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  1. Jia M, Wei Y, Ma Y, Shen Y, Zhang Y
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 1997 Aug;22(8):454-8, 510.
    PMID: 11038909
    Through the investigation on botanical origin, output and sales of Togcao in producing areas, it has been proved that there are twenty-two species of six families used as Tongcao. The medicinal parts are the pith of stems or petioles. The provinces featuring more species and larger output of Tongcao are Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan and Shaanxi. A hundred and two pieces of commercial samples collected from twenty-six provinces in China, Hongkong area, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Republic of Korea have been identified. The result shows that both Xiaotongcao and Datongcao are called by the same name Tongcao. The main species is Xiaotongcao, which takes a proportion of 70% in Tongcao. And the Tongcao(Tetrapanax papyriferus, taking a proportion of 20%) as recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edition) is seldom used.
  2. Li Z, Wei Y, Cao Z, Jiang S, Chen Y, Shao X
    J Agric Food Chem, 2021 Sep 15;69(36):10678-10687.
    PMID: 34468130 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04608
    Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, markedly increases the disease resistance of postharvest strawberry fruit. To understand the mechanism underlying the enhancement of disease resistance, a high-throughput RNA-seq was used to analyze gene transcription in terpinen-4-ol-treated and untreated fruit. The results show that terpinen-4-ol induces the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway, secondary metabolic pathways such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pathways involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Terpinen-4-ol treatment reduced disease incidence and lesion diameter in strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. Terpinen-4-ol treatment enhanced the expression of genes involved in JA synthesis (FaLOX, FaAOC, and FaOPR3) and signaling (FaCOI1), as well as genes related to disease defense (FaPAL, FaCHI, and FaGLU). In contrast, treatment with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) accelerated disease development and inhibited the induction of gene expressions by terpinen-4-ol. We conclude that the JA pathway participates in the induction of disease resistance by terpinen-4-ol in strawberry fruit. More generally, the results illuminate the mechanisms by which disease resistance is enhanced by essential oils.
  3. Sivanandy P, Zi Xien F, Woon Kit L, Tze Wei Y, Hui En K, Chia Lynn L
    J Infect Public Health, 2018 09 10;12(2):153-158.
    PMID: 30213468 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.08.005
    The H7N9 subtype of avian influenza is an enzootic and airborne virus which caused an influenza outbreak in China. Infected individuals mostly worked with poultry, suggesting H7N9 virus-infected poultry as the primary source of human infection. Significantly increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (chemokines, cytokines) during virus infection could hamper the immune system and aggravate the infection. Severe cases are marked by fulminant pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and encephalopathy. Left untreated, the condition may rapidly progress to multi-organ failure and death. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the gold standard diagnostic test for H7N9 avian influenza. Use of neurominidase inhibitor antivirals remain the main treatment. New antivirals are developed to counteract neurominidase inhibitor resistance H7N9 viral strains. Corticosteroid use in viral pneumonia may provoke mortality and longer viral shedding time. Subjects at high risk of contracting avian influenza H7N9 infection are recommended to receive annual seasonal influenza vaccination.
  4. Heng BC, Zhang X, Aubel D, Bai Y, Li X, Wei Y, et al.
    Cell Mol Life Sci, 2021 Jan;78(2):497-512.
    PMID: 32748155 DOI: 10.1007/s00018-020-03579-8
    YAP and TAZ are ubiquitously expressed homologous proteins originally identified as penultimate effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, which plays a key role in maintaining mammalian tissue/organ size. Presently, it is known that YAP/TAZ also interact with various non-Hippo signaling pathways, and have diverse roles in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, cell lineage fate determination, tumorigenesis, and mechanosensing. In this review, we first examine the various microenvironmental cues and signaling pathways that regulate YAP/TAZ activation, through the Hippo and non-Hippo signaling pathways. This is followed by a brief summary of the interactions of YAP/TAZ with TEAD1-4 and a diverse array of other non-TEAD transcription factors. Finally, we offer a critical perspective on how increasing knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of YAP/TAZ signaling might open the door to novel therapeutic applications in the interrelated fields of biomaterials, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and synthetic biology.
