Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 149 in total

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  1. Zhang W, Chen S, Mahalingam S, Wang M, Cheng A
    J Gen Virol, 2017 Oct;98(10):2413-2420.
    PMID: 28874226 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000908
    Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i.e. Thailand and Malaysia). This review describes the current understanding of the genome characteristics, host range, transmission, epidemiology, phylogenetic and immune evasion of avian-origin TMUV and the innate immune response of the host.
  2. Wang M, Ling KH, Tan JJ, Lu CB
    Cells, 2020 06 18;9(6).
    PMID: 32570916 DOI: 10.3390/cells9061489
    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the motor system. It is primarily due to substantial loss of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and to decreased innervation to the striatum. Although existing drug therapy available can relieve the symptoms in early-stage PD patients, it cannot reverse the pathogenic progression of PD. Thus, regenerating functional mDA neurons in PD patients may be a cure to the disease. The proof-of-principle clinical trials showed that human fetal graft-derived mDA neurons could restore the release of dopamine neurotransmitters, could reinnervate the striatum, and could alleviate clinical symptoms in PD patients. The invention of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), autologous source of neural progenitors with less ethical consideration, and risk of graft rejection can now be generated in vitro. This advancement also prompts extensive research to decipher important developmental signaling in differentiation, which is key to successful in vitro production of functional mDA neurons and the enabler of mass manufacturing of the cells required for clinical applications. In this review, we summarize the biology and signaling involved in the development of mDA neurons and the current progress and methodology in driving efficient mDA neuron differentiation from pluripotent stem cells.
  3. Wang M, Yan S, Brown CL, Shaharom-Harrison F, Shi SF, Yang TB
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal, 2016 11;27(6):3865-3875.
    PMID: 25319302
    To examine the phylogeographical pattern of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) in the South China Sea, fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes were obtained for 220 individuals collected from 8 localities along the southeast coast of China and 1 locality in Terengganu, Malaysia. Based on these two genes, two and three distinct clades with geographic signals were revealed on the phylogenetic trees respectively. The divergence between these clades was estimated to occur in the late Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FSTsuggested a high rate of gene flow among individuals sampled from the Chinese coast, but with obvious genetic differentiation from the Malaysian population. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that the T. nebulosi population experienced expansion in Pleistocene low sea level periods. Vicariance was considered to account for the genetic divergence between Chinese and Malaysian populations, while sea level fluctuations and mainland-island connections during glacial cycles were associated with the slight genetic divergence between the populations along the mainland coast of China and those off Sanya. On the contrary, oceanographic circulations and host migration could lead to genetic homogeneity of populations distributed along the mainland coast of China.
  4. Tan L, Wang M, Li X, Li H, Zhao J, Qu Y, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Jan;200:572-8.
    PMID: 26539970 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.079
    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals.
  5. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
  6. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Wang M, Putri TA, Bazazi AR, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2019 Aug;23(8):2048-2058.
    PMID: 30465106 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-018-2344-6
    With adequate support, people with HIV (PWH) may achieve high levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. We examined factors associated with ART utilization and adherence among incarcerated PWH (N = 150) in Indonesia. ART utilization was positively associated with HIV status disclosure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.5, 95% CI 1.2-24.1, p = 0.023), drug dependency (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.6, p = 0.022), health service satisfaction (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.2, p 
  7. Wang M, Xiao C, Ni P, Yu JJ, Wang XW, Sun H
    Chin Med J (Engl), 2018 Aug 20;131(16):1975-1982.
    PMID: 30082530 DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.238140
    Background: Betel quid chewing has been a major risk factor for oral cancer (OC) in southern China. This study aimed to analyze the scientific publications on the relationship between betel quid chewing and OC and construct a model to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate pertinent publications from 1998 to 2017.

    Methods: The publications from 1998 to 2017 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. Microsoft Excel, Thomson Data Analyzer, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace software were used to analyze the publication outcomes, journals, countries/regions, institutions, authors, research areas, and research frontiers.

