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  1. Yin Y, Yang L, Liu B
    Front Psychol, 2020;11:1559.
    PMID: 32733339 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01559
    To diversify the creative thinking of preschool education students and improve their ability to innovate and start a business, a survey of preschool education students under entrepreneurial psychology theory was conducted in this research. Based on the theoretical foundation of entrepreneurial psychology, this article analyzed the entrepreneurial psychological quality and psychological education of college students. By investigating preschool education students in a certain college in Sichuan as the research object, the author explored the current entrepreneurial intentions of college students and their entrepreneurial psychological problems. In response to the current entrepreneurial situation of college graduates, relevant countermeasures were proposed from the perspective of the school to support their entrepreneurial psychology. Among the 205 preschool education college students, the students were more willing to give full play to their professional expertise in terms of employment intentions. At the same time, there were still situations in which students were dissatisfied with the prospects of preschool education career development and wanted to achieve the value of life through other approaches. Most students in preschool education had a wait-and-see attitude toward entrepreneurship. Only 35% of students had a clear intention to start a business and made their plans for entrepreneurship. More than 90% of students held that they had developed inadequate entrepreneurial ability, and 80% of students believed that they lacked the required professional knowledge. These two factors constitute the main reasons for students' negative attitudes toward entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, colleges may stimulate the potential of students' self-development through the improvement of entrepreneurial psychological education courses, the construction of psychological consultation institutions on campus, and the establishment of interactive platforms for entrepreneurship. In this way, students' entrepreneurial psychology can be cultivated in an all-round way. Therefore, to deal with the weak overall entrepreneurial consciousness of college students, the colleges should cultivate entrepreneurial innovative talents by strengthening the psychological education of entrepreneurship for students, and help college students achieve entrepreneurial success.
  2. Zhi Y, Yang L, Chen XS
    Zootaxa, 2020 Dec 23;4896(4):zootaxa.4896.4.9.
    PMID: 33756852 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4896.4.9
    Oliparisca menglaensis sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae: Pentastirini) is described and illustrated from Yunnan Province of China. This represents the first record of the genus Oliparisca from China. The new taxon extends the distribution range of the genus Oliparisca, previously known only from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Sri Lanka. A key of identification to all known species of this genus and a map of their geographic distributions are provided.
  3. Gao L, Zhang W, Yang L, Fan H, Olatunji OJ
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2021 Jan 31.
    PMID: 33522287 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2021.1876733
    The present study investigated the effect of polyphenol-rich extract of Parkia speciosa (PPS) against pancreatic and hepatorenal dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were treated with PPS (100 and 400 mg/kg) and glibenclamide. The results revealed that diabetic rats displayed marked hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, hypoinsulinemia as well as alterations in serum renal and kidney function markers. Furthermore, diabetic rats showed significant increase in hepatorenal level of malonaldehyde as well as suppression of antioxidant enzyme activities. Whereas, diabetic rats that received PPS displayed marked attenuation in most of the aforementioned parameters compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Additionally, histological examination revealed restoration of histopathological alterations of the pancreas, liver, and kidney of PPS treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that PPS could decrease serum lipids and blood glucose level, enhance insulin level and hepatorenal antioxidant capacity, as well as ameliorate hepatorenal dysfunction in rats.
  4. Chaing HS, Merino-chavez G, Yang LL, Wang FN, Hafez ES
    Adv Contracept Deliv Syst, 1994;10(3-4):355-63.
    PMID: 12287843
  5. Chen X, Yang B, Huang W, Wang T, Li Y, Zhong Z, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Dec 05;19(12).
    PMID: 30563128 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19123897
    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the o-hydroxylation of monophenols and oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones. Although the effects of PPO on plant physiology were recently proposed, little has been done to explore the inherent molecular mechanisms. To explore the in vivo physiological functions of PPO, a model with decreased PPO expression and enzymatic activity was constructed on Clematis terniflora DC. using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. Proteomics was performed to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the model (VC) and empty vector-carrying plants (VV) untreated or exposed to high levels of UV-B and dark (HUV-B+D). Following integration, it was concluded that the DEPs mainly functioned in photosynthesis, glycolysis, and redox in the PPO silence plants. Mapman analysis showed that the DEPs were mainly involved in light reaction and Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. Further analysis illustrated that the expression level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, the content of chlorophyll, and the photosynthesis rate were increased in VC plants compared to VV plants pre- and post HUV-B+D. These results indicate that the silence of PPO elevated the plant photosynthesis by activating the glycolysis process, regulating Calvin cycle and providing ATP for energy metabolism. This study provides a prospective approach for increasing crop yield in agricultural production.
  6. Diana Yap FS, Ng ZY, Wong CY, Muhamad Saifuzzaman MK, Yang LB
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):45-50.
    PMID: 30846662
    INTRODUCTION: Increasing incidence of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) has complicated treatment courses for hospitalised patients. Despite recommendation to support deep vein thrombosis (DVT) risk assessment and appropriate use of prophylaxis in medical inpatients, it is either neglected or prescribed unnecessarily by the clinicians. This study aimed to assess and compare the appropriateness of DVT prophylaxis prescribing between usual care versus a pharmacist-driven DVT Risk Alert Tool (DRAT) intervention among hospitalised medical patients.

