Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Razak IA, Raj SS, Fun HK, Jian F, Bei F, Yang X, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2000 Jun;56 (Pt 6):666-7.
    PMID: 10902013
  2. Shanmuga Sundara Raj S, Razak IA, Fun HK, Zhao PS, Jian F, Yang X, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2000 Apr 15;56(Pt 4):E130-1.
    PMID: 15263175
    In the crystal of the title complex, [Co(C(9)H(6)NO)(3)].C(2)H(5)OH, the central Co atom has a distorted octahedral coordination comprised of three N atoms and three O atoms from the three 8-quinolinolato ligands. The three Co-O bond distances are in the range 1.887 (2)-1.910 (2) A, while the three Co-N bond distances range from 1.919 (2) to 1.934 (2) A. The solvent ethanol molecule forms an intermolecular O-H.O hydrogen bonding with a quinolinolato ligand.
  3. Raj SS, Fun HK, Zhao PS, Jian FF, Lu LD, Yang XJ, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2000 Jul;56 ( Pt 7):742-3.
    PMID: 10935066
  4. Mountjoy M, Akef N, Budgett R, Greinig S, Li G, Manikavasagam J, et al.
    Br J Sports Med, 2015 Jul;49(13):887-92.
    PMID: 25833900 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094424
    Antidoping and medical care delivery programmes are required at all large international multisport events.
  5. Yang X, Guo G, Dang M, Yan L, Kang X, Jia K, et al.
    PMID: 31679310 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2019030154
    Asthma has affected more than 300 million people worldwide and is considered one of the most debilitating global public health problems based on a recent statistical report from the Global Initiative for Asthma. Inflammation of the airways leads to the various interrelated mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity acting mutually with the epithelium of the respiratory organ. Fucoxanthin is an orange or brown pigment which is naturally found in various seaweeds. To the best of our knowledge, there are no scientific claims or evidence of the curative effects of fucoxanthin against asthma. Hence, this present research was designed to investigate the curative activity of fucoxanthin against ovalbumin-induced asthma in a mouse model. Fucoxanthin (50 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.001) antiasthma activity. It effectively decreased intracellular secretion of reactive oxygen species and increased antioxidant enzyme activity. Fucoxanthin also decreased inflammatory cytokine markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Because fucoxanthin showed effective antiasthma activity against ovalbumin-induced asthma in experimental animals, further research on this natural antioxidant could lead to development of a novel drug for the treatment of asthma in humans.
  6. Lian Z, Chan Y, Luo Y, Yang X, Koh KS, Wang J, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2020 Jun;41(10-11):891-901.
    PMID: 31998972 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201900403
    Scale-up in droplet microfluidics achieved by increasing the number of devices running in parallel or increasing the droplet makers in the same device can compromise the narrow droplet-size distribution, or requires high fabrication cost, when glass- or polymer-based microdevices are used. This paper reports a novel way using parallelization of needle-based microfluidic systems to form highly monodispersed droplets with enhanced production rates yet in cost-effective way, even when forming higher order emulsions with complex inner structure. Parallelization of multiple needle-based devices could be realized by applying commercially available two-way connecters and 3D-printed four-way connectors. The production rates of droplets could be enhanced around fourfold (over 660 droplets/min) to eightfold (over 1300 droplets/min) by two-way connecters and four-way connectors, respectively, for the production of the same kind of droplets than a single droplet maker (160 droplets/min). Additionally, parallelization of four-needle sets with each needle specification ranging from 34G to 20G allows for simultaneous generation of four groups of PDMS microdroplets with each group having distinct size yet high monodispersity (CV < 3%). Up to six cores can be encapsulated in double emulsion using two parallelly connected devices via tuning the capillary number of middle phase in a range of 1.31 × 10-4 to 4.64 × 10-4 . This study leads to enhanced production yields of droplets and enables the formation of groups of droplets simultaneously to meet extensive needs of biomedical and environmental applications, such as microcapsules with variable dosages for drug delivery or drug screening, or microcapsules with wide range of absorbent loadings for water treatment.
  7. Wang H, Chen M, Sang X, You X, Wang Y, Paterson IC, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2020 Apr 01;191:112154.
    PMID: 32092587 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112154
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a member of a superfamily of pleiotropic proteins that regulate multiple cellular processes such as growth, development and differentiation. Following binding to type I and II TGF-β serine/threonine kinase receptors, TGF-β activates downstream signaling cascades involving both SMAD-dependent and -independent pathways. Aberrant TGF-β signaling is associated with a variety of diseases, such as fibrosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hence, the TGF-β signaling pathway is recognized as a potential drug target. Various organic molecules have been designed and developed as TGF-β signaling pathway inhibitors and they function by either down-regulating the expression of TGF-β or by inhibiting the kinase activities of the TGF-β receptors. In this review, we discuss the current status of research regarding organic molecules as TGF-β inhibitors, focusing on the biological functions and the binding poses of compounds that are in the market or in the clinical or pre-clinical phases of development.
