Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

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  1. Wang L, Meng Z, Liu X, Zhang Y, Lin H
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(7):4378-94.
    PMID: 21845084 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12074378
    In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise F(st), structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.
  2. Chan YP, Koh CL, Lam SK, Wang LF
    J. Gen. Virol., 2004 Jun;85(Pt 6):1675-84.
    PMID: 15166452
    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are members of a new genus, Henipavirus, in the family paramyxoviridae. Each virus encodes a phosphoprotein (P) that is significantly larger than its counterparts in other known paramyxoviruses. The interaction of this unusually large P with its nucleocapsid protein (N) was investigated in this study by using recombinant full-length and truncated proteins expressed in bacteria and a modified protein-blotting protein-overlay assay. Results from our group demonstrated that the N and P of both viruses were able to form not only homologous, but also heterologous, N-P complexes, i.e. HeV N was able to interact with NiV P and vice versa. Deletion analysis of the N and P revealed that there were at least two independent N-binding sites on P and they resided at the N and C termini, respectively. Similarly, more than one P-binding site was present on N and one of these was mapped to a 29 amino acid (aa) C-terminal region, which on its own was sufficient to interact with the extreme C-terminal 165 aa region of P.
  3. Usman A, Fun HK, Wang L, Zhang Y, Xu JH
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2003 Jun;59(Pt 6):o305-7.
    PMID: 12794346
    In the title compounds, C(21)H(18)N(2)O(4) and C(25)H(18)N(2)O(4), respectively, the five-membered ring of the indole system is almost planar. The oxetane and oxazole rings are individually planar. The orientations of the indole, oxetane, oxazole and phenyl moieties are conditioned by the sp(3) nature of the spiro-C atoms. In both compounds, the relative orientation of the indole and oxazole rings is opposite.
  4. Chua KB, Wang LF, Lam SK, Eaton BT
    Arch. Virol., 2002 Jul;147(7):1323-48.
    PMID: 12111411
    A novel paramyxovirus in the genus Rubulavirus, named Tioman virus (TiV), was isolated in 1999 from a number of pooled urine samples of Island Flying Foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) during the search for the reservoir host of Nipah virus. TiV is antigenically related to Menangle virus (MenV) that was isolated in Australia in 1997 during disease outbreak in pigs. Sequence analysis of the full length genome indicated that TiV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, family Paramyxoviridae. However, there are several features of TiV which make it unique among known paramyxoviruses and rubulaviruses in particular: (1) TiV, like MenV, uses the nucleotide G as a transcriptional initiation site, rather than the A residue used by all other known paramyxoviruses; (2) TiV uses C as the +1 residue for all intergenic regions, a feature not seen for rubulaviruses but common for all other members within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae; (3) Although the attachment protein of TiV has structural features that are conserved in other rubulaviruses, it manifests no overall sequence homology with members of the genus, lacks the sialic acid-binding motif N-R-K-S-C-S and has only two out of the six highly conserved residues known to be important for the catalytic activity of neuraminidase.
  5. Ang BSP, Lim TCC, Wang L
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2018 06;56(6).
    PMID: 29643201 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01875-17
    Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management.
  6. Dong Z, Morandini AC, Schiariti A, Wang L, Sun T
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6191.
    PMID: 30643699 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6191
    Background: It has been suggested that aquaculture ponds on the Chinese coast could act as breeding grounds for scyphozoans. Here, we present the first record of the scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza sp. in an aquaculture pond on the coast of the southern Yellow Sea, based on a combination of morphological characteristics and mitochondrial 16S DNA sequence data.

    Methods: A field survey was performed on June 29, 2017 in a pond used for culturing the shrimp Penaeus japonicus, located in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Jellyfish specimens were collected for morphological and genetic analysis. The morphological characters of the jellyfish specimens were compared to taxonomic literature. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S fragments of these specimens were also conducted.

    Results: These specimens had the following morphological characters: hemispherical umbrella without scapulets; J-shaped oral arms; a single larger terminal club on each arm; bluish colored with a slightly expanded white tip; and mouthlets present only in the lower half to one-third of each arm. These morphological features of the medusae indicated that the specimens found in the shrimp culture ponds belong to the genus Phyllorhiza Agassiz, 1862, but did not match with the description of any of the known species of the genus Phyllorhiza. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 16S regions revealed that these specimens, together with Phyllorhiza sp. from Malaysian coastal waters, belong to a sister group of Phyllorhiza punctata. Juveniles and ephyrae of Phyllorhiza sp. were observed in the aquaculture pond. The mean density of Phyllorhiza sp. medusa in the surface water within the pond was estimated to be 0.05 individuals/m2.

