Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Yoneda M
    Uirusu, 2014;64(1):105-12.
    PMID: 25765986 DOI: 10.2222/jsv.64.105
    Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus, was first discovered in Malaysia in 1998 in an outbreak of infection in pigs and humans, and incurred a high fatality rate in humans. We established a system that enabled the rescue of replicating NiVs from a cloned DNA. Using the system, we analyzed the functions of accessory proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. Further, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins, which appeared to be an appropriate to NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.
  2. Yoneda M
    Nippon Rinsho, 2016 12;74(12):1973-1978.
    PMID: 30550652
    Nipah and Hendra virus were first identified in mid 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, caus- ing epidemics with high mortality rate in affected animals and humans. Since their first emer- gence, they continued to re-emerge in Australia and South East Asia almost every year. Nipah and Hendra virus were classified in the new genus Henipavirus because of their un- common features amongst Paramyxoviridae. Henipaviruses are zoonotic paramyxoviruses with a broad tropism, and cause severe acute respiratory disease and encephalitis. Their high virulence and wide host range make them to be given Biosecurity Level 4 status. This review summarizes details of Henipavirus emergence, reservoir hosts and pathology, and introduce recent progress in vaccines and antivirals.
  3. Sakai N, Mohd Yusof R, Sapar M, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 Apr 01;548-549:43-50.
    PMID: 26799806 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.040
    Beta-agonists and sulfonamides are widely used for treating both humans and livestock for bronchial and cardiac problems, infectious disease and even as growth promoters. There are concerns about their potential environmental impacts, such as producing drug resistance in bacteria. This study focused on their spatial distribution in surface water and the identification of pollution sources in the Langat River basin, which is one of the most urbanized watersheds in Malaysia. Fourteen beta-agonists and 12 sulfonamides were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize catchment areas of the sampling points, and source profiling was conducted to identify the pollution sources based on a correlation between a daily pollutant load of the detected contaminant and an estimated density of human or livestock population in the catchment areas. As a result, 6 compounds (salbutamol, sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole) were widely detected in mid catchment areas towards estuary. The source profiling indicated that the pollution sources of salbutamol and sulfamethoxazole were from sewage, while sulfadiazine was from effluents of cattle, goat and sheep farms. Thus, this combination method of quantitative and spatial analysis clarified the spatial distribution of these drugs and assisted for identifying the pollution sources.
  4. Sakai N, Sakai M, Mohamad Haron DE, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Chemosphere, 2016 Dec;165:183-190.
    PMID: 27654221 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.022
    Fourteen beta-agonists were quantitatively analyzed in cattle, chicken and swine liver specimens purchased at 14 wet markets in Selangor State, Malaysia, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol residues in the Malaysian population were assessed based on quantitative data and meat consumption statistics in Malaysia. Wastewater samples collected at swine farms (n = 2) and cattle/cow farms (n = 2) in the Kuala Langat district were analyzed for the presence for the 14 compounds. Wastewater in chicken farms was not collected because there was negligible discharge during the breeding period. The environmental impacts caused by beta-agonists discharged from livestock farms were spatially assessed in the Langat River basin using a geographic information system (GIS). As a result, 10 compounds were detected in the liver specimens. Ractopamine, which is a permitted compound for swine in Malaysia, was frequently detected in swine livers; also, 9 other compounds that are prohibited compounds could be illegally abused among livestock farms. The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol were assessed to be minimal as their hazard quotients were no more than 7.82 × 10(-4) and 2.71 × 10(-3), respectively. Five beta-agonists were detected in the wastewater samples, and ractopamine in the swine farm resulted in the highest contamination (30.1 μg/L). The environmental impacts of the beta-agonists in the Langat River basin were generally concluded to be minimal, but the ractopamine contamination released from swine farms was localized in coastal areas near the estuary of the Langat River basin because most swine farms were located in that region.
  5. Yoneda M, Guillaume V, Ikeda F, Sakuma Y, Sato H, Wild TF, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 Oct 31;103(44):16508-13.
    PMID: 17053073
    Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus, was first discovered in Malaysia in 1998 in an outbreak of infection in pigs and humans and incurred a high fatality rate in humans. Fruit bats, living in vast areas extending from India to the western Pacific, were identified as the natural reservoir of the virus. However, the mechanisms that resulted in severe pathogenicity in humans (up to 70% mortality) and that enabled crossing the species barrier were not known. In this study, we established a system that enabled the rescue of replicating NiVs from a cloned DNA by cotransfection of a constructed full-length cDNA clone and supporting plasmids coding virus nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and polymerase with the infection of the recombinant vaccinia virus, MVAGKT7, expressing T7 RNA polymerase. The rescued NiV (rNiV), by using the newly developed reverse genetics system, showed properties in vitro that were similar to the parent virus and retained the severe pathogenicity in a previously established animal model by experimental infection. A recombinant NiV was also developed, expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rNiV-EGFP). Using the virus, permissibility of NiV was compared with the presence of a known cellular receptor, ephrin B2, in a number of cell lines of different origins. Interestingly, two cell lines expressing ephrin B2 were not susceptible for rNiV-EGFP, indicating that additional factors are clearly required for full NiV replication. The reverse genetics for NiV will provide a powerful tool for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and cross-species infection.
