Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 140 in total

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  1. Tan TJ, Wang D, Moraru CI
    J. Dairy Sci., 2014;97(8):4759-71.
    PMID: 24881794 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-7957
    The main challenge in microfiltration (MF) is membrane fouling, which leads to a significant decline in permeate flux and a change in membrane selectivity over time. This work aims to elucidate the mechanisms of membrane fouling in cold MF of skim milk by identifying and quantifying the proteins and minerals involved in external and internal membrane fouling. Microfiltration was conducted using a 1.4-μm ceramic membrane, at a temperature of 6±1°C, cross-flow velocity of 6m/s, and transmembrane pressure of 159kPa, for 90min. Internal and external foulants were extracted from a ceramic membrane both after a brief contact between the membrane and skim milk, to evaluate instantaneous adsorption of foulants, and after MF. Four foulant streams were collected: weakly attached external foulants, weakly attached internal foulants, strongly attached external foulants, and strongly attached internal foulants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that all major milk proteins were present in all foulant streams. Proteins did appear to be the major cause of membrane fouling. Proteomics analysis of the foulants indicated elevated levels of serum proteins as compared with milk in the foulant fractions collected from the adsorption study. Caseins were preferentially introduced into the fouling layer during MF, when transmembrane pressure was applied, as confirmed both by proteomics and mineral analyses. The knowledge generated in this study advances the understanding of fouling mechanisms in cold MF of skim milk and can be used to identify solutions for minimizing membrane fouling and increasing the efficiency of milk MF.
  2. Wang D, Fu Y, Ashraf MA
    Open Med (Wars), 2015;10(1):425-433.
    PMID: 28352731 DOI: 10.1515/med-2015-0074
    Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique for examining myocardial function and deformation. Tagged MRI can also be used in quasi-static MR elastography to acquire strain maps of other biological soft tissues. Harmonic phase (HARP) provides automatic and rapid analysis of tagged MR images for the quantification and visualization of myocardial strain. We propose a new artifact reduction method in strain maps. Image intensity of the DC component is estimated and subtracted from spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) tagged MR images. DC peak interference in harmonic phase extraction is greatly reduced after DC component subtraction. The proposed method is validated using both simulated and MR acquired tagged images. Strain maps are obtained with better accuracy and smoothness after DC component subtraction.
  3. Huang ZL, Wang DY, Zhang PC, Dong F, Yeoh KH
    Acta Otolaryngol., 2001 Oct;121(7):844-8.
    PMID: 11718250
    Acoustic rhinometry (AR) evaluates the geometry of the nasal cavity by measuring the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and nasal volume (V) by means of acoustic reflection. Understanding the normal and pathologic conditions of the internal nasal cavity using AR is important in the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal range of AR parameters in healthy volunteers from three ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malay and Indian. We also attempted to evaluate the role of these measurements in the documentation of structural abnormalities in the nose. A total of 189 Singaporeans, aged > or = 18 years, were recruited from a nationwide survey study. They comprised 83 Chinese, 35 Malays and 71 Indians. Eighty-nine subjects had a rhinoscopically normal nose (Group 1), 77 had significant septal deviation (Group 2) and 23 had inferior turbinate hypertrophy (Group 3). AR was performed to measure the MCA at the anterior 1-5 cm from the nostril and the volume (V) between points at the nostril and 5 cm into the nose. A mean MCA (mMCA; equal to (L + R)/2) and a total volume (Vt; equal to L + R) were then calculated for each subject, where L and R refer to the measurements made for the left and right nostrils, respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in mMCA (p = 0.80) and Vt (p = 0.60) among the three ethnic subgroups of Group 1. Statistically significant differences were found only between Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001 for both mMCA and Vt) and between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001 for mMCA and p = 0.013 for Vt). Although there was no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, significant differences in MCA (p = 0.001) and V (p = 0.040) were found between the narrower sides (smaller volume) and the wider sides in Group 2, indicating volume compensation between the nasal cavities. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that there is no significant difference in the normal range of AR measurements among Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnic groups. AR is able to determine the structural abnormality of the internal nasal cavity caused by septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy.
