OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment patterns, goal attainment, and factors influencing treatment among patients in 6 Asian countries who were taking statins.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, where 437 physicians (41% cardiologists) recruited adults with hypercholesterolemia newly initiated on statin monotherapy.
RESULTS: Of 2622 patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, approximately 66% had coronary heart disease (CHD)/diabetes mellitus, 24% had no CHD but > or =2 risk factors, and 10% had no CHD and <2 risk factors. Most patients ( approximately 90%) received statins at medium or lower equipotency doses. Across all cardiovascular risk categories, 48% of patients attained ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), including 38% of those with CHD/diabetes (goal: <100 mg/dL), 62% of those without CHD but with > or =2 risk factors (goal: <130 mg/dL), and 81% of those without CHD and <2 risk factors (goal: <160 mg/dL). Most patients who achieved goals did so within the first 3 months. Increasing age (odds ratio (OR)=1.015 per 1-year increment; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.005-1.206; p=0.0038) and initial statin potency (OR=2.253; 95% CI=1.364-3.722; p=0.0015) were directly associated with goal attainment, whereas increased cardiovascular risk (OR=0.085; 95% CI=0.053-0.134; p<0.0001 for CHD/diabetes mellitus at baseline compared with <2 risk factors,) and baseline LDL-C (OR=0.990; 95% CI=0.987-0.993); p<0.0001 per 1-mg/dL increment) were inversely associated with LDL-C goal achievement. Limitations of this study include potential differences in treatment settings and cardiovascular risk factors between different countries and centers. In addition, the effects on cholesterol goal achievement of concomitant changes in lifestyle were not assessed.
CONCLUSION: LDL-C goal attainment is low in Asians, particularly those with CHD/diabetes. More effective patient monitoring, treatments, including combining regimens and dose titration, and adherence to these treatments along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling may facilitate goal attainment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a PSA screening initiative, 161 men were shown to have elevated PSA levels in their blood and underwent prostatic tissue biopsy. DNA was extracted from the blood, and exon 1 of the AR gene amplified by PCR and sequenced. The number of CAG repeat sequences were counted and compared to the immunohistochemical expression of ERG and AR in the matched tumour biopsies.
RESULTS: Of men with elevated PSA, 89 were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 72 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There was no significant difference in the length of the CAG repeat in men with prostate cancer and BPH. The CAG repeat length was not associated with; age, PSA or tumour grade, though a longer CAG repeat was associated with tumour stage. ERG and AR were expressed in 36% and 86% of the cancers, respectively. There was no significant association between CAG repeat length and ERG or AR expression. However, there was a significant inverse relationship between ERG and AR expression. In addition, a significantly great proportion of Indian men had ERG positive tumours, compared to men of Malay or Chinese descent.
CONCLUSIONS: CAG repeat length is not associated with prostate cancer or expression of ERG or AR. However, ERG appears to be more common in the prostate cancers of Malaysian Indian men than in the prostate cancers of other Malaysian ethnicities and its expression in this study was inversely related to AR expression.