  8. Chen H, Zeng X, Zhou Y, Yang X, Lam SS, Wang D
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2020 07 15;394:122570.
    PMID: 32244145 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122570
    The removal of antibiotics and resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants has attracted widespread attention, but the potential role of residual antibiotics in the disposal of waste activated sludge (WAS) has not been clearly understood. In this study, the effect of roxithromycin (ROX) on volatile fatty acid (VFA) recovery from WAS anaerobic fermentation was investigated. The experimental results showed that ROX made a positive contribution to the production of VFAs. With the increase of ROX dosages from 0 to 100 mg/kg TSS, the maximum accumulation of VFAs increased from 295 to 610 mg COD/L. Mechanism studies revealed that ROX promoted the solubilization of WAS by facilitating the disruption of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, ROX enhanced the activity of acetate kinase and inhibited the activities of α-glucosidase and coenzyme F420, and showed a stronger inhibitory effect on methane production than the hydrolysis process, thus resulting in an increase in VFA accumulation. These findings provide a new insight for the role of antibiotics in anaerobic fermentation of WAS.
  9. Kong Y, Ma NL, Yang X, Lai Y, Feng Z, Shao X, et al.
    Environ. Pollut., 2020 Jun 06;265(Pt A):114951.
    PMID: 32554093 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114951
    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), contribute significantly to global warming, and they have increased substantially over the years. Reforestation is considered as an important forestry application for carbon sequestration and GHGs emission reduction, however, it remains unknown whether reforestation may instead produce too much CO2 and N2O contibuting to GHGs pollution. This study was performed to characterize and examine the CO2 and N2O emissions and their controlling factors in different species and types of pure and mixture forest used for reforestation. Five soil layers from pure forest Platycladus orientalis (PO), Robinia pseudoacacia (RP), and their mixed forest P-R in the Taihang mountains of central China were sampled and incubated aerobically for 11 days. The P-R soil showed lower CO2 and N2O production potentials than those of the PO soils (P 
  10. Liu X, Yang X, Shao J, Hong Y, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y, et al.
    J Anal Methods Chem, 2020;2020:6528572.
    PMID: 32309010 DOI: 10.1155/2020/6528572
    Cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancers are common in the female reproductive system. Cervical cancer starts from the cervix, while ovarian cancer develops when abnormal cells grow in the ovary. Endometrial or uterine cancer starts from the lining of the womb in the endometrium. Approximately 12,000 women are affected every year by cervical cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) is a well-established biomarker in serum for diagnosing gynecological cancers, and its levels were observed to be elevated in cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer patients. Moreover, SCC-Ag was used to identify the tumor size and progression stages. Various biosensing systems have been proposed to identify SCC-Ag; herein, enhanced interdigitated electrode sensing is presented with the use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to conjugate an antigen/antibody. It was proved that the limit of detection is 62.5 fM in the case of antibody-GNP, which is 2-fold higher than that by SCC-Ag-GNP. Furthermore, the antibody-GNP-modified surface displays greater current increases with concomitant dose-dependent SCC-Ag levels. High analytical performance was shown by the discrimination against α-fetoprotein and CYFRA 21-1 at 1 pM. An enhanced sensing system is established for gynecological tumors, representing an advance from the earlier detection methods.
  11. Ma WJ, Yang X, Wang XR, Zeng YS, Liao MD, Chen CJ, et al.
    Plant Dis., 2014 Jul;98(7):991.
    PMID: 30708879 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0609-PDN
    Hylocereus undatus widely grows in southern China. Some varieties are planted for their fruits, known as dragon fruits or Pitaya, while some varieties for their flowers known as Bawanghua. Fresh or dried flowers of Bawanghua are used as routine Chinese medicinal food. Since 2008, a serious anthracnose disease has led to great losses on Bawanghua flower production farms in the Baiyun district of Guangzhou city in China. Anthracnose symptoms on young stems of Bawanghua are reddish-brown, sunken lesions with pink masses of spores in the center. The lesions expand rapidly in the field or in storage, and may coalesce in the warm and wet environment in spring and summer in Guangzhou. Fewer flowers develop on infected stems than on healthy ones. The fungus overwinters in infected debris in the soil. The disease caused a loss of up to 50% on Bawanghua. Putative pathogenic fungi with whitish-orange colonies were isolated from a small piece of tissue (3 × 3 mm) cut from a lesion margin