  4. Pathak M, Coombes AGA, Turner MS, Palmer C, Wang D, Steadman KJ
    J Pharm Sci, 2015 Dec;104(12):4217-4222.
    PMID: 26398713 DOI: 10.1002/jps.24652
    Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices loaded with doxycycline were produced by rapidly cooling suspensions of the drug powder in PCL solution in acetone. Drug loadings of 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of the PCL content were achieved. Exposure of doxycycline powder to matrix processing conditions in the absence of PCL revealed an endothermic peak at 65°C with the main peak at 167°C, suggesting solvatomorph formation. Rapid "burst release" of 24%-32% was measured within 24 h when matrices were immersed in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) at 37°C, because of the presence of drug at or close to the matrix surface, which is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Gradual release of 66%-76% of the drug content occurred over the following 14 days. SVF containing doxycycline released from drug-loaded PCL matrices retained 81%-90% antimicrobial activity compared with the nonformulated drug. The concentrations of doxycycline predicted to be released into vaginal fluid from a PCL matrix in the form of an intravaginal ring would be sufficient to kill Neisseria gonorrhoea and many other pathogens. These results indicate that PCL may be a suitable polymer for controlled intravaginal delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
  5. Bao R, Liu M, Wang D, Wen S, Yu H, Zhong Y, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2019;10:1464.
    PMID: 31920654 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01464
    Background:Eurycoma longifolia is a tropical medicinal plant belonging to Simaroubaceae distributed in South East Asia. The stems are traditionally used for the treatment of sexual insufficiency, fever, hypertension, and malaria. Furthermore, it has antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Recently, it has been reported to reduce uric acid, but the mechanism is unclear. Hypothesis/Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the effect and mechanism of E. longifolia stem 70% ethanol extract (EL) and its active compounds on uric acid excretion. Study Design and Methods: Potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats model and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice model were used to evaluate the effects of EL. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography was used to determine the levels of plasma or serum uric acid and creatinine. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was applied to observe kidney pathological changes, and western blot was applied to detect protein expression levels of uric acid transporters. Effects of constituents on urate uptake were tested in hURAT1-expressing HEK293T cells. Results: EL significantly reduced serum and plasma uric acid levels at dosages of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg in hyperuricemia rats and mice, increased the clearance rate of uric acid and creatinine, and improved the renal pathological injury. The protein expression levels of urate reabsorption transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 were down-regulated, while sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 were up-regulated in the kidney after EL treatment. The quassinoids isolated from EL showed inhibitory effects on urate uptake in hURAT1-expressing HEK293T cells, and the effect of eurycomanol was further confirmed in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that EL significantly reduced blood uric acid levels, prevented pathological changes of kidney in PO induced hyperuricemia animal model, and improved renal urate transports. We partly clarified the mechanism was related to suppressing effect of URAT1 by quassinoid in EL. This study is the first to demonstrate that EL plays a role in hyperuricemia by promoting renal uric acid excretion.
  6. Sun T, Wang D, Mirkin MV, Cheng H, Zheng JC, Richards RM, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2019 06 11;116(24):11618-11623.
