Infectious diseases are a great threat to humankind, and antibiotics are a viable proposition to numerous pathologies. However, antibiotic resistance is a global concern. Therefore, the aims of this survey were to explore the understanding and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic use and resistance.
This is a cross-sectional study conducted on final-year undergraduate pharmacy students from 5 public universities. A validated, self-administered questionnaire written in English was used to collect data. It was made up of six domains and forty-five questions. Raosoft software was used to determine the minimum required sample size. Descriptive and inferential data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20 software.
Out of 346 students, only 59.5% showed a strong understanding of antibiotic usage, while 84.4% of students demonstrated a good level of understanding regarding the issue of antibiotic resistance. However, only 34.1% of students demonstrated a positive attitude toward this issue.
This survey reveals that final-year pharmacy students at Malaysian public universities have a relatively good understanding of antibiotic resistance. However, their attitudes did not strongly correlate to their knowledge.
The aim of this study was to determine the factors for the large size of intracranial meningiomas at the time of presentation to the Sarawak General Hospital. The data was collected prospectively from 1/3/2000 to 28/2/2001. During this period a total of 57 cases of intracranial tumours were operated upon. Twenty of these cases (35%) were meningioma, making meningioma the most common intracranial tumour operated in the Neurosurgery service here with one to two cases operated per month. Headache was the most common symptom. The average duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was made was twenty-five months, the longest being fifteen years. The patients needed an average of seven visits prior to the diagnosis.
The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of learning disability among the children attending the Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban. The demographic distribution of these patients; the age of detection of the problem; the associated medical conditions and types of intervention received by these patients were documented. Patients who were between the ages of five to twelve years were included in the study. Learning disability was divided into three categories: speech and articulation problems, academic skills disorder and other categories which included developmental delay. Children with cerebral palsy were excluded from the study. Out of 1320 patients screened, 355 were found to have learning disorders. Majority were Malays, with the male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Most of the patients stayed in Seremban. The learning problem was most commonly detected at the age of 4 years and below. The commonest type of learning disorder was developmental delay, followed by academic skills disorder, speech and academic skills problems and speech disorders. Problems that were detected early were speech problems and developmental delay. Majority of the children had associated medical conditions. Most of the patients received some form of intervention but 11.3% did not attend any intervention program at all. A strategy should be formulated and implemented to help this group of children.
Study site: Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban
Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is secreted as a large latent precursor from both normal and transformed cells which needs to be activated for biological activity. The active TGFbeta binds either directly to TbetaR-II or indirectly by binding to beta-glycan which then presents the TGFbeta to TbetaR-II. Formation of the TGFbeta-TbetaR-II complex rapidly leads to phosphorylation of TbetaR-I. TbetaR-I, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-specific Smads and induces their translocation into the nucleus. TGFbeta is able to act as a growth stimulator or inhibitor and elicits a broad spectrum of biological effects on various cell types. However, these cells may lose their sensitivity and responsiveness to TGFbeta. Down-regulation or loss of functional receptors, aberrant signal transduction pathways due to Smad mutations, loss of the cell's ability to activate latent TGFbeta, loss of the peptide itself or functional genes that control the transcription and translation of TGFbeta may contribute to development of cancer.
Elderly people are known to be at a greater risk of malnutrition, particularly those having diseases or illnesses. A prospective study was undertaken on 92 hospitalised geriatric patients (45.6% males), aged 60 to 89 years old, admitted to surgical and medical wards at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). The study aimed to assess malnutrition at admission, day 3 and day 7 of hospitalisation, and its relation with length of stay in the wards. Malnutrition was assessed using anthropometrics and biochemical indicators. Although the majority of subjects had a normal Body Mass Index (BMI), 10.9% had Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and 38% were overweight. A total of 10% subjects had muscle wasting as assessed by Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Biochemical tests indicated that women subjects were more likely to have hypoalbuminaemia (p <0.05) whilst, men were at risk of anaemia (p < 0.05). Throughout hospitalisation, there was a significant reduction in body weight, biceps skinfold thickness, calf circumference, MUAC, percentage of body fat and body mass index (BMI) in both males and females (p < 0.05 for all parameters). Biochemical tests on a sub sample of subjects indicated that 71.4% had hypoalbuminaemia and 39.6% were anaemic. Subjects diagnosed with cancer, had loss of appetite or had poor nutritional status as assessed by BMI or MUAC on admission were more likely to be hospitalised longer than or equal to 7 days (p < 0.05 for all parameters). Serum albumin levels at admission correlated positively with MUAC values both on admission (r = 0.608, p <0.01) and at clay seven of hospitalisation (r = 0.906, p < 0.05). There is a need to screen elderly patients at high risk of malnutrition at admission in order to reduce the length of stay and increase their health and nutritional status.
There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of adequate physical activity to promote better well-being among hemodialysis patients. Available data pertaining to the levels of physical activity and its determinants among hemodialysis patients is, however, scarce in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are hence to determine the levels of physical activity and it associated factors among hemodialysis patients.
The association of congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is well known and occurs in approximately 50% of cases. However the association of CHF with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is less well known and less well documented. We report a child with neonatal onset of hypertension due to ADPKD who later develops portal hypertension due to CHF in childhood. A review of this rare association follows.
Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized predominantly by cutaneous vascular malformations and pigmentary naevi. The most frequently reported form, Type II b, is associated with systemic involvement. Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) with concomitant glaucoma, Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS) and naevus of Ota have been frequently described, but there have only been two case reports with asymptomatic renal anomalies.