    METHODS: A prospective pre- and post-intervention study was conducted among medical inpatients in a Malaysian secondary care hospital. DVT and bleeding risks were stratified using validated Padua Risk Assessment Model (RAM) and International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE) Bleeding Risk Assessment Model. Pharmacist-driven DRAT was developed and implemented post-interventional phase. DVT prophylaxis use was determined and its appropriateness was compared between pre and post study using multivariate logistic regression with IBM SPSS software version 21.0.

    RESULTS: Overall, 286 patients (n=142 pre-intervention versus n=144 post-intervention) were conveniently recruited. The prevalence of DVT prophylaxis use was 10.8%. Appropriate thromboprophylaxis prescribing increased from 64.8% to 68.1% post-DRAT implementation. Of note, among high DVT risk patients, DRAT intervention was observed to be a significant predictor of appropriate thromboprophylaxis use (14.3% versus 31.3%; adjusted odds ratio=2.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 7.80; p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The appropriateness of DVT prophylaxis use was suboptimal but doubled after implementation of DRAT intervention. Thus, an integrated risk stratification checklist is an effective approach for the improvement of rational DVT prophylaxis use.

  7. Yang L, Guo Z, Qi S, Fang T, Zhu H, Santos HO, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2020 Aug;52:102505.
    PMID: 32951753 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102505
    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Walnut intake is considered a healthy dietary approach worldwide, particularly as a nutritional tool for the management of obesity and cardiometabolic disorders. Among these lines, leptin and adiponectin, as well as glycemic biomarkers, deserve further attention. We aimed to examine the impact of walnut intake on circulation levels of leptin and adiponectin through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs); secondarily, assessing the glycemic profile as well.

    METHODS: The literature search was implemented in four following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, and Google Scholar, thus, determining studies that measured the effects of walnut consumption on adiponectin, leptin, and glycemic biomarkers levels from 2004 up to December 2019.

    RESULTS: Fourteen trials were include in the meta-analysis, with an intervention period ranging from 5 weeks to 12 months.Walnut intake increased leptin (weighted mean difference (WMD): 2.502 ng/mL; 95 % CI: 2.147-2.856, p 

  8. Grabovac I, Cao C, Haider S, Stefanac S, Jackson SE, Swami V, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2020 01;17(1):60-68.
    PMID: 31812682 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.10.015
    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is likely to be associated with sexual activity. However, to date, there is no literature on the relationship between overweight/obesity and sexual activity outcomes.

    AIM: Thus, the present study assessed the associations among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status with sexual activity and number of previous sexual partners in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    METHODS: Data on leisure time physical activity, total sitting time, weight status, sexual behavior outcomes, and other characteristics were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Study cycle 2007 to 2016. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations among body mass index, leisure time physical activity, and total sitting time with past-year sexual activity and number of sexual partners.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self reported frequency of past-year sexual activity and number of sex partners in the past year.