    PMID: 31127040 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1821091116
    The catalytic activity of low-dimensional electrocatalysts is highly dependent on their local atomic structures, particularly those less-coordinated sites found at edges and corners; therefore, a direct probe of the electrocatalytic current at specified local sites with true nanoscopic resolution has become critically important. Despite the growing availability of operando imaging tools, to date it has not been possible to measure the electrocatalytic activities from individual material edges and directly correlate those with the local structural defects. Herein, we show the possibility of using feedback and generation/collection modes of operation of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to independently image the topography and local electrocatalytic activity with 15-nm spatial resolution. We employed this operando microscopy technique to map out the oxygen evolution activity of a semi-2D nickel oxide nanosheet. The improved resolution and sensitivity enables us to distinguish the higher activities of the materials' edges from that of the fully coordinated surfaces in operando The combination of spatially resolved electrochemical information with state-of-the-art electron tomography, that unravels the 3D complexity of the edges, and ab initio calculations allows us to reveal the intricate coordination dependent activity along individual edges of the semi-2D material that is not achievable by other methods. The comparison of the simulated line scans to the experimental data suggests that the catalytic current density at the nanosheet edge is ∼200 times higher than that at the NiO basal plane.
  7. Chen H, Zeng X, Zhou Y, Yang X, Lam SS, Wang D
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2020 Jul 15;394:122570.
    PMID: 32244145 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122570
    The removal of antibiotics and resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants has attracted widespread attention, but the potential role of residual antibiotics in the disposal of waste activated sludge (WAS) has not been clearly understood. In this study, the effect of roxithromycin (ROX) on volatile fatty acid (VFA) recovery from WAS anaerobic fermentation was investigated. The experimental results showed that ROX made a positive contribution to the production of VFAs. With the increase of ROX dosages from 0 to 100 mg/kg TSS, the maximum accumulation of VFAs increased from 295 to 610 mg COD/L. Mechanism studies revealed that ROX promoted the solubilization of WAS by facilitating the disruption of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, ROX enhanced the activity of acetate kinase and inhibited the activities of α-glucosidase and coenzyme F420, and showed a stronger inhibitory effect on methane production than the hydrolysis process, thus resulting in an increase in VFA accumulation. These findings provide a new insight for the role of antibiotics in anaerobic fermentation of WAS.
  8. Su H, Kanchanatip E, Wang D, Zheng R, Huang Z, Chen Y, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2020 Feb 01;102:520-527.
    PMID: 31765972 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.11.018
    In China, waste sorting practice is not strictly followed, plastics, especially food packaging, are commonly mixed in food waste. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of unsorted food waste was conducted in this study, using model unsorted food waste by mixture of pure food waste and plastic. Different operating parameters including reaction temperature, residence time, and feedstock concentration were investigated. Moreover, the effect of three representative food additives namely NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were tested in this work. Finally, comparative analysis about SCWG of unsorted food waste, pure food waste, and plastic was studied. It was found that higher reaction temperature, longer residence time and lower feedstock concentration were advantageous for SCWG of unsorted food waste. Within the range of operating parameters in this study, when the feedstock concentration was 5 wt%, the highest H2 yield (7.69 mol/kg), H2 selectivity (82.11%), total gas yield (17.05 mol/kg), and efficiencies of SCWG (cold gas efficiency, gasification efficiency, carbon gasification efficiency, and hydrogen gasification efficiency) were obtained at 480 °C for 75 min. Also, the addition of food additives with Na+ promoted the SCWG of unsorted food waste. The Na2CO3 showed the best catalytic performance on enhancement of H2 and syngas production. This research demonstrated the positive effect of waste sorting on the SCWG of food waste, and provided novel results and information that help to overcome the problems in the process of food waste treatment and accelerate the industrial application of SCWG technology in the future.
  9. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
  10. Tan TK, Low VL, Ng WH, Ibrahim J, Wang D, Tan CH, et al.
    Parasitol. Int., 2019 Apr;69:110-113.
    PMID: 30590124 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2018.12.007
    This report describes the detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium muris, C. parvum subgenotype IIa and Giardia duodenalis genotype B in urban rodents in Malaysia. A rare occurrence of C. meleagridis was also reported suggesting a role of rodents in mechanical transmission of this pathogen. Utilization of DNA sequencing and subtyping analysis confirmed the presence of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes IIaA17G2R1 and IIaA16G3R1 for the first time in rodents.