    Results: A total of 788 publications on the relationship between betel quid chewing and OC published until October 25, 2017, were identified. The top 4 related journals were Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine, Oral Oncology, Plos One, and International Journal of Cancer. The top five countries engaged in related research included China, India, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Malaysia. The corresponding disciplines, such as oncology, oral surgery, pathology, environmental and occupational health, and toxicology, were mainly concentrated in three disciplines. The subject terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, expression, oral submucous fibrosis, India, and p53 ranked first among research hotspots. The burst terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, and expression ranked first in research frontiers.

    Conclusions: Research in this area emphasized hotspots such as squamous cell carcinoma, OC, oral submucosal fibrosis, betel quid, and tobacco. The annual number of publications steadily decreased from 1998 to 2017, with a lack of a systematic study from interdisciplinary perspectives, inadequate pertinent journals, limited regions with the practice of betel quid chewing, and insufficient participation of researchers, which indicate that as the prevalence of OC increases, particularly in China, research in this area warrants further expansion.

  8. Yan L, Zhang M, Wang M, Guo Y, Zhang X, Xi J, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 03 01;20(3):1504-1510.
    PMID: 31492313 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17350
    This research has been accomplished using the advanced selective laser melting (SLM) technique as well as HIP post-treatment in order to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of Mg- Ca-Sr alloy. Through this research it becomes clearly noticeable that the Mg-1.5Ca-xSr (x = 0.6, 2.1, 2.5) alloys with Sr exhibited better mechanical properties and corrosion potentials. This is more particular with the Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy after HIP post-treatment allowing it to provide a desired combination of degradation and mechanical behavior for orthopedic fracture fixation during a desired treatment period. In vivo trials, there was a clear indication and exhibition that this Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy screw can completely dissolve in miniature pig's body which leads to an acceleration in growth of bone tissues. Mg-Ca-Sr alloy proved potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through Our results concluded that Mg-Ca-Sr alloy are potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through mechanical strength and biocompatibility evaluations (in vitro or In vivo).
  9. Galka JM, Wang M, Azwa I, Gibson B, Lim SH, Shrestha R, et al.
    Transgend Health, 2020 Dec;5(4):258-266.
    PMID: 33644315 DOI: 10.1089/trgh.2020.0003
    Introduction: Transgender women (TW) face one of the highest HIV burdens worldwide. In Malaysia, 12.4% of TW are HIV infected, ∼30-fold higher than in the Malaysian adult population. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective HIV prevention strategy, however, little is known about TW's willingness to use PrEP or their preferences for receiving PrEP. This study examined the correlates of Malaysian TW's willingness to use PrEP and their attitudes and preferences related to delivery of PrEP and PrEP-related care. Methods: Between June and August 2017, 361 TW in Malaysia completed an online survey about their knowledge of and willingness to use PrEP for HIV prevention. Results: Only 20.2% of participants had ever previously heard of PrEP and none were currently taking PrEP. The majority (82.5%) expressed high willingness to take PrEP and most participants met the World Health Organization (WHO) indication for PrEP (82.3%). In the multivariate model, lifetime hormone use, prior postexposure prophylaxis use, and having completed a high school education were associated with higher willingness to use PrEP, while injection drug use, older age, and Chinese ethnicity were associated with lower PrEP willingness. Conclusion: TW in Malaysia are highly willing to use PrEP for HIV prevention. Differences in willingness to use PrEP identified by education, ethnicity, substance abuse, and age suggest different strategies may be needed to scale-up PrEP for this diverse community of TW.
  10. Song Y, Bai W, Wang M, Liu X, Zhang L, Yu W, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2019 12 01;259:195-200.
    PMID: 31446380 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.042
    BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major global mental health problem among college students. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between the psychological strains of the strain theory of suicide and suicidal behaviors among college students.

