL, Rahmah M, Normaznah Y, Rohani A
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):83-9.
    PMID: 17191390
    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhoea and malabsorption in children. The parasite also infects AIDS patients with a weak immune system. A study was carried out on six local isolates of Giardia duodenalis (110, 7304, 6304, M007, 2002 and 6307) from faeces of Orang Asli patients admitted to the Gombak Hospital. WB, a reference pathogenic strain from human and G. muris from a wild mouse, were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). All the isolates were cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 medium. Two sets of primers were used for the techniques: primers LP1 and RP1 and primers LP2 and RP2. The sets of primers amplified giardine gene of 171 bp and 218 bp in sizes respectively. The study showed that the two sets of primers could detect G. duodenalis to the genus and species level specifically.
  13. Yip CH, Yarkoni O, Ajioka J, Wan KL, Nathan S
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 Feb;103(4):1667-1680.
    PMID: 30637495 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09611-z
    Prodigiosin, a red linear tripyrrole pigment and a member of the prodiginine family, is normally secreted by the human pathogen Serratia marcescens as a secondary metabolite. Studies on prodigiosin have received renewed attention as a result of reported immunosuppressive, antimicrobial and anticancer properties. High-level synthesis of prodigiosin and the bioengineering of strains to synthesise useful prodiginine derivatives have also been a subject of investigation. To exploit the potential use of prodigiosin as a clinical drug targeting bacteria or as a dye for textiles, high-level synthesis of prodigiosin is a prerequisite. This review presents an overview on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin from its natural host Serratia marcescens and through recombinant approaches as well as highlighting the beneficial properties of prodigiosin. We also discuss the prospect of adopting a synthetic biology approach for safe and cost-effective production of prodigiosin in a more industrially compliant surrogate host.
  14. Yip CH, Mahalingam S, Wan KL, Nathan S
    PLoS One, 2021;16(6):e0253445.
    PMID: 34161391 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253445
    Prodigiosin, a red linear tripyrrole pigment, has long been recognised for its antimicrobial property. However, the physiological contribution of prodigiosin to the survival of its producing hosts still remains undefined. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the biological role of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens, particularly in microbial competition through its antimicrobial activity, towards the growth and secreted virulence factors of four clinical pathogenic bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Prodigiosin was first extracted from S. marcescens and its purity confirmed by absorption spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). The extracted prodigiosin was antagonistic towards all the tested bacteria. A disc-diffusion assay showed that prodigiosin is more selective towards Gram-positive bacteria and inhibited the growth of MRSA, S. aureus and E. faecalis and Gram-negative E. coli. A minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 μg/μL of prodigiosin was required to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, E. coli and E. faecalis whereas > 10 μg/μL was required to inhibit MRSA growth. We further assessed the effect of prodigiosin towards bacterial virulence factors such as haemolysin and production of protease as well as on biofilm formation. Prodigiosin did not inhibit haemolysis activity of clinically associated bacteria but was able to reduce protease activity for MRSA, E. coli and E. faecalis as well as decrease E. faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli biofilm formation. Results of this study show that in addition to its role in inhibiting bacterial growth, prodigiosin also inhibits the bacterial virulence factor protease production and biofilm formation, two strategies employed by bacteria in response to microbial competition. As clinical pathogens were more resistant to prodigiosin, we propose that prodigiosin is physiologically important for S. marcescens to compete against other bacteria in its natural soil and surface water environments.
  15. Wan KL, Shanmugam R, Lee KY, Saw A
    J Child Orthop, 2016 Oct;10(5):387-94.
    PMID: 27614766 DOI: 10.1007/s11832-016-0770-4
    The current technique of hip spica application is mostly based on a publication by Kumar (J Pediatr Orthop 1(1):97-99, 1981). We modified the technique of hip spica application in order to reduce the rate of breakage across the hip joint and designed this study to compare the strength between hip spica applied according to Kumar's technique and the new technique.
  16. Lim LS, Tay YL, Alias H, Wan KL, Dear PH
    BMC Genomics, 2012;13:389.
    PMID: 22889016 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-389
    Eimeria is a genus of parasites in the same phylum (Apicomplexa) as human parasites such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium. As an apicomplexan whose life-cycle involves a single host, Eimeria is a convenient model for understanding this group of organisms. Although the genomes of the Apicomplexa are diverse, that of Eimeria is unique in being composed of large alternating blocks of sequence with very different characteristics - an arrangement seen in no other organism. This arrangement has impeded efforts to fully sequence the genome of Eimeria, which remains the last of the major apicomplexans to be fully analyzed. In order to increase the value of the genome sequence data and aid in the effort to gain a better understanding of the Eimeria tenella genome, we constructed a whole genome map for the parasite.
  17. Chow YP, Wan KL, Blake DP, Tomley F, Nathan S
    PLoS One, 2011;6(9):e25233.
