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  1. Wang Z, Li P, Ma K, Chen Y, Campana M, Penfold J, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 May 15;544:293-302.
    PMID: 30861434 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.03.011
    The transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface in the presence of multivalent counterions has been demonstrated for a limited range of anionic surfactants which exhibit increased tolerance to precipitation in the presence of multivalent counterions. Understanding the role of molecular structure in determining the transition to surface ordering is an important aspect of the phenomenon. The focus of the paper is on the alkyl ester sulfonate, AES, surfactants; a promising group of anionic surfactants, with the potential for improved performance and biocompatibility. Neutron reflectivity measurements were made in aqueous solution and in the presence of NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and AlCl3, for a range of alkyl ester sulfonate surfactants, in which the headgroup and alkyl chain geometries were manipulated. In the regions of monolayer adsorption changing the AES headgroup and alkyl chain geometries results in an increased saturation adsorption and in a more gradual decrease in the adsorption at low concentrations, consistent with a greater adsorption efficiency. Changing the AES headgroup and alkyl chain geometries also results in changes in the transition from monolayer adsorption to more ordered surface structures with the addition of AlCl3 and mixed multivalent electrolytes. A more limited surface layering is observed for the ethyl ester sulfonate, EES, with a C14 alkyl chain. Replacing the C14 alkyl chain with a C18 isostearic chain results in only monolayer adsorption. The results demonstrate the role and importance of the surfactant molecular structure in determining the nature of the surface adsorption in the presence of different electrolytes, and in the tendency to form extended surface multilayer structures.
  2. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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