    METHODS: Participants comprised 1912 college students (16-28 years old, 47.2% female) from three universities in Jilin Province, China, who completed the self-report assessments of psychological strains (40 items Psychological Strains Scale) and suicidal behaviors (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised). The demographic characteristics included four variables: health status, psychological status, academic status and economic status.

    RESULTS: Approximately 15.0% (286/1912) of participants were classified as having suicide risk, based on the cut-off scores of the SBQ-R. The prevalence of suicidal behaviors among males and females was 11.9% (120/1009) and 18.4% (166/903), respectively. Value strain (OR = 1.075, 95%CI: 1.057-1.094), aspiration strain (OR = 1.082, 95%CI: 1.064-1.101), deprivation strain (OR = 1.073, 95%CI: 1.052-1.093), and coping strain (OR = 1.095, 95%CI: 1.075-1.116) were risk factors for suicidality in college students. Coping strain (OR = 1.050, 95%CI: 1.023-1.077) was still positively associated with suicide risk in multivariate logistic regression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that coping strain had the highest correlation with suicidal behaviors.

    LIMITATIONS: The directionality of the relationships cannot be deduced because this study is cross-sectional.

    CONCLUSION: This study confirms a strong association between psychological strains and suicidal behaviors in college students. Some measures can be taken to reduce psychological strains to mitigate suicide risk among college students. More studies investigating coping strain among college students are warranted.

