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  1. Wong GW, Lim KH, Wan WK, Low SC, Kong SC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Aug;70(4):232-7.
    PMID: 26358020
    BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) can mimic symptoms of common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders but responds well to appropriate treatment. Accurate diagnosis is central to effective management. Data on EG in Southeast Asia is lacking. We aim to describe the clinical profiles and treatment outcomes of adult patients with EG in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved archival search of patients with GI biopsies that showed eosinophilic infiltration from January 2004 to December 2012. Patients' clinical data from computerised hospital records and clinical notes was reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for EG included presence of GI symptoms with more than 30 eosinophils/high power field on GI biopsies. Patients with secondary causes for eosinophilia were excluded.

    RESULTS: Eighteen patients with EG were identified (mean age 52 years; male/female: 11/7). Fifteen patients (83%) had peripheral blood eosinophilia. Seven patients (39%) had atopic conditions. Most common symptoms were diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Small intestine was the most common site involved. Endoscopic finding was non-specific. Ten patients were treated with corticosteroids (nine prednisolone, one budesonide): eight patients (89%) responded clinically to prednisolone but four patients (50%) relapsed following tapering-off of prednisolone and required maintenance dose. One patient each responded to diet elimination and montelukast respectively. Half of the remaining six patients who were treated with proton-pump inhibitors, antispasmodic or antidiarrheal agents still remained symptomatic.

    CONCLUSION: Prednisolone is an effective treatment though relapses are common. Small intestine is most commonly involved. EG should be considered in the evaluation of unexplained chronic recurrent GI symptoms.

  2. Baum L, Haerian BS, Ng HK, Wong VC, Ng PW, Lui CH, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 2014 May;133(5):651-9.
    PMID: 24337656 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-013-1405-1
    High-frequency action potentials are mediated by voltage-gated sodium channels, composed of one large α subunit and two small β subunits, encoded mainly by SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, SCN1B, and SCN2B genes in the brain. These play a key role in epilepsy, with the most commonly mutated gene in epilepsy being SCN1A. We examined whether polymorphisms in the above genes affect epilepsy risk in 1,529 epilepsy patients and 1,935 controls from four ethnicities or locations: Malay, Indian, and Chinese, all from Malaysia, and Chinese from Hong Kong. Of patients, 19 % were idiopathic, 42 % symptomatic, and 40 % cryptogenic. We genotyped 43 polymorphisms: 27 in Hong Kong, 28 in Malaysia, and 12 in both locations. The strongest association with epilepsy was rs3812718, or SCN1A IVS5N+5G>A: odds ratio (OR) = 0.85 for allele G (p = 0.0009) and 0.73 for genotype GG versus AA (p = 0.003). The OR was between 0.76 and 0.87 for all ethnicities. Meta-analysis confirmed the association (OR = 0.81 and p = 0.002 for G, and OR = 0.67 and p = 0.007 for GG versus AA), which appeared particularly strong for Indians and for febrile seizures. Allele G affects splicing and speeds recovery from inactivation. Since SCN1A is preferentially expressed in inhibitory neurons, G may decrease epilepsy risk. SCN1A rs10188577 displayed OR = 1.20 for allele C (p = 0.003); SCN2A rs12467383 had OR = 1.16 for allele A (p = 0.01), and displayed linkage disequilibrium with rs2082366 (r (2) = 0.67), whose genotypes tended toward association with SCN2A brain expression (p = 0.10). SCN1A rs2298771 was associated in Indians (OR = 0.56, p = 0.005) and SCN2B rs602594 with idiopathic epilepsy (OR = 0.62, p = 0.002). Therefore, sodium channel polymorphisms are associated with epilepsy.
  3. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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