  11. Wang D, Mohammad M, Wang Y, Tan R, Murray LS, Ricardo S, et al.
    Kidney Int Rep, 2017 Jul;2(4):739-748.
    PMID: 29142990 DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2017.03.004
    Introduction: X-linked Alport syndrome (OMIM 301050) is caused by COL4A5 missense variants in 40% of families. This study examined the effects of chemical chaperone treatment (sodium 4-phenylbutyrate) on fibroblast cell lines derived from men with missense mutations.

    Methods: Dermal fibroblast cultures were established from 2 affected men and 3 normals. Proliferation rates were examined, the collagen IV α5 chain localized with immunostaining, and levels of the intra- and extracellular chains quantitated with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. COL4A5 mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) size was measured on electron micrographs and after HSP47 immunostaining. Markers of ER stress (ATF6, HSPA5, DDIT3), autophagy (ATG5, BECN1, ATG7), and apoptosis (CASP3, BAD, BCL2) were also quantitated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Measurements were repeated after 48 hours of incubation with 10 mM sodium 4-phenylbutyrate acid.

    Results: Both COL4A5 missense variants were associated with reduced proliferation rates on day 6 (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03), ER enlargement, and increased mRNA for ER stress and autophagy (all P values < 0.05) when compared with normal. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment increased COL4A5 transcript levels (P < 0.01), and reduced ER size (P < 0.01 by EM and P < 0.001 by immunostaining), ER stress (p HSPA5 and DDIT3, all P values < 0.01) and autophagy (ATG7, P < 0.01). Extracellular collagen IV α5 chain was increased in the M1 line only (P = 0.06).

    Discussion: Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate increases collagen IV α5 mRNA levels, reduces ER stress and autophagy, and possibly facilitates collagen IV α5 extracellular transport. Whether these actions delay end-stage renal failure in men with X-linked Alport syndrome and missense mutations will only be determined with clinical trials.

  12. Wang DY, Wardani RS, Singh K, Thanaviratananich S, Vicente G, Xu G, et al.
    Rhinology, 2011 Aug;49(3):264-71.
    PMID: 21866280 DOI: 10.4193/Rhino10.169
    BACKGROUND: Based on the `European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal polyps (EP3OS 2007)`, this study aimed to investigate general practitioners (GPs) and other specialists` understanding when managing patients with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in Asia.
    METHODOLOGY: Among a total of 2662 questionnaires completed, 2524 (94.8%) were valid for analysis. There were 1308 GPs (51.8%), 989 otolaryngologists (39.2%) and 227 paediatricians (9%) from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan.
    RESULTS: ARS is affecting an estimated 6 - 10% of patients seen in a daily out-patient practice. The EP3OS criteria are well supported by Asian physicians (94.1%). Most physicians (62.7%) agreed that radiological investigation is not needed to diagnose ARS. However, even for mild ARS (common cold), medical treatments were still recommended by 87% of GPs, 83.9% of otolaryngologists, and 70% of paediatricians. The top three first-line treatments prescribed were antihistamines (39.2%), nasal decongestants (33.6%), and antibiotics (29.5%). Antibiotics usage increased as the first line treatment of moderate (45.9%) and severe (60.3%) ARS.
    CONCLUSION: ARS is commonly managed by GPs, otolaryngologists, and paediatricians in Asia. However, understanding of the management of ARS needs further improvement to minimize unnecessary use of radiological investigations, overuse of antibiotics, and under use of nasal corticosteroids.
  13. Wang D, Tang G, Huang Y, Yu C, Li S, Zhuang L, et al.
    J Med Case Rep, 2015;9:109.
    PMID: 25962780 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-015-0580-1
    Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was first reported on March, 2013 in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The majority of human cases were detected in mainland China; other regions out of mainland China reported imported human cases, including Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan (the Republic of China) and Malaysia, due to human transportation. Here, we report the first human case of H7N9 infection imported into Guizhou Province during the Spring Festival travel season in January 2014.