and cultured on potato dextrose agar in a growth chamber at 25°C, 80% RH. Dark colonies with acervuli bearing pinkish conidial masses formed 14 days later. Single celled conidia were 11 to 18 × 4 to 6 μm. Based on these morphological characteristics, the fungi were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc (2). To confirm this, DNA was extracted from isolate BWH1 and multilocus analyses were completed with DNA sequence data generated from partial ITS region of nrDNA, actin (ACT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) nucleotide sequences by PCR, with C. gloeosporioides specific primers as ITS4 (5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3') / CgInt (5'-GGCCTCCCGCCTCCGGGCGG-3'), GS-F (5'-ATGGCCGAGTACATCTGG-3') / GS-R (5'-GAACCGTCGAAGTTCCAC-3') and actin-R (5'-ATGTGCAAGGCCGGTTTCGC-3') / actin-F (5'-TACGAGTCCTTCTGGCCCAT-3'). The sequence alignment results indicated that the obtained partial ITS sequence of 468 bp (GenBank Accession No. KF051997), actin sequence of 282 bp (KF712382), and GS sequence of 1,021 bp (KF719176) are 99%, 96%, and 95% identical to JQ676185.1 for partial ITS, FJ907430 for ACT, and FJ972589 for GS of C. gloeosporioides previously deposited, respectively. For testing its pathogenicity, 20 μl of conidia suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) using sterile distilled water (SDW) was inoculated into artificial wounds on six healthy young stems of Bawanghua using sterile fine-syringe needle. Meanwhile, 20 μl of SDW was inoculated on six healthy stems as a control. The inoculated stems were kept at 25°C, about 90% relative humidity. Three independent experiments were carried out. Reddish-brown lesions formed after 10 days, on 100% stems (18 in total) inoculated by C. gloeosporioides, while no lesion formed on any control. The pathogen was successfully re-isolated from the inoculated stem lesions on Bawanghua. Thus, Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Colletotrichum anthracnose has been reported on Pitaya in Japan (3), Malaysia (1) and in Brazil (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides on young stems of Bawanghua (H. undatus) in China. References: (1) M. Masyahit et al. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6:902, 2009. (2) B. C. Sutton. Page 402 in: Colletotrichum Biology, Pathology and Control. J. A. Bailey and M. J. Jeger, eds. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (3) S. Taba et al. Jpn. J. Phytopathol. 72:25, 2006. (4) L. M. Takahashi et al. Australas. Plant Dis. Notes 3:96, 2008.
  12. Fun HK, Hao Q, Wu J, Yang X, Lu L, Wang X, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2002 Feb;58(Pt 2):m87-8.
    PMID: 11828089
    In the structure of the title compound, [Cu(II)(en)(2)][(EtO)(2)P(S)S](2) (en is ethylenediamine) or [Cu(C(2)H(8)N(2))(2)](C(4)H(10)O(2)PS(2))(2), the Cu atom lies on a center of inversion and is coordinated in a slightly distorted square coordination geometry by four N atoms from two ethylenediamine molecules. The diethyl dithiophosphate moieties, (EtO)(2)P(S)S(-), act as counter-anions.
  13. Yang X, Ikhwanuddin M, Li X, Lin F, Wu Q, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mar. Biotechnol., 2018 Feb;20(1):20-34.
    PMID: 29152671 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-017-9784-2
    The molecular mechanism underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) has received considerable attention, due to the remarkably biological and economic differences between sexes. However, sex-biased genes, especially non-coding genes, which account for these differences, remain elusive in this crustacean species. In this study, the first de novo gonad transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify both differentially expressed genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between male and female S. paramamosain by using Illumina Hiseq2500. A total of 79,282,758 and 79,854,234 reads were generated from ovarian and testicular cDNA libraries, respectively. After filtrating and de novo assembly, 262,688 unigenes were produced from both libraries. Of these unigenes, 41,125 were annotated with known protein sequences in public databases. Homologous genes involved in sex determination and gonadal development pathways (Sxl-Tra/Tra-2-Dsx/Fru, Wnt4, thyroid hormone synthesis pathway, etc.) were identified. Three hundred and sixteen differentially expressed unigenes were further identified between both transcriptomes. Meanwhile, a total of 233,078 putative lncRNAs were predicted. Of these lncRNAs, 147 were differentially expressed between sexes. qRT-PCR results showed that nine lncRNAs negatively regulated the expression of eight genes, suggesting a potential role in sex differentiation. These findings will provide fundamental resources for further investigation on sex differentiation and regulatory mechanism in crustaceans.
  14. Yang X, Kord-Varkaneh H, Talaei S, Clark CCT, Zanghelini F, Tan SC, et al.
    Pharmacol. Res., 2020 01;151:104588.
    PMID: 31816435 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104588
    BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis is needed to comprehensively consolidate findings from the influence of metformin on IGF-1 levels. The present study was conducted with the objective to accurately evaluate the influence of metformin intake on IGF-1 levels via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase from inception until June 2019. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI were applied for estimating the effects of metformin on serum IGF-1 levels.

