RESULTS: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments.
CONCLUSIONS: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.
METHODOLOGY: Complete rpoB gene sequences of globally distributed Brucella melitensis strains were analyzed. Single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) of the rpoB gene sequences were identified and used to type Brucella melitensis strains.
RESULTS: Six DNA polymorphisms were identified, of which two (nucleotides 3201 and 558) were novel. Analysis of the geographical distribution of the strains revealed a spatial clustering pattern with rpoB type 1 representing European and American strains, rpoB type 2 representing European, African, and Asian strains, rpoB type 3 representing Mediterranean strains, and rpoB type 4 representing African (C3201T) and European (C3201T/T558A) strains.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the discovery of two novel SNPs of rpoB gene that can serve as useful markers for epidemiology and geographical tracking of B. melitensis.