  5. Heng BC, Zhang X, Aubel D, Bai Y, Li X, Wei Y, et al.
    Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020;8:735.
    PMID: 32850847 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2020.00735
    The penultimate effectors of the Hippo signaling pathways YAP and TAZ, are transcriptional co-activator proteins that play key roles in many diverse biological processes, ranging from cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, mechanosensing and cell lineage fate determination, to wound healing and regeneration. In this review, we discuss the regulatory mechanisms by which YAP/TAZ control stem/progenitor cell differentiation into the various major lineages that are of interest to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Of particular interest is the key role of YAP/TAZ in maintaining the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of endogenous adult stem cells within various tissues/organs during early development, normal homeostasis and regeneration/healing. Finally, we will consider how increasing knowledge of YAP/TAZ signaling might influence the trajectory of future progress in regenerative medicine.
  6. Khalaf AT, Wei Y, Alneamah SJA, Al-Shawi SG, Kadir SYA, Zainol J, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:8823222.
    PMID: 33681381 DOI: 10.1155/2021/8823222
    Nutraceuticals have taken on considerable significance due to their supposed safety and possible nutritional and medicinal effects. Pharmaceutical and dietary companies are conscious of monetary success, which benefits healthier consumers and the altering trends that result in these heart-oriented value-added products being proliferated. Numerous nutraceuticals are claimed to have multiple therapeutic benefits despite advantages, and unwanted effects encompass a lack of substantial evidence. Several common nutraceuticals involve glucosamine, omega-3, Echinacea, cod liver oil, folic acid, ginseng, orange juice supplemented with calcium, and green tea. This review is dedicated to improving the understanding of nutrients based on specific illness indications. It was reported that functional foods contain physiologically active components that confer various health benefits. Studies have shown that some foods and dietary patterns play a major role in the primary prevention of many ailment conditions that lead to putative functional foods being identified. Research and studies are needed to support the possible health benefits of different functional foods that have not yet been clinically validated for the relationships between diet and health. The term "functional foods" may additionally involve health/functional health foods, foods enriched with vitamins/minerals, nutritional improvements, or even conventional medicines.
  7. Dai K, Han P, Zou X, Jiang S, Xu F, Wang H, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2021 02;140:110021.
    PMID: 33648251 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110021
    Chinese bayberry fruit were treated with hot air (HA) at 48 ℃ for 3 h and then stored at 4 ℃ for 15 d. Changes in fungal communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS), and decay and fruit quality were monitored during storage. The results showed that HA treatment effectively maintains fruit quality and the richness and diversity of fungal communities. Heat treatment inhibited decay development and reduced the growth of fungi in the genera Botryotinia spp., Davidiella spp., Hanseniaspora spp., and Candida spp. Canonical correspondence analysis further revealed that Botryotinia spp. and Davidiella spp. were positively correlated with fruit decay and weight loss. FUNGuild analysis demonstrated that HA-treated bayberries had a lower relative abundance within the plant pathogen guild, but higher relative abundance within the endophyte guild. The results suggest that HA treatment reduces pathogens by favoring the increase of endophytes, providing new insight into the decay development and quality changes during the storage of postharvest Chinese bayberries.
  8. Ren T, Feng H, Xu C, Xu Q, Fu B, Azwar E, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan 22;294:133710.
    PMID: 35074326 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133710
    The usage of fertilizer with high nitrogen content in many countries, as well as its enormous surplus, has a negative impact on the soil ecological environment in agricultural system. This consumption of nitrogen fertilizer can be minimized by applying biochar to maintain the sufficient supply of nitrogen as nutrient to the near-root zone. This study investigated the effects of various amounts of biochar application (450, 900, 1350, and 1800 kg/hm2) and reduction of nitrogen fertilizer amount (10, 15, 20, and 25%) on the nutrients and microorganism community structure in rhizosphere growing tobacco plant. The microorganism community was found essential in improving nitrogen retention. Compared with conventional treatment, an application of biochar in rhizosphere soil increased the content of soil available phosphorus, organic matter and total nitrogen by 21.47%, 26.34%, and 9.52%, respectively. It also increased the abundance of microorganisms that are capable of degrading and utilizing organic matter and cellulose, such as Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. The relative abundance of Chloroflexi was also increased by 49.67-78.61%, and the Acidobacteria increased by 14.79-39.13%. Overall, the application of biochar with reduced nitrogen fertilizer amount can regulate the rhizosphere microecological environment of tobacco plants and their microbial population structure, thereby promoting soil health for tobacco plant growth while reducing soil acidification and environmental pollution caused by excessive nitrogen fertilizer.
