Methods: Dermal fibroblast cultures were established from 2 affected men and 3 normals. Proliferation rates were examined, the collagen IV α5 chain localized with immunostaining, and levels of the intra- and extracellular chains quantitated with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. COL4A5 mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) size was measured on electron micrographs and after HSP47 immunostaining. Markers of ER stress (ATF6, HSPA5, DDIT3), autophagy (ATG5, BECN1, ATG7), and apoptosis (CASP3, BAD, BCL2) were also quantitated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Measurements were repeated after 48 hours of incubation with 10 mM sodium 4-phenylbutyrate acid.
Results: Both COL4A5 missense variants were associated with reduced proliferation rates on day 6 (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03), ER enlargement, and increased mRNA for ER stress and autophagy (all P values < 0.05) when compared with normal. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment increased COL4A5 transcript levels (P < 0.01), and reduced ER size (P < 0.01 by EM and P < 0.001 by immunostaining), ER stress (p HSPA5 and DDIT3, all P values < 0.01) and autophagy (ATG7, P < 0.01). Extracellular collagen IV α5 chain was increased in the M1 line only (P = 0.06).
Discussion: Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate increases collagen IV α5 mRNA levels, reduces ER stress and autophagy, and possibly facilitates collagen IV α5 extracellular transport. Whether these actions delay end-stage renal failure in men with X-linked Alport syndrome and missense mutations will only be determined with clinical trials.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a decision-making program and analyze multi-institutional outcomes of RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level II IVCT were included from eight Chinese urological centers, and underwent RAC-IVCT (30 patients) or RAT-IVCT (60 patients) from June 2013 to January 2019.
SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The surgical strategy was based on IVCT imaging characteristics. RAT-IVCT was performed with standardized cavotomy, thrombectomy, and IVC reconstruction. RAC-IVCT was mainly performed in patients with extensive IVC wall invasion when the collateral blood vessels were well-established. For right-sided RCC, the IVC from the infrarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was stapled. For left-sided RCC, the IVC from the suprarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was removed and caudal IVC reconstruction was performed to ensure the right renal vein returned through the IVC collaterals.
MEASUREMENTS: Clinicopathological, operative, and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All procedures were successfully performed without open conversion. The median operation time (268 vs 190 min) and estimated blood loss (1500 vs 400 ml) were significantly greater for RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT (both p < 0.001). IVC invasion was a risk factor for progression-free and overall survival at midterm follow-up. Large-volume and long-term follow-up studies are needed.
CONCLUSIONS: RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT represents an alternative minimally invasive approach for selected RCC patients with level II IVCT. Selection of RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT is mainly based on preoperative IVCT imaging characteristics, including the presence of IVC wall invasion, the affected kidney, and establishment of the collateral circulation.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we found that robotic surgeries for level II inferior vena cava thrombus were feasible and safe. Preoperative imaging played an important role in establishing an appropriate surgical plan.