    RESULTS: In a sample of 7,049 men (mean age: 38.3 ± 0.3 years) and 7,005 women (mean age: 38.7 ± 0.2 years) being overweight was associated with higher odds of frequent sexual activity (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) among men, but lower odds among women (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6-0.9). Sufficient physical activity was associated with higher odds of frequent sexual activity among both men (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) and women (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.4). In those living alone, being obese was associated with lower odds of having at least 1 sexual partner for men (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-0.9) and women (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8). Being sufficiently physically active was associated with higher odds of having at least 1 sexual partner only in men (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2).

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare professionals need to be made aware of these results, as they could be used to plan tailored interventions.

    STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Strengths include the large, representative sample of U.S. adults and objective measures of anthropometry. Limitations include the cross-sectional design of the study and that all variables on sexual history were self-reported.

    CONCLUSION: The present study identifies novel modifiable behavioral and biological antecedents of sexuality outcomes. Grabovac I, Cao C, Haider S, et al. Associations Between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Weight Status With Sexuality Outcomes: Analyses from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Sex Med 2020;17:60-68.

  9. Zhang P, Shi T, Fam X, Gu L, Xuan Y, Yang L, et al.
    Transl Androl Urol, 2020 Jun;9(3):1278-1285.
    PMID: 32676411 DOI: 10.21037/tau.2020.03.25
    Background: To analyze the perioperative parameters and outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) for recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and compare them with our series of RALP for primary UPJO. Secondary pyeloplasty can be a challenging procedure because of ureteral devascularization, fibrosis and dense stricture formation. Robotic approach could be adjunct to these repairs.

    Methods: Between August 2015 to March 2019, 96 patients in our hospital underwent RALP, with 32 patients as secondary intervention for recurrent UPJO. We compared the perioperative parameters of RALP for both primary UPJO and recurrent UPJO. Patient demographics, perioperative parameters, postoperative outcomes and complications from both groups were analyzed and compared.

    Results: RALP was successfully performed for all cases in both groups. The median operating time was longer for secondary RALP than for primary RALP [125 (108.5-155) vs. 151 (120-190) minutes, P=0.004]. There were no conversions to open surgery or significant perioperative complications. No difference in blood loss, transfusion rate and perioperative complication rates was noted between the two groups. The success rates were 98.44% (63/64) and 96.88% (31/32) at a median follow up of 32 and 20 months (P=0.001) for the primary and secondary groups, respectively.

    Conclusions: Secondary RALP is associated with significantly longer operative time as compared to primary RALP, especially during the exposure of the UPJO, however it is a safe surgical modality for recurrent UPJO with durable outcome. RALP should be an alternative treatment modality for recurrent UPJO whenever the facility and expert are available.

  10. Xu D, Yang L, Zhao M, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Sun H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 01;270:116120.
    PMID: 33341552 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116120
    Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
  11. Wang D, Tang G, Huang Y, Yu C, Li S, Zhuang L, et al.
    J Med Case Rep, 2015;9:109.
    PMID: 25962780 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-015-0580-1
    Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was first reported on March, 2013 in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The majority of human cases were detected in mainland China; other regions out of mainland China reported imported human cases, including Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan (the Republic of China) and Malaysia, due to human transportation. Here, we report the first human case of H7N9 infection imported into Guizhou Province during the Spring Festival travel season in January 2014.
  12. Vermunt J, Bragg F, Halsey J, Yang L, Chen Y, Guo Y, et al.
    PMID: 34728472 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002495
    INTRODUCTION: We examined the associations between long-term usual random plasma glucose (RPG) levels and cause-specific mortality risks among adults without known diabetes in China.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 from 10 regions of China during 2004-2008. At baseline survey, and subsequent resurveys of a random subset of survivors, participants were interviewed and measurements collected, including on-site RPG testing. Cause of death was ascertained via linkage to local mortality registries. Cox regression yielded adjusted HR for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with usual levels of RPG.

    RESULTS: During median 11 years' follow-up, 37,214 deaths occurred among 452,993 participants without prior diagnosed diabetes or other chronic diseases. There were positive log-linear relationships between RPG and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n=14,209) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=432) mortality down to usual RPG levels of at least 5.1 mmol/L. At RPG <11.1 mmol/L, each 1.0 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with adjusted HRs of 1.14 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.16), 1.16 (1.12 to 1.19) and 1.44 (1.22 to 1.70) for all-cause, CVD and CKD mortality, respectively. Usual RPG was positively associated with chronic liver disease (n=547; 1.45 (1.26 to 1.66)) and cancer (n=12,680; 1.12 (1.09 to 1.16)) mortality, but with comparably lower risks at baseline RPG ≥11.1 mmol/L. These associations persisted after excluding participants who developed diabetes during follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults without diabetes, higher RPG levels were associated with higher mortality risks from several major diseases, with no evidence of apparent thresholds below the cut-points for diabetes diagnosis.