  11. Fan X, Matsumoto H, Wang Y, Hu Y, Liu Y, Fang H, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2019 Nov 19;53(22):13042-13052.
    PMID: 31631659 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b04616
    Rice fungal pathogens, responsible for severe rice yield loss and biotoxin contamination, cause increasing concerns on environmental safety and public health. In the paddy environment, we observed that the asymptomatic rice phyllosphere microenvironment was dominated by an indigenous fungus, Aspergillus cvjetkovicii, which positively correlated with alleviated incidence of Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most aggressive plant pathogens. Through the comparative metabolic profiling for the rice phyllosphere microenvironment, two metabolites were assigned as exclusively enriched metabolic markers in the asymptomatic phyllosphere and increased remarkably in a population-dependent manner with A. cvjetkovicii. These two metabolites evidenced to be produced by A. cvjetkovicii in either a phyllosphere microenvironment or artificial media were purified and identified as 2(3H)-benzofuranone and azulene, respectively, by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Combining with bioassay analysis in vivo and in vitro, we found that 2(3H)-benzofuranone and azulene exerted dissimilar actions at the stage of infection-related development of M. oryzae. A. cvjetkovicii produced 2(3H)-benzofuranone at the early stage to suppress MoPer1 gene expression, leading to inhibited mycelial growth, while azulene produced lately was involved in blocking of appressorium formation by downregulation of MgRac1. More profoundly, the microenvironmental interplay dominated by A. cvjetkovicii significantly blocked M. oryzae epidemics in the paddy environment from 54.7 to 68.5% (p < 0.05). Our study first demonstrated implication of the microenvironmental interplay dominated by indigenous and beneficial fungus to ecological balance and safety of the paddy environment.
  12. Wang M, Chittiboyina AG, Parcher JF, Ali Z, Ford P, Zhao J, et al.
    Planta Med, 2019 Feb;85(3):185-194.
    PMID: 30440078 DOI: 10.1055/a-0782-0548
    The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper (Piper nigrum) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation. The twenty-two most abundant volatile compounds, mainly terpenes, in these oils were determined by conventional GC/MS analysis. Principal component analysis with this set of data revealed distinct clusters for samples that originated from China and Malaysia. Relatively low concentrations of sabinene (
  13. Wang M, Lim SH, Gibson BA, Azwa I, Guadamuz TE, Altice FL, et al.
    Int J STD AIDS, 2021 06;32(7):609-619.
    PMID: 33752518 DOI: 10.1177/0956462420970417
    Globally, cisgender women sex workers (CWSWs) and transgender women sex workers (TWSWs) experience increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. Unfortunately, there is limited data on the drivers of HIV infection in these two understudied populations, particularly in Southeast Asia. To better understand factors associated with HIV infection, we evaluated correlates of newly diagnosed HIV infection in these two populations in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 469 women (CWSW: n = 283; TWSW: n = 186) were included in this study. Most participants who tested HIV+ were unaware of their infection (59.6%; n = 34/57). Separate binary and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify correlates of newly diagnosed HIV in CWSWs and TWSWs. Among CWSWs, Chlamydia trachomatis (aOR = 5.66; p = 0.007) and lifetime use of ecstasy/MDMA (aOR = 5.34; p = 0.03) were associated with newly diagnosed HIV, while condomless vaginal sex with clients was associated with lower likelihood of HIV infection (aOR = 0.98; p = 0.01). Among TWSWs, being single (aOR = 6.76; p = 0.03), using mobile application to solicit clients (aOR = 25.33; p = 0.006), and having C. trachomatis infection (aOR = 88.22, p = 0.02) were associated with newly diagnosed HIV. Expansion of HIV/sexually transmitted infection screening is needed to increase detection of HIV and linkage to care for sex workers. Interventions to reduce HIV infection among CWSWs and TWSWs should be tailored to these populations' unique vulnerabilities.
  14. Wang Y, Cheng C, Zhang Z, Wang J, Wang Y, Li X, et al.
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 2018 12;177(8):709-716.
    PMID: 30350918 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32675
    No biologically based diagnostic criteria are in clinical use today for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are defined with reference to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual clinical symptoms alone. However, these disorders cannot always be well distinguished on clinical grounds and may also be comorbid. A biological blood-based dynamic genomic signature that can differentiate among OCD, MDD, and schizophrenia would therefore be of great utility. This study enrolled 77 patients with OCD, 67 controls with no psychiatric illness, 39 patients with MDD, and 40 with schizophrenia. An OCD-specific gene signature was identified using blood gene expression analysis to construct a predictive model of OCD that can differentiate this disorder from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia using a logistic regression algorithm. To verify that the genes selected were not derived as a result of chance, the algorithm was tested twice. First, the algorithm was used to predict the cohort with true disease/control status and second, the algorithm predicted the cohort with disease/control status randomly reassigned (null set). A six-gene panel (COPS7A, FKBP1A, FIBP, TP73-AS1, SDF4, and GOLGA8A) discriminated patients with OCD from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia in the training set (with an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.938; accuracy, 86%; sensitivity, 88%; and specificity, 85%). Our findings indicate that a blood transcriptomic signature can distinguish OCD from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia. This finding further confirms the feasibility of using dynamic blood-based genomic signatures in psychiatric disorders and may provide a useful tool for clinical staff engaged in OCD diagnosis and decision making.
  15. Zhang W, Liang Y, Zheng K, Gu C, Liu Y, Wang Z, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2021 Sep 20;22(1):675.
    PMID: 34544379 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07978-4
    BACKGROUND: Marine bacteriophages play key roles in the community structure of microorganisms, biogeochemical cycles, and the mediation of genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Recently, traditional isolation methods, complemented by high-throughput sequencing metagenomics technology, have greatly increased our understanding of the diversity of bacteriophages. Oceanospirillum, within the order Oceanospirillales, are important symbiotic marine bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation and algal blooms, especially in polar regions. However, until now there has been no isolate of an Oceanospirillum bacteriophage, and so details of their metagenome has remained unknown.

    RESULTS: Here, we reported the first Oceanospirillum phage, vB_OliS_GJ44, which was assembled into a 33,786 bp linear dsDNA genome, which includes abundant tail-related and recombinant proteins. The recombinant module was highly adapted to the host, according to the tetranucleotides correlations. Genomic and morphological analyses identified vB_OliS_GJ44 as a siphovirus, however, due to the distant evolutionary relationship with any other known siphovirus, it is proposed that this virus could be classified as the type phage of a new Oceanospirivirus genus within the Siphoviridae family. vB_OliS_GJ44 showed synteny with six uncultured phages, which supports its representation in uncultured environmental viral contigs from metagenomics. Homologs of several vB_OliS_GJ44 genes have mostly been found in marine metagenomes, suggesting the prevalence of this phage genus in the oceans.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results describe the first Oceanospirillum phage, vB_OliS_GJ44, that represents a novel viral cluster and exhibits interesting genetic features related to phage-host interactions and evolution. Thus, we propose a new viral genus Oceanospirivirus within the Siphoviridae family to reconcile this cluster, with vB_OliS_GJ44 as a representative member.