  14. Wang DY, Ghoshal AG, Razak Bin Abdul MA, Lin HC, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A776-7.
    PMID: 27202870 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.351
    Objectives: Respiratory diseases represent significant impact on health care resources. A cross-sectional, observational study, Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD), was conducted to examine burden of disease in adults with respiratory diseases across 6 countries - India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. We examined the extent to which cough is a presenting symptom and reason for medical visits for participants with Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis (AR), COPD or Rhinosinusitis.
    Methods: Participants aged ≥18 years, presenting to a physician with primary diagnosis of Asthma, AR, COPD or Rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants completed a survey which contained questions related to demographics, respiratory symptoms, health care resource use and quality of life.
    Results: A total of 13,902 participants were screened, of which 7,030 were eligible and 5,250 enrolled. The highest percentage of participants receiving care for a respiratory disorder had primary diagnosis of AR 14.0%, (95%CI: 13.4%, 14.6%), followed by Asthma 13.5% (12.9%, 14.1%), Rhinosinusitis 5.4% (4.6%, 5.3%) and COPD 4.9%, (5.0%, 5.7%). Cough or coughing up phlegm was reported as symptom by more than half the participants. Cough or coughing up phlegm was reported as the main reason for medical visit by more than 20% of participants. Among all symptoms reported, cough was most frequently reported by participants with a primarydiagnosis of COPD (73%), followed by Asthma (61%), Rhinosinusitis (59%), and AR (47%). In addition, cough was the most frequently reported main reason for seeking medical care among participants with a primary diagnosis of COPD (43%), for Asthma (33%), for Rhinosinusitis (13%), and for AR (11%).
    Conclusions: Cough is a prominent symptom and major driver of medical care for patients with Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, COPD or Rhinosinusitis. These data suggest that patients presenting with cough should be investigated comprehensively for any underlying more serious respiratory disorders to help with appropriate disease management.
  15. Thaler L, Reich GM, Zhang X, Wang D, Smith GE, Tao Z, et al.
    PLoS Comput. Biol., 2017 Aug;13(8):e1005670.
    PMID: 28859082 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005670
    Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click) and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF) data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern) of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration) with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation that could be virtual (i.e. simulated) or real (i.e. loudspeaker, microphones), and which will help understanding the link between physical principles and human behaviour.
  16. Low VL, Takaoka H, Adler PH, Tan TK, Weng FC, Chen CY, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 2018 Oct;117(10):3137-3143.
    PMID: 30006809 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-018-6011-7
    The Simulium rufibasis subgroup is one of three subgroups of the Simulium (Simulium) tuberosum species-group; it is characterized by a pair of clustered stout hairs on the ventral surface of female abdominal segment 7. A member of the S. rufibasis subgroup in Taiwan was investigated morphologically and genetically using the universal cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene and polytene chromosomal banding pattern. The Taiwanese material is morphologically similar to S. rosliramlii Takaoka & Chen from Vietnam and represents the second species of the S. rufibasis subgroup known from Taiwan. It also represents a novel molecular lineage that is distinct from three other primary lineages identified as S. doipuiense, S. doipuiense/S. rufibasis, and S. weji previously reported from Thailand. The mitochondrial evidence for a distinct lineage in Taiwan is supported by chromosomal analysis, which revealed unique sex chromosomes. For nomenclatural stability, we associate the name S. arisanum Shiraki with the Taiwanese entity. Originally described from females from Taiwan, S. arisanum until now has remained an enigmatic species.
  17. Wang D, Samsulrizal NH, Yan C, Allcock NS, Craigon J, Blanco-Ulate B, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2019 02;179(2):544-557.