  13. Huang L, Luo X, Shao J, Yan H, Qiu Y, Ke P, et al.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2016 Feb;35(2):269-77.
    PMID: 26700953 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2540-5
    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere.
  14. Shi T, Huang Q, Liu K, Du S, Fan Y, Yang L, et al.
    Eur Urol, 2020 10;78(4):592-602.
    PMID: 32305170 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.03.020
    BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted thrombectomy (RAT) for inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus (RAT-IVCT) is being increasingly reported. However, the techniques and indications for robot-assisted cavectomy (RAC) for IVC thrombus are not well described.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a decision-making program and analyze multi-institutional outcomes of RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level II IVCT were included from eight Chinese urological centers, and underwent RAC-IVCT (30 patients) or RAT-IVCT (60 patients) from June 2013 to January 2019.

    SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The surgical strategy was based on IVCT imaging characteristics. RAT-IVCT was performed with standardized cavotomy, thrombectomy, and IVC reconstruction. RAC-IVCT was mainly performed in patients with extensive IVC wall invasion when the collateral blood vessels were well-established. For right-sided RCC, the IVC from the infrarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was stapled. For left-sided RCC, the IVC from the suprarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was removed and caudal IVC reconstruction was performed to ensure the right renal vein returned through the IVC collaterals.

    MEASUREMENTS: Clinicopathological, operative, and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All procedures were successfully performed without open conversion. The median operation time (268 vs 190 min) and estimated blood loss (1500 vs 400 ml) were significantly greater for RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT (both p < 0.001). IVC invasion was a risk factor for progression-free and overall survival at midterm follow-up. Large-volume and long-term follow-up studies are needed.

    CONCLUSIONS: RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT represents an alternative minimally invasive approach for selected RCC patients with level II IVCT. Selection of RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT is mainly based on preoperative IVCT imaging characteristics, including the presence of IVC wall invasion, the affected kidney, and establishment of the collateral circulation.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we found that robotic surgeries for level II inferior vena cava thrombus were feasible and safe. Preoperative imaging played an important role in establishing an appropriate surgical plan.

  15. Schweiker M, Abdul-Zahra A, André M, Al-Atrash F, Al-Khatri H, Alprianti RR, et al.
    Sci Data, 2019 11 26;6(1):289.
    PMID: 31772199 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-019-0272-6
    Thermal discomfort is one of the main triggers for occupants' interactions with components of the built environment such as adjustments of thermostats and/or opening windows and strongly related to the energy use in buildings. Understanding causes for thermal (dis-)comfort is crucial for design and operation of any type of building. The assessment of human thermal perception through rating scales, for example in post-occupancy studies, has been applied for several decades; however, long-existing assumptions related to these rating scales had been questioned by several researchers. The aim of this study was to gain deeper knowledge on contextual influences on the interpretation of thermal perception scales and their verbal anchors by survey participants. A questionnaire was designed and consequently applied in 21 language versions. These surveys were conducted in 57 cities in 30 countries resulting in a dataset containing responses from 8225 participants. The database offers potential for further analysis in the areas of building design and operation, psycho-physical relationships between human perception and the built environment, and linguistic analyses.
  16. Schweiker M, Abdul-Zahra A, André M, Al-Atrash F, Al-Khatri H, Alprianti RR, et al.
    Sci Data, 2020 01 06;7(1):11.
    PMID: 31907360 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-019-0348-3
    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
  17. Global Burden of Disease 2019 Cancer Collaboration, Kocarnik JM, Compton K, Dean FE, Fu W, Gaw BL, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2021 Dec 30.
    PMID: 34967848 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6987
    Importance: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden.

    Objective: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019.

    Evidence Review: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

    Findings: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles.

    Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.

  18. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  19. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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