MATERIALS AND METHODS: SEA country-specific cancer incidence by tumor site for 2015, 2025 and 2035 was extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. We utilized the optimal radiotherapy utilization rate model by Wong et al. (2016) to calculate the optimal number of fractions for all tumor sites in each SEA country. The available machines (LINAC & Co-60) were extracted from the IAEA's Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) from which the number of available fractions was calculated.
RESULTS: The incidence of cancers in SEA countries are expected to be 1.1 mil cases (2025) and 1.4 mil (2035) compared to 0.9 mil (2015). The number of radiotherapy fractions needed in 2025 and 2035 are 11.1 and 14.1 mil, respectively, compared to 7.6 mil in 2015. In 2015, the radiotherapy fulfillment rate (RFR; required fractions/available fractions) varied between countries with Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia are highest (RFR > 1.0 - available fractions > required fractions), whereas Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam have RFR
METHODS: PubMed and Scopus electronic databases were searched based on the guidelines established by PRISMA to obtain studies investigating the integration of DTI in intracranial RT/RS treatment planning. References and citations from Google Scholar were also extracted. Eligible studies were extracted for information on changes in dose distribution, treatment parameters, and outcome after DTI integration.
RESULTS: Eighteen studies were selected for inclusion with 406 patients (median study size, 19; range: 2-144). Dose distribution, with or without DTI integration, described changes of treatment parameters, and the reported outcome of treatment were compared in 12, 7, and 10 studies, respectively. Dose distributions after DTI integration improved in all studies. Delivery time or monitor unit was higher after integration. In studies with long-term follow-up (median, >12 months), neurologic deficits were significantly fewer in patients with DTI integration.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrating DTI into RT/RS treatment planning improved dose distribution, with higher treatment delivery time or monitor unit as a potential drawback. Fewer neurologic deficits were found with DTI integration.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of brain tumours in the context of fMRI methods applied to pre-operative mapping for language functional areas was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus electronic database following PRISMA guidelines. The article search was conducted between the earliest record and March 1, 2019. References and citations were checked in Google Scholar database.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine independent studies were identified, comprising 1031 adult participants with 976 patients characterised with different types and sizes of brain tumours, and the remaining 55 being healthy controls. These studies evaluated functional language areas in patients with brain tumours prior to surgical interventions using language-based fMRI. Results demonstrated that 86% of the studies used a Word Generation Task (WGT) to evoke functional language areas during pre-operative mapping. Fifty-seven percent of the studies that used language-based paradigms in conjunction with fMRI as a pre-operative mapping tool were in agreement with intra-operative results of language localization.
CONCLUSIONS: WGT was most commonly utilised and is proposed as a suitable and useful technique for a language-based paradigm fMRI for pre-operative mapping. However, based on available evidence, WGT alone is not sufficient. We propose a combination and convergence paradigms for a more sensitive and specific map of language function for pre-operative mapping. A standard guideline for clinical applications should be established.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original research studies associating genetic features and normal tissue complications following radiotherapy were identified from PubMed. The use of dosimetric data was determined by mining the statement of prescription dose, dose fractionation, target volume selection or arrangement and dose distribution. The consideration of the dosimetric data as covariates was based on the statement mentioned in the statistical analysis section. The significance of these covariates was extracted from the results section. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine their completeness and inclusion as covariates.
RESULTS: A total of 174 studies were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria. Studies published ≥2010 showed increased use of dose distribution information (p = 0.07). 33% of studies did not include any dose features in the analysis of gene-toxicity associations. Only 29% included dose distribution features as covariates and reported the results. 59% of studies which included dose distribution features found significant associations to toxicity.
CONCLUSION: A large proportion of studies on the correlation of genetic markers with radiotherapy-related side effects considered no dosimetric parameters. Significance of dose distribution features was found in more than half of the studies including these features, emphasizing their importance. Completeness of radiation-specific clinical data may have increased in recent years which may improve gene-toxicity association studies.