    PMID: 30459263 DOI: 10.1104/pp.18.01187
    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a globally important crop with an economic value in the tens of billions of dollars, and a significant supplier of essential vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals in the human diet. Shelf life is a key quality trait related to alterations in cuticle properties and remodeling of the fruit cell walls. Studies with transgenic tomato plants undertaken over the last 20 years have indicated that a range of pectin-degrading enzymes are involved in cell wall remodeling. These studies usually involved silencing of only a single gene and it has proved difficult to compare the effects of silencing these genes across the different experimental systems. Here we report the generation of CRISPR-based mutants in the ripening-related genes encoding the pectin-degrading enzymes pectate lyase (PL), polygalacturonase 2a (PG2a), and β-galactanase (TBG4). Comparison of the physiochemical properties of the fruits from a range of PL, PG2a, and TBG4 CRISPR lines demonstrated that only mutations in PL resulted in firmer fruits, although mutations in PG2a and TBG4 influenced fruit color and weight. Pectin localization, distribution, and solubility in the pericarp cells of the CRISPR mutant fruits were investigated using the monoclonal antibody probes LM19 to deesterified homogalacturonan, INRA-RU1 to rhamnogalacturonan I, LM5 to β-1,4-galactan, and LM6 to arabinan epitopes, respectively. The data indicate that PL, PG2a, and TBG4 act on separate cell wall domains and the importance of cellulose microfibril-associated pectin is reflected in its increased occurrence in the different mutant lines.
  18. Zhao H, Zhao S, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, Fei B, Liu H, Yang H, et al.
    Gigascience, 2017 07 01;6(7):1-7.
    PMID: 28637269 DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/gix046
    Bamboo and rattan are widely grown for manufacturing, horticulture, and agroforestry. Bamboo and rattan production might help reduce poverty, boost economic growth, mitigate climate change, and protect the natural environment. Despite progress in research, sufficient molecular and genomic resources to study these species are lacking. We launched the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project, a comprehensive, coordinated international effort to accelerate understanding of bamboo and rattan genetics through genome analysis. GABR includes 2 core subprojects: Bamboo-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1000 Bamboos) and Rattan-G5 (Genomes of 5 Rattans), and several other subprojects. Here we describe the organization, directions, and status of GABR.
  19. Shi T, Huang Q, Liu K, Du S, Fan Y, Yang L, et al.
    Eur. Urol., 2020 Apr 15.
    PMID: 32305170 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.03.020
    BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted thrombectomy (RAT) for inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus (RAT-IVCT) is being increasingly reported. However, the techniques and indications for robot-assisted cavectomy (RAC) for IVC thrombus are not well described.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a decision-making program and analyze multi-institutional outcomes of RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level II IVCT were included from eight Chinese urological centers, and underwent RAC-IVCT (30 patients) or RAT-IVCT (60 patients) from June 2013 to January 2019.

    SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The surgical strategy was based on IVCT imaging characteristics. RAT-IVCT was performed with standardized cavotomy, thrombectomy, and IVC reconstruction. RAC-IVCT was mainly performed in patients with extensive IVC wall invasion when the collateral blood vessels were well-established. For right-sided RCC, the IVC from the infrarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was stapled. For left-sided RCC, the IVC from the suprarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was removed and caudal IVC reconstruction was performed to ensure the right renal vein returned through the IVC collaterals.

    MEASUREMENTS: Clinicopathological, operative, and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All procedures were successfully performed without open conversion. The median operation time (268 vs 190 min) and estimated blood loss (1500 vs 400 ml) were significantly greater for RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT (both p < 0.001). IVC invasion was a risk factor for progression-free and overall survival at midterm follow-up. Large-volume and long-term follow-up studies are needed.

    CONCLUSIONS: RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT represents an alternative minimally invasive approach for selected RCC patients with level II IVCT. Selection of RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT is mainly based on preoperative IVCT imaging characteristics, including the presence of IVC wall invasion, the affected kidney, and establishment of the collateral circulation.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we found that robotic surgeries for level II inferior vena cava thrombus were feasible and safe. Preoperative imaging played an important role in establishing an appropriate surgical plan.

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