Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 206 in total

  1. Yip CH
    Methods Mol Biol, 2009;471:51-64.
    PMID: 19109774 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in most countries in Asia. The incidence rates remain low, although increasing at a more rapid rate than in western countries, due to changes in the lifestyle and diet. There are many differences between breast cancer in Asia compared with western countries. The mean age at onset is younger than in the west, and unlike the west, the age-specific incidence decreases after the age of 50 years. Because there is no population-based breast cancer screening program in the majority of Asian countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. There is a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative patients, and some evidence that the cancers in Asia are of a higher grade. Most of the Asian countries are low- and middle-income countries, where access to effective care is limited. Because of the late detection and inadequate access to care, survival of women with breast cancer in Asia is lower than in western countries. Improving breast health in most of the Asian countries remains a challenge that may be overcome with collaboration from multiple sectors, both public and private.
  2. Yip CH
    J Surg Oncol, 2017 Apr;115(5):538-543.
    PMID: 28097656 DOI: 10.1002/jso.24560
    Metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease. With improvement in systemic therapy, survival has improved over the past few years. Removing the primary tumor has shown improved survival in retrospective studies, but this may be due to selection bias. The first reported randomized controlled trial (RCT) from India showed no difference in survival with surgery. However another RCT from Turkey showed that a select group of patient with bone-only metastases have a survival benefit.
  3. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
  4. Thajunnisa bte Hassan Mohd, Yip CH
    Pediatr Radiol, 1988;18(5):406.
    PMID: 3050845
    Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant tumour in infancy originating in about 70% of cases in the adrenal gland. Haemorrhage and necrosis is often seen in neuroblastoma but cyst formation is uncommon. Fistulous communication between an adrenal cystic neuroblastoma and the large bowel has never to our knowledge been reported before.
  5. Yip CH, Pathmanathan R
    Singapore Med J, 1996 Feb;37(1):117-8.
    PMID: 8783930
    A case report of a male true hermaphrodite with 46XX/46XY karyotype is presented. He was first diagnosed at the age of 9 years when he presented with hypospadias and a left undescended testis. He was lost to follow-up until he presented at the age of 23 years with bilateral gynaecomastia. A hormonal profile showed a low testosterone level, while a seminal assay showed very few sperms. However he claimed to be sexually active. A year later, after he got married, he began to complain of impotence. A review of the condition is presented.
  6. Yip CH, Taib NA
    Climacteric, 2014 Dec;17 Suppl 2:54-9.
    PMID: 25131779 DOI: 10.3109/13697137.2014.947255
    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.
  7. Shameem H, Yip CH, Fong E
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):409-12.
    PMID: 18990011
    INTRODUCTION: Mastectomy is an essential but disfiguring operation in cancer treatment. The negative impact on body image can however be prevented by immediate reconstruction.
    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the reasons why patients choose to have or not to have immediate breast reconstruction.
    METHODOLOGY: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of breast cancer patients post-mastectomy who had and had not undergone immediate breast reconstruction. The patients were asked a series of questions to ascertain the reasons why they chose or did not choose immediate breast reconstruction.
    RESULTS: 136 patients in total were interviewed of which 23 had undergone immediate breast reconstruction. 36.8% of the patients had been offered reconstruction. In the non-reconstructed group, the main reason for not having reconstruction were fear of additional surgery. In the group that had reconstruction done, the main reason was to feel whole again. Low on the list were reasons such as trying to improve marital or sexual relations.
    CONCLUSION: Only a third of patients undergoing mastectomy were offered immediate reconstruction. In public hospitals in developing countries, limited operating time and availability of plastic surgery services are major barriers to more women being offered the option.
  8. Yip CH, Anderson BO
    Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 2007 Aug;7(8):1095-104.
    PMID: 18028018
    Breast cancer is an increasingly urgent problem in low- and mid-level resource countries of the world. Despite knowing the optimal management strategy based on guidelines developed in wealthy countries, clinicians are forced to provide less-than-optimal care to patients when diagnostic and/or treatment resources are lacking. For this reason, it is important to identify which resources commonly applied in resource-abundant countries most effectively fill the healthcare needs in limited-resource regions, where patients commonly present with more advanced disease at diagnosis, and to provide guidance on how new resource allocations should be made in order to maximize improvement in outcome. Established in 2002, the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) created an international health alliance to develop evidence-based guidelines for countries with limited resources (low- and middle-income countries) to improve breast health outcomes. The BHGI serves as a program for international guideline development and as a hub for linkage among clinicians, governmental health agencies and advocacy groups to translate guidelines into policy and practice. The BHGI collaborated with 12 national and international health organizations, cancer societies and nongovernmental organizations to host two BHGI international summits. The evidence-based BHGI Guidelines, developed at the 2002 Global Summit, were published in 2003 as a theoretical treatise on international breast healthcare. These guidelines were then updated and expanded at the 2005 Global Summit into a fully comprehensive and flexible framework to permit incremental improvements in healthcare delivery, based upon outcomes, cost, cost-effectiveness and use of healthcare services.
  9. Yip CH, Taib NA
    Future Oncol, 2012 Dec;8(12):1575-83.
    PMID: 23231519 DOI: 10.2217/fon.12.141
    The incidence of breast cancer is rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to 'westernization' of risk factors for developing breast cancer. However, survival remains low because of barriers in early detection and optimal access to treatment, which are the two main determinants of breast cancer outcome. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment gives the best results. An accurate diagnosis is dependent on a reliable pathology service, which will provide an adequate pathology report with prognostic and predictor information to allow optimal oncological treatment. Stratification of clinical practice guidelines based on resource level will ensure that women will have access to treatment even in a low-resource setting. Advocacy and civil society play a role in galvanizing the political will required to meet the challenge of providing opportunities for breast cancer control in LMICs. Collaboration between high-income countries and LMICs could be a strategy in facing these challenges.
  10. Yip CH, Jayaram G, Swain M
    Aust N Z J Surg, 2000 Feb;70(2):103-5.
    PMID: 10711470
    BACKGROUND: Granulomatous mastitis is a rare condition of the breast that can mimic a carcinoma. There are characteristic histological features, the most important of which is a predominantly lobular inflammatory process. It must be differentiated from known causes of granulomatous inflammation, such as tuberculosis.