  9. Fan L, Wei Y, Chen Y, Jiang S, Xu F, Zhang C, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 Mar 01;403:134419.
    PMID: 36191421 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.134419
    This study investigatedthe mechanism of epinecidin-1 against Botrytis cinerea, in vitro, and its effectiveness at inhibiting gray mold on postharvest peach fruit. We found that in vitro, epinecidin-1 had significantly greater antifungal activity against B. cinerea than either clavanin-A or mytimycin, two other marine derived antimicrobial peptides that we tested. Its antifungal activity was heat-resistant (15 min at 40-100 °C) and tolerant to lower concentrations of cations (<100 mM Na+, K+; <10 mM Ca2+). Epinecidin-1 interacted directly with B. cinerea genomic DNA, and that in mycelia, epinecidin-1 exposure induced accumulation of intracellular ROS and increased the permeability of cell membranes resulting in leakage of nucleic acids and aberrant cell morphology. Meanwhile, 200 μM of epinecidin-1 had a significant inhibitory effect on gray mold injected into peach fruit. These results suggested that epinecidin-1 showed promise as a potential method for controlling postharvest gray mold in peaches.
  10. Zou X, Wei Y, Jiang S, Xu F, Wang H, Zhan P, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2022 Nov 16;70(45):14468-14479.
    PMID: 36322824 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c06187
    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), a common compound found in plants and microorganisms, exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Using Botrytis cinerea, we demonstrated that 2-PE suppressed mycelium growth in vitro and in strawberry fruit and reduced natural disease without adverse effects to fruit quality. 2-PE caused structural damage to mycelia, as shown by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. From RNA sequencing analysis we found significantly upregulated genes for enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems including sulfur metabolism and glutathione metabolism, indicating that ROS stress was induced by 2-PE. This was consistent with results from assays demonstrating an increase ROS and hydrogen peroxide levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde content in treated cells. The upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, the downregulation of major facilitator superfamily transporters genes, and the downregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes indicated a severe disruption of cell membrane structure and function. This was consistent with results from assays demonstrating compromised membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. To summarize, 2-PE exposure suppressed B. cinerea growth through ROS stress and cell membrane disruption.
  11. Dai K, Wei Y, Jiang S, Xu F, Wang H, Zhang X, et al.
    Foods, 2021 Dec 31;11(1).
    PMID: 35010225 DOI: 10.3390/foods11010099
    Thinned peach polyphenols (TPPs) were extracted by ultrasonic disruption and purified using macroporous resin. Optimized extraction conditions resulted in a TPPs yield of 1.59 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g FW, and optimized purification conditions resulted in a purity of 43.86% with NKA-9 resin. TPPs composition was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS; chlorogenic acid, catechin, and neochlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in thinned peaches. Purified TPPs exhibited scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, and FRAP. TPPs inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase by competitive and noncompetitive reversible inhibition, respectively. TPPs also exhibited a higher binding capacity for bile acids than cholestyramine. In summary, TPPs from thinned peaches are potentially valuable because of their high antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic capacities, and present a new incentive for the comprehensive utilization of thinned peach fruit.
  12. Maki MAA, Kumar PV, Cheah SC, Siew Wei Y, Al-Nema M, Bayazeid O, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2019 May 31;4(5):8767-8777.