This is a prospective study conducted from February 2000 to July 2002 in a single neurosurgeon neurosurgical service in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. There were 66 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial aneurysm presenting to this hospital over the study period. Fifty cases had their aneurysms clipped. Eighty percent of our patients were operated within 48 h of presentation. Forty-four percent presented with poor WFNS grades of 4 and 5. We had a 20% operative mortality and 29% total management mortality. Twenty-nine (58%) of the operated cases had a favorable outcome with a mean follow-up of 32 weeks. Multiple aneurysms were less common. The diagnosis of aneuysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and clipping of aneurysms have increased dramatically over the previous two and half years indicating an increased awareness of the diagnosis and treatment. This series supports the previously reported beliefs that the lower rate of aneurymal subarachnoid hemorrhage in developing countries is likely due to both underdiagnosis and undertreatment. Good results can be achieved in developing countries with early diagnosis and intensive management.
Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) acts as a huge reservoir of oestrogens in the breast and is converted to oestrone (E1) by oestrone sulphatase (E1STS). E1 is then reversibly converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2) by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E2DH). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on cell growth, E1STS and E2DH activities in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II alone or in combination inhibited cell growth of both cell lines but no additive or synergistic effects were observed. The treatments significantly stimulated E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cell line, except for TGFbeta1 alone and TGFbeta1 and IGF-I in combination, where no effects were seen. Only TGFbeta1 and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cells. There was no significant effect on E1STS activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells with any of the treatments. In the MCF-7 cells, TGFbeta1 and IGF-I, IGF-I and IGF-II, and TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate the reductive E2DH activity, while only TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II synergistically stimulated the oxidative E2DH activity. There were no additive or synergistic effects on both oxidative and reductive E2DH activities in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II may have effects on oestrogen metabolism, especially in the MCF-7 cell line where they stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 and, thus, may have roles to play in the development of breast cancer.
One hundred and twenty specialists from the Ministry of Health, the Universities and the private sector provided information on 4,802 patients seen over a total of two hundred and forty working days. This information was used to classify the patients into four categories based on a disease complexity classification. Each specialist's perception on the appropriateness of utilisation of his expertise was obtained. Complex cases requiring specialist expertise in management made up 69.8%, 73.5% and 19.1% of the cases of the Ministry of Health, University and private sector specialists respectively. Underutilisation was most marked with paediatricians and obstetricians in the private sector. The Specialist Register, the Programme for Accreditation of Hospitals and a National Health Financing Plan can be used to influence positively the case-mix of specialists.
A middle-aged man presented with acute abdomen was found to have torsion of the spleen on laparotomy with the spleen lying in an abnormal position. Wandering spleen is an unusual entity, with torsion being a common complication.
An outbreak of food poisoning resulting in 13 deaths in children occurred in Malaysia during the Chinese Festival of the Nine-Emperor Gods in 1988. The offending food was a Chinese noodle called 'Loh See Fun' (LSF). The source was traced to a factory where a banned food preservative was added to make the LSF. The food poisoning was attributable to aflatoxins and boric acid. The clinical features included vomiting, pyrexia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anorexia, giddiness, seizures, and eventual coma. Initially, many presented with a Reye-like syndrome. Eleven post-mortem examinations were performed. The pathological findings included extensive coagulative necrosis of the liver with proliferative 'ductal/ductular metaplasia of the hepatocytes'. Giant cell formation, central vein sclerosis, bile stasis, and steatosis were also noted. There was presence of acute tubular necrosis, superficial upper gastrointestinal erosions, and ensuing encephalopathy. The eventual cause of death is acute hepatic and renal failure.
Field studies integrating pollination investigations with an assessment of floral scent composition and thermogenesis in tropical aroids are rather few. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the pollination biology of nine species belonging to Schismatoglottis Calyptrata Complex Clade. The flowering mechanism, visiting insect activities, reproductive system, thermogenesis and floral scent composition were examined. Anthesis for all species started at dawn and lasted 25-29 h. Colocasiomyia (Diptera, Drosophilidae) are considered the main pollinators for all the investigated species. Cycreon (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) are considered secondary pollinators as they are only present in seven of the nine host plants, despite the fact that they are the most effective pollen carrier, carrying up to 15 times more pollen grains than Colocasiomyia flies. However, the number of Colocasiomyia individuals was six times higher than Cycreon beetles. Chaloenus (Chrysomelidae, Galeuricinae) appeared to be an inadvertent pollinator. Atheta (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) is considered a floral visitor in most investigated species of the Calyptrata Complex Clade in Sarawak, but a possible pollinator in S. muluensis. Chironomidae midges and pteromalid wasps are considered visitors in S. calyptrata. Thermogenesis in a biphasic pattern was observed in inflorescences of S. adducta, S. calyptrata, S. giamensis, S. pseudoniahensis and S. roh. The first peak occurred during pistillate anthesis; the second peak during staminate anthesis. Inflorescences of all investigated species of Calyptrata Complex Clade emitted four types of ester compound, with methyl ester-3-methyl-3-butenoic acid as a single major VOC (volatile organic compound). The appendix, pistillate zone, staminate zone and spathe emitted all these compounds. A mixed fly-beetle pollination system is considered an ancestral trait in the Calyptrata Complex Clade, persisting in Sarawak taxa, whereas the marked reduction of interpistillar staminodes in taxa from Peninsular Malaysia and especially, Ambon, Indonesia, is probably linked to a shift in these taxa to a fly-pollinated system.