    PMID: 21980402 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025233
    BACKGROUND: At least 19 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface antigens (SAGs) are expressed specifically by second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella, but the ability of these proteins to stimulate immune responses in the chicken is unknown.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten SAGs, belonging to two previously defined multigene families (A and B), were expressed as soluble recombinant (r) fusion proteins in E. coli. Chicken macrophages were treated with purified rSAGs and changes in macrophage nitrite production, and in mRNA expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and of a panel of cytokines were measured. Treatment with rSAGs 4, 5, and 12 induced high levels of macrophage nitric oxide production and IL-1β mRNA transcription that may contribute to the inflammatory response observed during E. tenella infection. Concomitantly, treatment with rSAGs 4, 5 and 12 suppressed the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ and elevated that of IL-10, suggesting that during infection these molecules may specifically impair the development of cellular mediated immunity.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, some E. tenella SAGs appear to differentially modulate chicken innate and humoral immune responses and those derived from multigene family A (especially rSAG 12) may be more strongly linked with E. tenella pathogenicity associated with the endogenous second generation stages.

  18. Goh MY, Pan MZ, Blake DP, Wan KL, Song BK
    Parasitol Res, 2011 Mar;108(3):611-20.
    PMID: 20938684 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-2104-7
    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) may play an important role in host-cell invasion by the Eimeria species, protozoan parasites which can cause severe intestinal disease in livestock. Here, we report the structural organization of the PIP5K gene in Eimeria maxima (Weybridge strain). Two E. maxima BAC clones carrying the E. maxima PIP5K (EmPIP5K) coding sequences were selected for shotgun sequencing, yielding a 9.1-kb genomic segment. The EmPIP5K coding region was initially identified using in silico gene-prediction approaches and subsequently confirmed by mapping rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR-generated cDNA sequence to its genomic segment. The putative EmPIP5K gene was located at position 710-8036 nt on the complimentary strand and comprised of 23 exons. Alignment of the 1147 amino acid sequence with previously annotated PIP5K proteins from other Apicomplexa species detected three conserved motifs encompassing the kinase core domain, which has been shown by previous protein deletion studies to be necessary for PIP5K protein function. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the putative EmPIP5K protein is orthologous to that of other Apicomplexa. Subsequent comparative gene structure characterization revealed events of intron loss/gain throughout the evolution of the apicomplexan PIP5K gene. Further scrutiny of the genomic structure revealed a possible trend towards "intron gain" between two of the motif regions. Our findings offer preliminary insights into the structural variations that have occurred during the evolution of the PIP5K locus and may aid in understanding the functional role of this gene in the cellular biology of apicomplexan parasites.
  19. Mahdy AK, Surin J, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Lim YA
    Parasitology, 2009 Sep;136(11):1237-41.
    PMID: 19660153 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182009990527
    This study was conducted to determine the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolated from human faecal samples at Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal specimens were collected and examined for G. duodenalis cysts using Trichrome staining techniques. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a region of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from 15 isolates from G. duodenalis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis (including appropriate outgroups) using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, with a predominance of assemblage B. The predominance of anthroponotic genotypes indicates the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of these protozoa in this Semai Pahang Orang Asli community.
  20. Mohammed Mahdy AK, Surin J, Wan KL, Mohd-Adnan A, Al-Mekhlafi MS, Lim YA
    Acta Trop, 2009 Oct;112(1):67-70.
    PMID: 19560431 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.06.012
    This study was conducted to identify genotypes related risk factors of Giardia intestinalis in an Orang Asli (aboriginal) community in Pahang, Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 321 individuals aged between 2 and 76 years old, of whom 160 were males and 161 were females. Faecal samples were processed with trichrome staining technique for the primary identification of G. intestinalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a partial SSU rRNA gene using nested PCR. PCR products were purified and genotyped. 42 samples successfully amplified from the 76 positive faecal samples, only 1 was Assemblage A, the rest were Assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected genotypes of Giardia using univariate analysis and logistic regression identified three significant risk factors of giardiasis caused by assemblage B which included children =12 years (OR=13.56, 95% CI=1.79-102.64, p=0.012), females (OR=2.52, 95% CI=1.11-5.75, p=0.027) and eating fresh fruits (OR=7.78, 95% CI=1.01-60.00, p=0.049). Assemblage B infection was significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of giardiasis (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.13-5.12, p=0.019). Females infected with Assemblage B were at higher risk of manifesting gastroenteritis signs and symptoms (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.50-10.31, p=0.004). It has been concluded that giardiasis is still a public health problem in Orang Asli community and most commonly caused by assemblage B. The dynamic of transmission is most probably anthroponotic which is human to human either directly or indirectly through contaminated food. This route of transmission should be considered in the control strategy of the disease. Mass treatment together with health education could be the most practical intervention for reducing the infection. Those at high risk should receive more attention from public health authorities.
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