    Discussion: Based on our observations of the gross morphology and molecular data, we state that the specimens collected in the aquaculture pond can be identified as Phyllorhiza sp. This is the first record of Phyllorhiza sp. in Chinese seas. Large scale dispersal through ballast water or the expansion of jellyfish aquarium exhibitions are possible pathways of invasion, but this needs to be confirmed in further studies.

  7. Lu J, Li Y, Hu D, Chen X, Liu Y, Wang L, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):S22-31.
    PMID: 26858562 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.06.012
    A novel interpenetrating network hydrogel for drug controlled release, composed of modified poly(aspartic acid) (KPAsp) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS), was prepared in aqueous system. The surface morphology and composition of hydrogels were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling properties of KPAsp, KPAsp/CMCTS semi-IPN and KPAsp/CMCTS IPN hydrogels were investigated and the swelling dynamics of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation. The pH, temperature and salt sensitivities of hydrogels were further studied, and the prepared hydrogels showed extremely sensitive properties to pH, temperature, the ionic salts kinds and concentration. The results of controlled drug release behaviors of the hydrogels revealed that the introduction of IPN observably improved the drug release properties of hydrogels, the release rate of drug from hydrogels can be controlled by the structure of the hydrogels and pH value of the external environment, a relative large amount of drug released was preferred under simulated intestinal fluid. These results illustrated high potential of the KPAsp/CMCTS IPN hydrogels for application as drug carriers.
  8. Gao B, Wang L, Han S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Zhang X, Xu F
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2016 Aug;36(4):619-29.
    PMID: 25669871 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.1002381
    Diabetes now is the most common chronic disease in the world inducing heavy burden for the people's health. Based on this, diabetes research such as islet function has become a hot topic in medical institutes of the world. Today, in medical institutes, the conventional experiment platform in vitro is monolayer cell culture. However, with the development of micro- and nano-technologies, several microengineering methods have been developed to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) islet models in vitro which can better mimic the islet of pancreases in vivo. These in vitro islet models have shown better cell function than monolayer cells, indicating their great potential as better experimental platforms to elucidate islet behaviors under both physiological and pathological conditions, such as the molecular mechanisms of diabetes and clinical islet transplantation. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art advances in the microengineering methods for fabricating microscale islet models in vitro. We hope this will help researchers to better understand the progress in the engineering 3D islet models and their biomedical applications such as drug screening and islet transplantation.
  9. Wang L, Li Y, Huang G, Zhang X, Pingguan-Murphy B, Gao B, et al.
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2016 Jun;36(3):553-65.
    PMID: 25641330 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993588
    Natural cellular microenvironment consists of spatiotemporal gradients of multiple physical (e.g. extracellular matrix stiffness, porosity and stress/strain) and chemical cues (e.g. morphogens), which play important roles in regulating cell behaviors including spreading, proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis, especially for pathological processes such as tumor formation and progression. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cellular gradient microenvironment incorporating various gradients for the fabrication of normal and pathological tissue models in vitro. In this article, we firstly review the development of engineering cellular physical and chemical gradients with cytocompatible hydrogels in both two-dimension and three-dimension formats. We then present current advances in the application of engineered gradient microenvironments for the fabrication of disease models in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and future perspectives for engineering cellular gradients are given.
  10. Wong KT, Robertson T, Ong BB, Chong JW, Yaiw KC, Wang LF, et al.
    Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 2009 Jun;35(3):296-305.
    PMID: 19473296 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2008.00991.x
    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis.
  11. Yaiw KC, Ong KC, Chua KB, Bingham J, Wang L, Shamala D, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2007 Aug;143(2):140-6.
    PMID: 17442409
    Tioman virus is a newly described bat-urine derived paramyxovirus isolated in Tioman Island, Malaysia in 2001. Hitherto, neither human nor animal infection by this virus has been reported. Nonetheless, its close relationship to another paramyxovirus, the Menangle virus which had caused diseases in humans and pigs [Philbey, A.W., Kirkland, P.D., Ross, A.D., Davis, R.J., Gleeson, A.B., Love, R.J., Daniels, P.W., Gould, A.R., Hyatt, A.D., 1998. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 269-271], raises the possibility that it may be potentially pathogenic. In this study, mice were experimentally infected with Tioman virus by intraperitoneal and intracerebral routes, and the cellular targets and topographical distribution of viral genome and antigens were examined using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The possible association between viral infection and apoptosis was also investigated using the TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry to FasL, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and bcl-2. The results showed that Tioman virus inoculated intracerebrally was neurotropic causing plaque-like necrotic areas, and appeared to preferentially replicate in the neocortex and limbic system. Viral infection of inflammatory cells was also demonstrated. TUNEL and Caspase-3 positivity was found in inflammatory cells but not in neurons, while FasL, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 were consistently negative. This suggests that neuronal infection was associated with necrosis rather than apoptosis. Moreover, the data suggest that there may be an association between viral infection and apoptosis in inflammatory cells, and that it could, at least in part, involve Caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 was expressed in some neurons and inflammatory cells indicating its possible role in anti-apoptosis. There was no evidence of central nervous system infection via the intraperitoneal route.