    PMID: 31459966 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b00109
    Several studies have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor; everolimus (EV) improves patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the meaningful efficacy of EV as a single agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has failed to be proven in multiple clinical trials. Combination therapy is one of the options that could increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of the anticancer therapy. This study revealed that the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD):FGF7 complex has the potential to improve the antiproliferative effect of EV by preventing FGF receptor activation and by enhancing EV cellular uptake and intracellular retention. Molecular docking techniques were used to investigate the possible interaction between EV, β-CD, and FGF7. Molecular docking insights revealed that β-CD and EV are capable to form a stable inclusion complex with FGF at the molecular level. The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complex was increased (3.1 ± 0.23 μM) when compared to the aqueous solubility of pure EV (1.7 ± 0.16 μM). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a FGF7:β-CD:EV complex on Caco-2 cell line was investigated using real-time xCELLigence technology. The FGF7:β-CD:EV complex has induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cells and shown higher cytotoxic activity than the parent drug EV. With the multitargets effect of β-CD:FGF7 and EV, the antiproliferative effect of EV was remarkably improved as the IC50 value of EV was reduced from 9.65 ± 1.42 to 1.87 ± 0.33 μM when compared to FGF7:β-CD:EV complex activity. In conclusion, the findings advance the understanding of the biological combinational effects of the β-CD:FGF7 complex and EV as an effective treatment to combat CRC.
  13. Yan S, Ren T, Wan Mahari WA, Feng H, Xu C, Yun F, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Aug 24;802:149835.
    PMID: 34461468 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149835
    Soil carbon supplementation is known to stimulate plant growth by improving soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake. However, the underlying process and chemical mechanism that could explain the interrelationship between soil carbon supplementation, soil micro-ecology, and the growth and quality of plant remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence and mechanism of soil carbon supplementation on the bacterial community, chemical cycling, mineral nutrition absorption, growth and properties of tobacco leaves. The soil carbon supplementation increased amino acid, carbohydrates, chemical energy metabolism, and bacterial richness in the soil. This led to increased content of sugar (23.75%), starch (13.25%), and chlorophyll (10.56%) in tobacco leaves. Linear discriminant analysis revealed 49 key phylotypes and significant increment of some of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) genera (Bacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas) in the rhizosphere, which can influence the tobacco growth. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM) showed that soil carbon supplementation positively affected the sugar and starch contents in tobacco leaves by possibly altering the photosynthesis pathway towards increasing the aroma of the leaves, thus contributing to enhanced tobacco flavor. These findings are useful for understanding the influence of soil carbon supplementation on bacterial community for improving the yields and quality of tobacco in industrial plantation.
  14. Yang J, Xu S, Wang W, Ran X, Ching YC, Sui X, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2023 Jan 15;300:120253.
    PMID: 36372510 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.120253
    In this work, a systematic coupling study of silane coupling agent between starch and epoxidized soybean oils (ESO) was carried out. Starch was modified by 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (APMS) with various contents of NaOH. The APMS-modified starch was incorporated with ESO to synthesize the bioplastics by solution casting. As demonstrated by the FTIR spectra, the hydrogen bond interactions among starch molecules were inhibited by the modification. This outcome provided higher interaction and compatibility of starch with ESO, as confirmed by FESEM. TGA showed that the thermal stability of starch decreased considerably after the silylation. In contrast, the produced bioplastics with silylated starch exhibited higher thermal stability than the control sample. Regarding the bioplastics, an obvious increase of tensile strength from 5.78 MPa to 9.29 MPa was obtained. This work suggested a simple and effective modification technique by APMS to improve compatibility of starch/ESO-based bioplastics with superior mechanical and thermal properties.
  15. Teoh JY, Cho CL, Wei Y, Isotani S, Tiong HY, Ong TA, et al.
    World J Urol, 2019 Sep;37(9):1879-1887.
    PMID: 30560297 DOI: 10.1007/s00345-018-2602-2
    PURPOSE: The Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group (AUSTEG) has been established to provide training and education to young urologists in Asia. We developed and validated a porcine bladder training model for transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT).