    RESULTS: 11 studies involving a total of 569 individuals reported changes in IGF-1 plasma concentrations as an outcome measure. Pooled results demonstrated an overall non-significant decline in IGF-1 following metformin intake (WMD: -8.292 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -20.248, 3.664, p = 0.174) with heterogeneity among (p = 0.000,I2 = 87.1 %). The subgroup analyses displayed that intervention duration <12 weeks on children (WMD:-55.402 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -79.845, -30.960, I2 = 0.0 %) significantly reduced IGF-1. Moreover, in age 18 < years older metformin intake (WMD: 15.125 ng/ml, 95 % CI: 5.522, 24.729, I2 = 92.5 %) significantly increased IGF-1 than 18 ≤ years older (WMD:-1.038 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -3.578,1.502,I2 = 78.0 %). Following dose-response evaluation, metformin intake reduced IGF-1 (coefficient for dose-response analysis= -13.14, P = 0.041 and coefficient for liner analysis= -0.066, P = 0.038) significantly based on treatment duration.

    CONCLUSION: We found in children, intervention duration <12 weeks yielded significant reductions in IGF-1, whilst paradoxically, in participants >18 years old, metformin intake significantly increased IGF-1. We suggest that caution be taken when interpreting the findings of this review, particularly given the discordant supplementation practices between children and adults.