  12. Hu J, Wang S, Wang L, Li F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lu TJ, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Apr 15;54:585-97.
    PMID: 24333570 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2013.10.075
    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.
  13. Clayton BA, Middleton D, Bergfeld J, Haining J, Arkinstall R, Wang L, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2012 Dec;18(12):1983-93.
    PMID: 23171621 DOI: 10.3201/eid1812.120875
    Human infections with Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh are associated with markedly different patterns of transmission and pathogenicity. To compare the 2 strains, we conducted an in vivo study in which 2 groups of ferrets were oronasally exposed to either the Malaysia or Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus. Viral shedding and tissue tropism were compared between the 2 groups. Over the course of infection, significantly higher levels of viral RNA were recovered from oral secretions of ferrets infected with the Bangladesh strain. Higher levels of oral shedding of the Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus might be a key factor in onward transmission in outbreaks among humans.
  14. Chua KB, Wang LF, Lam SK, Crameri G, Yu M, Wise T, et al.
    Virology, 2001 May 10;283(2):215-29.
    PMID: 11336547
    A search for the natural host of Nipah virus has led to the isolation of a previously unknown member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Tioman virus (TiV) was isolated from the urine of fruit bats (Pteropus hypomelanus) found on the island of the same name off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. An electron microscopic study of TiV-infected cells revealed spherical and pleomorphic-enveloped viral particles (100--500 nm in size) with a single fringe of embedded peplomers. Virus morphogenesis occurred at the plasma membrane of infected cells and morphological features of negative-stained ribonucleoprotein complexes were compatible with that of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae. Serological studies revealed no cross-reactivity with antibodies against a number of known Paramyxoviridae members except for the newly described Menangle virus (MenV), isolated in Australia in 1997. Failure of PCR amplification using MenV-specific primers suggested that this new virus is related to but different from MenV. For molecular characterization of the virus, a cDNA subtraction strategy was employed to isolate virus-specific cDNA from virus-infected cells. Complete gene sequences for the nucleocapsid protein (N) and phosphoprotein (P/V) have been determined and recombinant N and V proteins produced in baculovirus. The recombinant N and V proteins reacted with porcine anti-MenV sera in Western blot, confirming the serological cross-reactivity observed during initial virus characterization. The lack of a C protein-coding region in the P/V gene, the creation of P mRNA by insertion of 2-G residues, and the results of phylogenetic analyses all indicated that TiV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus.
  15. Wang LF, Yu M, Hansson E, Pritchard LI, Shiell B, Michalski WP, et al.
    J. Virol., 2000 Nov;74(21):9972-9.
    PMID: 11024125
    An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia, in September 1994 resulted in the deaths of 14 racing horses and a horse trainer. The causative agent was a new member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus was originally called Equine morbillivirus but was renamed Hendra virus (HeV) when molecular characterization highlighted differences between it and members of the genus Morbillivirus. Less than 5 years later, the closely related Nipah virus (NiV) emerged in Malaysia, spread rapidly through the pig population, and caused the deaths of over 100 people. We report the characterization of the HeV L gene and protein, the genome termini, and gene boundary sequences, thus completing the HeV genome sequence. In the highly conserved region of the L protein, the HeV sequence GDNE differs from the GDNQ found in almost all other nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses. HeV has an absolutely conserved intergenic trinucleotide sequence, 3'-GAA-5', and highly conserved transcription initiation and termination sequences similar to those of respiroviruses and morbilliviruses. The large genome size (18,234 nucleotides), the unique complementary genome terminal sequences of HeV, and the limited homology with other members of the Paramyxoviridae suggest that HeV, together with NiV, should be classified in a new genus in this family. The large genome of HeV also fills a gap in the spectrum of genome sizes observed with NNS RNA virus genomes. As such, it provides a further piece in the puzzle of NNS RNA virus evolution.
  16. Naidu BR, Ngeow YF, Wang LF, Chan L, Yao ZJ, Pang T
    Immunol. Lett., 1998 Jun;62(2):111-5.