    METHODS: Urology residents and specialists were invited to test the training model. They were asked to complete a pre-task questionnaire, to perform piecemeal and en bloc resection of 'bladder tumours' within the training model, and to complete a post-task questionnaire afterwards. Their performances were assessed by faculty members of the AUSTEG. For the face validity, a pre-task questionnaire consisting of six statements on TURBT and the training model were set. For the content validity, a post-task questionnaire consisting of 14 items on the details of the training model were set. For the construct validity, a Global Rating Scale was used to assess the participants' performances. The participants were stratified into two groups (junior surgeons and senior surgeons groups) according to their duration of urology training.

    RESULTS: For the pre-task questionnaire, a mean score of ≥ 4.0 out of 5.0 was achieved in 5 out of 6 statements. For the post-task questionnaire, a mean score of ≥ 4.5 out of 5.0 was achieved in every item. For the Global Rating Scale, the senior surgeons group had higher scores than the junior surgeons group in 8 out of 11 items as well as the total score.

    CONCLUSION: A porcine TURBT training model has been developed, and its face, content and construct validity has been established.

  16. Teoh JY, Cho CL, Wei Y, Isotani S, Tiong HY, Ong TA, et al.
    Andrologia, 2020 Sep;52(8):e13708.
    PMID: 32557751 DOI: 10.1111/and.13708
    Anatomical endoscopic enucleation of the prostate has been proposed as a potentially superior benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery than conventional transurethral resection of prostate. However, the learning curve of the procedure is steep, hence limiting its generalisability worldwide. In order to overcome the learning curve, a proper surgical training is extremely important. This review article discussed about various aspects of surgical training in anatomical endoscopic enucleation of the prostate. In summary, no matter what surgical technique or energy modality you use, the principle of anatomical enucleation should be followed. When one starts to perform prostate enucleation, a 50 to 80 g prostate appears to be the 'best case' to begin with. Mentorship is extremely important to shorten the learning curve and to prevent drastic complications from the procedure. A proficiency-based progression training programme with the use of simulation and training models should be the best way to teach and learn about prostate enucleation. Enucleation ratio efficacy is the preferred measure for assessing skill level and learning curve of prostate enucleation. Morcellation efficiency is commonly used to assess morcellation performance, but the importance of safety rather than efficiency must be emphasised.
  17. Lye DC, Archuleta S, Syed-Omar SF, Low JG, Oh HM, Wei Y, et al.
    Lancet, 2017 Apr 22;389(10079):1611-1618.
    PMID: 28283286 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30269-6
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is the commonest vector-borne infection worldwide. It is often associated with thrombocytopenia, and prophylactic platelet transfusion is widely used despite the dearth of robust evidence. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusion in the prevention of bleeding in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia.
    METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised, superiority trial in five hospitals in Singapore and Malaysia. We recruited patients aged at least 21 years who had laboratory-confirmed dengue (confirmed or probable) and thrombocytopenia (≤20 000 platelets per μL), without persistent mild bleeding or any severe bleeding. Patients were assigned (1:1), with randomly permuted block sizes of four or six and stratified by centre, to receive prophylactic platelet transfusion in addition to supportive care (transfusion group) or supportive care alone (control group). In the transfusion group, 4 units of pooled platelets were given each day when platelet count was 20 000 per μL or lower; supportive care consisted of bed rest, fluid therapy, and fever and pain medications. The primary endpoint was clinical bleeding (excluding petechiae) by study day 7 or hospital discharge (whichever was earlier), analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were analysed according to the actual treatment received. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01030211, and is completed.
    FINDINGS: Between April 29, 2010, and Dec 9, 2014, we randomly assigned 372 patients to the transfusion group (n=188) or the control group (n=184). The intention-to-treat analysis included 187 patients in the transfusion group (one patient was withdrawn immediately) and 182 in the control group (one was withdrawn immediately and one did not have confirmed or probable dengue). Clinical bleeding by day 7 or hospital discharge occurred in 40 (21%) patients in the transfusion group and 48 (26%) patients in the control group (risk difference -4·98% [95% CI -15·08 to 5·34]; relative risk 0·81 [95% CI 0·56 to 1·17]; p=0·16). 13 adverse events occurred in the transfusion group and two occurred in the control group (5·81% [-4·42 to 16·01]; 6·26 [1·43 to 27·34]; p=0·0064). Adverse events that were possibly, probably, or definitely related to transfusion included three cases of urticaria, one maculopapular rash, one pruritus, and one chest pain, as well as one case each of anaphylaxis, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and fluid overload that resulted in serious adverse events. No death was reported.