  16. Hu L, Xu Z, Wang M, Fan R, Yuan D, Wu B, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 10 16;10(1):4702.
    PMID: 31619678 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12607-6
    Black pepper (Piper nigrum), dubbed the 'King of Spices' and 'Black Gold', is one of the most widely used spices. Here, we present its reference genome assembly by integrating PacBio, 10x Chromium, BioNano DLS optical mapping, and Hi-C mapping technologies. The 761.2 Mb sequences (45 scaffolds with an N50 of 29.8 Mb) are assembled into 26 pseudochromosomes. A phylogenomic analysis of representative plant genomes places magnoliids as sister to the monocots-eudicots clade and indicates that black pepper has diverged from the shared Laurales-Magnoliales lineage approximately 180 million years ago. Comparative genomic analyses reveal specific gene expansions in the glycosyltransferase, cytochrome P450, shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, lysine decarboxylase, and acyltransferase gene families. Comparative transcriptomic analyses disclose berry-specific upregulated expression in representative genes in each of these gene families. These data provide an evolutionary perspective and shed light on the metabolic processes relevant to the molecular basis of species-specific piperine biosynthesis.
  17. Zhang W, Jiang B, Zeng M, Duan Y, Wu Z, Wu Y, et al.
    J Virol, 2020 04 16;94(9).
    PMID: 32075929 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01850-19
    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), which is similar to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses that replicate well in most mammalian cells, is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused epidemics in egg-laying and breeding waterfowl. Immune organ defects and neurological dysfunction are the main clinical symptoms of DTMUV infection. Preinfection with DTMUV makes the virus impervious to later interferon (IFN) treatment, revealing that DTMUV has evolved some strategies to defend against host IFN-dependent antiviral responses. Immune inhibition was further confirmed by screening for DTMUV-encoded proteins, which suggested that NS2A significantly inhibited IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner and facilitated reinfection with duck plague virus (DPV). DTMUV NS2A was able to inhibit duck retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-, mitochondrial-localized adaptor molecules (MAVS)-, stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-induced IFN-β transcription, but not duck TBK1- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated effective phases of IFN response. Furthermore, we found that NS2A competed with duTBK1 in binding to duck STING (duSTING), impaired duSTING-duSTING binding, and reduced duTBK1 phosphorylation, leading to the subsequent inhibition of IFN production. Importantly, we first identified that the W164A, Y167A, and S361A mutations in duSTING significantly impaired the NS2A-duSTING interaction, which is important for NS2A-induced IFN-β inhibition. Hence, our data demonstrated that DTMUV NS2A disrupts duSTING-dependent antiviral cellular defenses by binding with duSTING, which provides a novel mechanism by which DTMUV subverts host innate immune responses. The potential interaction sites between NS2A and duSTING may be the targets of future novel antiviral therapies and vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Flavivirus infections are transmitted through mosquitos or ticks and lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with a spectrum of manifestations. Infection with an emerging flavivirus, DTMUV, manifests with clinical symptoms that include lesions of the immune organs and neurological dysfunction, leading to heavy egg drop and causing serious harm to the duck industry in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and other Southeast Asian countries. Mosquito cells, bird cells, and mammalian cell lines are all susceptible to DTMUV infection. An in vivo study revealed that BALB/c mice and Kunming mice were susceptible to DTMUV after intracerebral inoculation. Moreover, there are no reports about DTMUV-related human disease, but antibodies against DTMUV and viral RNA were detected in serum samples of duck industry workers. This information implies that DTMUV has expanded its host range and may pose a threat to mammalian health. However, the pathogenesis of DTMUV is largely unclear. Our results show that NS2A strongly blocks the STING-induced signal transduction cascade by binding with STING, which subsequently blocks STING-STING binding and TBK1 phosphorylation. More importantly, the W164, Y167, or S361 residues in duSTING were identified as important interaction sites between STING and NS2A that are vital for NS2A-induced IFN production and effective phases of IFN response. Uncovering the mechanism by which DTMUV NS2A inhibits IFN in the cells of its natural hosts, ducks, will help us understand the role of NS2A in DTMUV pathogenicity.