    PMID: 9698107
    Random 15-mer peptides displayed on filamentous phages were screened in binding studies using a Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibody (RR-402) and affinity-purified, polyclonal sera from patients seropositive for C. pneumoniae infections by the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test. One 15-mer epitope, epitope Cpnl5A (LASLCNPKPSDAPVT) was identified in both the monoclonal and polyclonal screenings, and showed higher ELISA reactivity with C. pneumoniae MIF-positive sera compared to patients with other chlamydial infections, non-chlamydial respiratory infections and normal healthy sera (MIF-negative). Interestingly, epitope Cpnl5A also showed significant (52%) amino acid sequence homology to the 56 kDa type-specific antigen of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, a protein implicated in the virulence of this organism.
  17. Pritchard LI, Chua KB, Cummins D, Hyatt A, Crameri G, Eaton BT, et al.
    Arch. Virol., 2006 Feb;151(2):229-39.
    PMID: 16205863
    After the outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in 1998-99, which resulted in 105 human deaths and the culling of more than one million pigs, a search was initiated for the natural host reservoir of NiV on Tioman Island off the east coast of Malaysia. Three different syncytia-forming viruses were isolated from fruit bats on the island. They were Nipah virus, Tioman virus (a novel paramyxovirus related to Menangle virus), and a reovirus, named Pulau virus (PuV), which is the subject of this study. PuV displayed the typical ultra structural morphology of a reovirus and was neutralised by serum against Nelson Bay reovirus (NBV), a reovirus isolated from a fruit bat (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Australia over 30 years ago. PuV was fusogenic and formed large syncytia in Vero cells. Comparison of dsRNA segments between PuV and NBV showed distinct mobility differences for the S1 and S2 segments. Complete sequence analysis of all four S segments revealed a close relationship between PuV and NBV, with nucleotide sequence identity varying from 88% for S3 segment to 56% for the S1 segment. Similarly phylogenetic analysis of deduced protein sequences confirmed that PuV is closely related to NBV. In this paper we discuss the similarities and differences between PuV and NBV which support the classification of PuV as a novel mammalian, fusogenic reovirus within the Nelson Bay orthoreovirus species, in the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae.
  18. Qi H, Huang G, Han Y, Zhang X, Li Y, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 2015 Jun;21(3):288-97.
    PMID: 25547514 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2014.0494
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.
  19. Yaiw KC, Hyatt A, Vandriel R, Crameri SG, Eaton B, Wong MH, et al.
    Arch. Virol., 2008;153(5):865-75.
    PMID: 18330496 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-008-0059-0
    Tioman virus (TioPV) and Menangle virus (MenPV) are two antigenically and genetically related paramyxoviruses (genus: Rubulavirus, family: Paramyxoviridae) isolated from Peninsular Malaysia (2001) and Australia (1997), respectively. Both viruses are potential zoonotic agents. In the present study, the infectivity, growth kinetics, morphology and morphogenesis of these two paramyxoviruses in a human neuronal cell (SK-N-SH) line were investigated. Sub-confluent SK-N-SH cells were infected with TioPV and MenPV at similar multiplicity of infection. These cells were examined by conventional and immunoelectron microscopy, and virus titres in the supernatants were assayed. Syncytia were observed for both infections in SK-N-SH cells and were more pronounced during the early stages of TioPV infection. The TioPV titre increased consistently (10(1)) every 12 h after infection. In MenPV-infected cells, cellular material was frequently observed within budding virions, and microfilaments and microtubules were abundant. Viral budding was common, and extracellular MenPVs tended to be more pleomorphic compared to TioPVs, which appeared to be more spherical in appearance. The MenPV cytoplasmic viral inclusion appeared to be comparatively smaller, loose and interspersed with randomly scattered circle-like particles, whereas huge tubule-like cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in TioPV-infected cells. Both viruses also displayed different cellular pathology in the SK-N-SH cells. The intracellular ultrastructural characteristics of these two viruses in infected neuronal cells may allow them to be differentiated by electron microscopy.
  20. Yaiw KC, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong HT, Chua KB, Tan CT, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2007 Sep 15;196(6):884-6.
    PMID: 17703419
    Tioman virus, a relatively new paramyxovirus, was isolated from fruit bats (Pteropus species) on Tioman Island, Malaysia, in 2001. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. virus in island inhabitants, by use of comparative ELISA and serum neutralization assays. Of the 169 human sera analyzed, 5 (approximately 3.0%) were positive for T. virus, by comparative ELISA. Of these 5 sera, 3 (1.8% of the total) had neutralizing antibodies against T. virus, suggesting previous infection of this study population by this virus or a similar virus.
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