    INTERPRETATION: In adult patients with dengue and thrombocytopenia, prophylactic platelet transfusion was not superior to supportive care in preventing bleeding, and might be associated with adverse events.
    FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.
    Study site: Hospitals, Singapore; University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Study protocol: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01030211
  18. Archuleta S, Chia PY, Wei Y, Syed-Omar SF, Low JG, Oh HM, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2020 07 11;71(2):383-389.
    PMID: 31626692 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz850
    BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is common in dengue patients with thrombocytopenia. We previously showed in a randomized clinical trial that prophylactic platelet transfusion did not reduce clinical bleeding. In this study, we aimed to characterize the predictors and clinical outcomes of poor platelet recovery in transfused and nontransfused participants.

    METHODS: We analyzed patients from the Adult Dengue Platelet Study with laboratory-confirmed dengue with ≤20 000 platelets/μL and without persistent mild bleeding or any severe bleeding in a post hoc analysis. Poor platelet recovery was defined as a platelet count of ≤20 000/μL on Day 2. We recruited 372 participants from 5 acute care hospitals located in Singapore and Malaysia between 29 April 2010 and 9 December 2014. Of these, 188 were randomly assigned to the transfusion group and 184 to the control group.

    RESULTS: Of 360 patients, 158 had poor platelet recovery. Age, white cell count, and day of illness at study enrollment were significant predictors of poor platelet recovery after adjustment for baseline characteristics and platelet transfusion. Patients with poor platelet recovery had longer hospitalizations but no significant difference in other clinical outcomes, regardless of transfusion. We found a significant interaction between platelet recovery and transfusion; patients with poor platelet recovery were more likely to bleed if given a prophylactic platelet transfusion (odds ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.18-4.63).

    CONCLUSIONS: Dengue patients with thrombocytopenia who were older or presented earlier and with lower white cell counts were more likely to have poor platelet recovery. In patients with poor platelet recovery, platelet transfusion does not improve outcomes and may actually increase the risk of bleeding. The mechanisms of poor platelet recovery need to be determined.

    CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01030211.

  19. Kachuri L, Amos CI, McKay JD, Johansson M, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2016 Jan;37(1):96-105.
    PMID: 26590902 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv165
    Chromosome 5p15.33 has been identified as a lung cancer susceptibility locus, however the underlying causal mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Previous fine-mapping studies of this locus have relied on imputation or investigated a small number of known, common variants. This study represents a significant advance over previous research by investigating a large number of novel, rare variants, as well as their underlying mechanisms through telomere length. Variants for this fine-mapping study were identified through a targeted deep sequencing (average depth of coverage greater than 4000×) of 576 individuals. Subsequently, 4652 SNPs, including 1108 novel SNPs, were genotyped in 5164 cases and 5716 controls of European ancestry. After adjusting for known risk loci, rs2736100 and rs401681, we identified a new, independent lung cancer susceptibility variant in LPCAT1: rs139852726 (OR = 0.46, P = 4.73×10(-9)), and three new adenocarcinoma risk variants in TERT: rs61748181 (OR = 0.53, P = 2.64×10(-6)), rs112290073 (OR = 1.85, P = 1.27×10(-5)), rs138895564 (OR = 2.16, P = 2.06×10(-5); among young cases, OR = 3.77, P = 8.41×10(-4)). In addition, we found that rs139852726 (P = 1.44×10(-3)) was associated with telomere length in a sample of 922 healthy individuals. The gene-based SKAT-O analysis implicated TERT as the most relevant gene in the 5p15.33 region for adenocarcinoma (P = 7.84×10(-7)) and lung cancer (P = 2.37×10(-5)) risk. In this largest fine-mapping study to investigate a large number of rare and novel variants within 5p15.33, we identified novel lung and adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci with large effects and provided support for the role of telomere length as the potential underlying mechanism.
  20. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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