  18. Liu Y, Zheng K, Liu B, Liang Y, You S, Zhang W, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2021;12:726074.
    PMID: 34512604 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.726074
    Marinobacter is the abundant and important algal-associated and hydrocarbon biodegradation bacteria in the ocean. However, little knowledge about their phages has been reported. Here, a novel siphovirus, vB_MalS-PS3, infecting Marinobacter algicola DG893(T), was isolated from the surface waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that vB_MalS-PS3 has the morphology of siphoviruses. VB_MalS-PS3 was stable from -20 to 55°C, and with the latent and rise periods of about 80 and 10 min, respectively. The genome sequence of VB_MalS-PS3 contains a linear, double-strand 42,168-bp DNA molecule with a G + C content of 56.23% and 54 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Nineteen conserved domains were predicted by BLASTp in NCBI. We found that vB_MalS-PS3 represent an understudied viral group with only one known isolate. The phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of whole genomes revealed that vB_MalS-PS3 has a distant evolutionary relationship with other siphoviruses, and can be grouped into a novel viral genus cluster with six uncultured assembled viral genomes from metagenomics, named here as Marinovirus. This study of the Marinobacter phage vB_MalS-PS3 genome enriched the genetic database of marine bacteriophages, in addition, will provide useful information for further research on the interaction between Marinobacter phages and their hosts, and their relationship with algal blooms and hydrocarbon biodegradation in the ocean.
  19. Gao C, Xia J, Zhou X, Liang Y, Jiang Y, Wang M, et al.
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2021 10 28;87(22):e0116021.
    PMID: 34469192 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01160-21
    Nordic Seas are the subarctic seas connecting the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with complex water masses, experiencing an abrupt climate change. Though knowledge of the marine virosphere has expanded rapidly, the diversity of viruses and their relationships with host cells and water masses in the Nordic Seas remain to be fully revealed. Here, we establish the Nordic Sea DNA virome (NSV) data set of 55,315 viral contigs including 1,478 unique viral populations from seven stations influenced by both the warm Atlantic and cold Arctic water masses. Caudovirales dominated in the seven NSVs, especially in the warm Atlantic waters. The major giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) contributed a significant proportion of the classified viral contigs in the NSVs (32.2%), especially in the cold Arctic waters (44.9%). The distribution patterns of Caudovirales and NCLDVs were a reflection of the community structure of their hosts in the corresponding water masses and currents. Latitude, pH, and flow speed were found to be key factors influencing the microbial communities and coinfluencing the variation of viral communities. Network analysis illustrated the tight coupling between the variation of viral communities and microbial communities in the Nordic Seas. This study suggests a probable linkage between viromes, host cells, and surface water masses from both the cool Arctic and warm Atlantic Oceans. IMPORTANCE This is a systematic study of Nordic Sea viromes using metagenomic analysis. The viral diversity, community structure, and their relationships with host cells and the complex water masses from both the cool Arctic and the warm Atlantic oceans were illustrated. The NCLDVs and Caudovirales are proposed as the viral characteristics of the cold Arctic and warm Atlantic waters, respectively. This study provides an important background for the viromes in the subarctic seas connecting the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean and sheds light on their responses to abrupt climate change in the future.
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