  15. Yin F, Gasser RB, Li F, Bao M, Huang W, Zou F, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2013 Sep 25;6(1):279.
    PMID: 24499637 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-279
    BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus (order Strongylida) is a common parasitic nematode infecting small ruminants and causing significant economic losses worldwide. Knowledge of genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide a foundation for understanding transmission patterns, the spread of drug resistance alleles and might assist in the control of haemonchosis.

    METHODS: 152 H. contortus individual adult worms were collected from seven different geographical regions in China. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene (nad4) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly. The sequence variations and population genetic diversities were determined.

    RESULTS: Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed 18 genotypes (ITS-2) and 142 haplotypes (nad4) among the 152 worms, with nucleotide diversities of 2.6% and 0.027, respectively, consistent with previous reports from other countries, including Australia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Sweden, the USA and Yemen. Population genetic analyses revealed that 92.4% of nucleotide variation was partitioned within populations; there was no genetic differentiation but a high gene flow among Chinese populations; some degree of genetic differentiation was inferred between some specimens from China and those from other countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of genetic variation within H. contortus in China. The results revealed high within-population variations, low genetic differentiation and high gene flow among different populations of H. contortus in China. The present results could have implications for studying the epidemiology and ecology of H. contortus in China.

  16. Yang X, Wang S, King TL, Kerr CJ, Blanchet C, Svergun D, et al.
    Faraday Discuss., 2016 Jul 18.
    PMID: 27430046
    We have developed a new class of lanthanide nano-clusters that self-assemble using flexible Schiff base ligands. Cd-Ln and Ni-Ln clusters, [Ln8Cd24(L(1))12(OAc)39Cl7(OH)2] (Ln = Nd, Eu), [Eu8Cd24(L(1))12(OAc)44], [Ln8Cd24(L(2))12(OAc)44] (Ln = Nd, Yb, Sm) and [Nd2Ni4(L(3))2(acac)6(NO3)2(OH)2], were constructed using different types of flexible Schiff base ligands. These molecular nano-clusters exhibit anisotropic architectures that differ considerably depending upon the presence of Cd (nano-drum) or Ni (square-like nano-cluster). Structural characterization of the self-assembled particles has been undertaken using crystallography, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Comparison of the metric dimensions of the nano-drums shows a consistency of size using these techniques, suggesting that these molecules may share similar structural features in both solid and solution states. Photophysical properties were studied by excitation of the ligand-centered absorption bands in the solid state and in solution, and using confocal microscopy of microspheres loaded with the compounds. The emissive properties of these compounds vary depending upon the combination of lanthanide and Cd or Ni present in these clusters. The results provide new insights into the construction of novel high-nuclearity nano-clusters and offer a promising foundation for the development of new functional nanomaterials.
  17. Wu H, Sun Y, Wong WL, Cui J, Li J, You X, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2020 Mar 01;189:112042.
    PMID: 31958737 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112042
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the TGF-β signaling pathway is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in the development of many diseases, such as fibrosis and cancer. Most currently available inhibitors of TGF-β signaling function as TGF-β receptor I (TβR-I) kinase inhibitors, however, such kinase inhibitors often lack specificity. In the present study, we targeted the extracellular protein binding domain of the TGF-β receptor II (TβR-II) to interfere with the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between TGF-β and its receptors. One compound, CJJ300, inhibited TGF-β signaling by disrupting the formation of the TGF-β-TβR-I-TβR-II signaling complex. Treatment of A549 cells with CJJ300 resulted in the inhibition of downstream signaling events such as the phosphorylation of key factors along the TGF-β pathway and the induction of EMT markers. Concomitant with these effects, CJJ300 significantly inhibited cell migration. The present study describes for the first time a designed molecule that can regulate TGF-β-induced signaling and EMT by interfering with the PPIs required for the formation of the TGF-β signaling complex. Therefore, CJJ300 can be an important lead compound with which to study TGF-β signaling and to design more potent TGF-β signaling antagonists.
  18. Shi T, Huang Q, Liu K, Du S, Fan Y, Yang L, et al.
    Eur. Urol., 2020 Apr 15.
    PMID: 32305170 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.03.020
    BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted thrombectomy (RAT) for inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus (RAT-IVCT) is being increasingly reported. However, the techniques and indications for robot-assisted cavectomy (RAC) for IVC thrombus are not well described.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a decision-making program and analyze multi-institutional outcomes of RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level II IVCT were included from eight Chinese urological centers, and underwent RAC-IVCT (30 patients) or RAT-IVCT (60 patients) from June 2013 to January 2019.

    SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The surgical strategy was based on IVCT imaging characteristics. RAT-IVCT was performed with standardized cavotomy, thrombectomy, and IVC reconstruction. RAC-IVCT was mainly performed in patients with extensive IVC wall invasion when the collateral blood vessels were well-established. For right-sided RCC, the IVC from the infrarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was stapled. For left-sided RCC, the IVC from the suprarenal vein to the infrahepatic veins was removed and caudal IVC reconstruction was performed to ensure the right renal vein returned through the IVC collaterals.

    MEASUREMENTS: Clinicopathological, operative, and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All procedures were successfully performed without open conversion. The median operation time (268 vs 190 min) and estimated blood loss (1500 vs 400 ml) were significantly greater for RAC-IVCT versus RAT-IVCT (both p < 0.001). IVC invasion was a risk factor for progression-free and overall survival at midterm follow-up. Large-volume and long-term follow-up studies are needed.

    CONCLUSIONS: RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT represents an alternative minimally invasive approach for selected RCC patients with level II IVCT. Selection of RAC-IVCT or RAT-IVCT is mainly based on preoperative IVCT imaging characteristics, including the presence of IVC wall invasion, the affected kidney, and establishment of the collateral circulation.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we found that robotic surgeries for level II inferior vena cava thrombus were feasible and safe. Preoperative imaging played an important role in establishing an appropriate surgical plan.

  19. Yang X, Leslie G, Doroszuk A, Schneider S, Allen J, Decker B, et al.
    J. Clin. Oncol., 2020 Mar 01;38(7):674-685.
    PMID: 31841383 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.19.01907
    PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes.

    RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

  20. Slik JW, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Aiba S, Alvarez-Loayza P, Alves LF, Ashton P, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2015 Jun 16;112(24):7472-7.
    PMID: 26034279 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423147112
    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼ 40,000 and ∼ 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼ 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼ 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa.
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