    METHODS: In the present paper, the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients with granulomatous mastitis seen over a 3-year period in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are described.

    RESULTS: A clinical suspicion of malignancy was present in 10 cases. One of the patients was nulliparous. One had an associated hyperprolactinaemia, while two had systemic lupus erythromatosis. One of the patients was pregnant at the time of presentation. Four patients had localized lumps excised, five were treated conservatively because the lesion was too extensive to resect, and seven patients required drainage procedures for abscess formation.

    CONCLUSION: Awareness of this condition is important because it mimics a carcinoma, and surgery may not be the best treatment for recurrent disease.

  11. Ong TA, Yip CH
    Asian J Surg, 2003 Jul;26(3):169-75.
    PMID: 12925293
    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of various clinicopathological factors on short-term survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).
    METHODS: All cases of breast cancer treated at UMMC from January 1999 to June 2001, except for stage IV disease, were included in the study. Survival analysis was carried out using Kaplan-Meier for univariate analysis and Cox regression for multivariate analysis. The log-rank test was used to test the significance of differences between the different survival curves.
    RESULTS: A total of 385 patients were included. The mean patient age at presentation was 50.3 years (SD, 11.4); 198 (51.4%) patients had lymph node-positive disease, and 187 (48.6%) had node-negative disease. The mean follow-up period was 18.7 months (SD, 8.8). The Malay ethnic group, tumours of larger size, node-positive disease, more than five positive lymph nodes, oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity and the presence of lymphovascular invasion were significant prognostic factors for shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, ER negativity was the only independent adverse prognostic factor for RFS. For overall survival (OS), tumours of larger size, node-positive disease, more than five positive lymph nodes, ER negativity and high grade tumours were associated with significantly shorter OS. However, more than five positive lymph nodes was the only independent prognostic factor for shorter OS in the multivariate analysis. Further multivariate analysis of the patients with node-positive disease showed that the Malay ethnic group, ER negativity and more than five positive lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors for shorter RFS. On the other hand, ER negativity and more than five positive lymph nodes were independent negative prognostic factors for OS in this subgroup of patients.
    CONCLUSION: The evaluation of various prognostic factors would provide useful information on disease progression in local patients, especially for the planning of adjuvant therapies and follow-up protocols. Differences in the pattern of breast cancer among the different ethnic groups in Malaysia warrant further studies.
  12. Hisham AN, Yip CH
    Asian J Surg, 2004 Apr;27(2):130-3.
    PMID: 15140665
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. There is a marked geographical difference in the worldwide incidence of breast cancer, with a higher incidence in developed countries compared to developing countries. From 1998 to 2001, new cases of breast cancer presenting to the breast clinics at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, were reviewed; the race, age and stage at presentation were analysed. Of 774 cases seen in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, only 5.2% (40/774) were impalpable breast cancers diagnosed on mammography. The prevalent age group was 40 to 49 years, and the median age was 50 years. The average size of the tumour was 5.4 cm in diameter. Malay women appear to have larger tumours and a later stage at presentation than other ethnic groups; 50% to 60% were in late stages (Stages 3 and 4). During the same period, 752 new cases of breast cancer were seen in the University Malaya Medical Centre. The average tumour size was 4.2 cm, and 30% to 40% were in late stages. The age incidence was similar. The delay in presentation of breast cancer was attributed to a strong belief in traditional medicine, the negative perception of the disease, poverty and poor education, coupled with fear and denial. A prospective, population-based study is required to determine the demographic pattern of breast cancer and the factors delaying presentation. These findings will have important implications in future programmes to promote the early detection of breast cancer, as well as in understanding geographical as well as racial variations in the incidence of breast cancer.
  13. Hisham AN, Yip CH
    World J Surg, 2003 Aug;27(8):921-3.
    PMID: 12784146
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Nonetheless, in Malaysia there is a marked geographical difference in the incidence of breast cancer with advanced stage of presentation. The breast clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital diagnosed approximately 150 to 200 new cases of breast cancer a year. This number, however, represents only 12.0% to 15.0% of all breast disease seen annually in Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Between 1998 and 2001, of a total of 774 cases of newly diagnosed breast cancer in Kuala Lumpur Hospital, only 5.0% (40/774) were impalpable breast cancers. The peak age group for the three major ethnic distributions (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) ranged from 40 to 49 years. The mean tumor size at presentation was 5.4 cm (range: 1-20 cm), and the advanced stage of breast cancer is observed to be highest among the Malay ethnic group. Although it appears that the incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia is lower than in the developed countries, the difference may be attributable to the difficulty in getting accurate statistics and to underreporting of cases. Nonetheless, from the available data, it is clear that breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer among Malaysian women. The strongly negative social-cultural perception of the disease, made worse by the geographical isolation of many rural areas, accounts for the delayed diagnosis and the often advanced stage of disease at presentation. A prospective population-based study is called for to verify the demographic patterns of breast cancer, particular in Malaysia and other developing countries. The findings of such a study may have implications for future breast screening programs and for facilitating the understanding of differing risks of breast cancer among women around the world.
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