  6. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
  7. Sakai N, Shirasaka J, Matsui Y, Ramli MR, Yoshida K, Ali Mohd M, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2017 Apr;172:234-241.
    PMID: 28081507 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.139
    Five homologs (C10-C14) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were quantitated in surface water collected in the Langat and Selangor River basins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially analyze the occurrence of LAS in both river basins, and the LAS contamination associated with the population was elucidated by spatial analysis at a sub-basin level. The LAS concentrations in the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) and 4 fractions separated by particle size (<0.1 μm, 0.1-1 μm, 1-11 μm and >11 μm) were analyzed to elucidate the environmental fate of LAS in the study area. The environmental risks of the observed LAS concentration were assessed based on predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) normalized by a quantitative structure-activity relationship model. The LAS contamination mainly occurred from a few populated sub-basins, and it was correlated with the population density and ammonia nitrogen. The dissolved phase was less than 20% in high contamination sites (>1000 μg/L), whereas it was more than 60% in less contaminated sites (<100 μg/L). The environmental fate of LAS in the study area was primarily subject to the adsorption to suspended solids rather than biodegradation because the LAS homologs, particularly in longer alkyl chain lengths, were considerably absorbed to the large size fraction (>11 μm) that settled in a few hours. The observed LAS concentrations exceeded the normalized PNEC at 3 sites, and environmental risk areas and susceptible areas to the LAS contamination were spatially identified based on their catchment areas.
  8. Sakai N, Yamamoto S, Matsui Y, Khan MF, Latif MT, Ali Mohd M, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2017 May 15;586:1279-1286.
    PMID: 28236484 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.139
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indoor air were investigated at 39 private residences in Selangor State, Malaysia to characterize the indoor air quality and to identify pollution sources. Twenty-two VOCs including isomers (14 aldehydes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, acetone, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were collected by 2 passive samplers for 24h and quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Source profiling based on benzene/toluene ratio as well as statistical analysis (cluster analysis, bivariate correlation analysis and principal component analysis) was performed to identify pollution sources of the detected VOCs. The VOCs concentrations were compared with regulatory limits of air quality guidelines in WHO/EU, the US, Canada and Japan to clarify the potential health risks to the residents. The 39 residences were classified into 2 groups and 2 ungrouped residences based on the dendrogram in the cluster analysis. Group 1 (n=30) had mainly toluene (6.87±2.19μg/m3), formaldehyde (16.0±10.1μg/m3), acetaldehyde (5.35±4.57μg/m3) and acetone (11.1±5.95μg/m3) at background levels. Group 2 (n=7) had significantly high values of formaldehyde (99.3±10.7μg/m3) and acetone (35.8±12.6μg/m3), and a tendency to have higher values of acetaldehyde (23.7±13.5μg/m3), butyraldehyde (3.35±0.41μg/m3) and isovaleraldehyde (2.30±0.39μg/m3). The 2 ungrouped residences showed particularly high concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene: 235μg/m3 in total) or acetone (133μg/m3). The geometric mean value of formaldehyde (19.2μg/m3) exceeded an 8-hour regulatory limit in Canada (9μg/m3), while those in other compounds did not exceed any regulatory limits, although a few residences exceeded at least one regulatory limit of benzene or acetaldehyde. Thus, the VOCs in the private residences were effectively characterized from the limited number of monitoring, and the potential health risks of the VOCs exposure, particularly formaldehyde, should be considered in the study area.
  9. Sakai N, Alsaad Z, Thuong NT, Shiota K, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Chemosphere, 2017 Oct;184:857-865.
    PMID: 28646768 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.070
    Arsenic and 5 heavy metals (nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) were quantitated in surface water (n = 18) and soil/ore samples (n = 45) collected from 5 land uses (oil palm converted from forest, oil palm in peat swamp, bare land, quarry and forest) in the Selangor River basin by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Geographic information system (GIS) was used as a spatial analytical tool to classify 4 land uses (forest, agriculture/peat, urban and bare land) from a satellite image taken by Landsat 8. Source profiling of the 6 elements was conducted to identify their occurrence, their distribution and the pollution source associated with the land use. The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were also analyzed in maternal blood (n = 99) and cord blood (n = 87) specimens from 136 pregnant women collected at the University of Malaya Medical Center for elucidating maternal exposure as well as maternal-to-fetal transfer. The source profiling identified that nickel and zinc were discharged from sewage and/or industrial effluents, and that lead was discharged from mining sites. Arsenic showed a site-specific pollution in tin-tungsten deposit areas, and the pollution source could be associated with arsenopyrite. The maternal blood levels of arsenic (0.82 ± 0.61 μg/dL), cadmium (0.15 ± 0.2 μg/dL) and lead (2.6 ± 2.1 μg/dL) were not significantly high compared to their acute toxicity levels, but could have attributable risks of chronic toxicity. Those in cord blood were significantly decreased in cadmium (0.06 ± 0.07 μg/dL) and lead (0.99 ± 1.2 μg/dL) but were equivalent in arsenic (0.82 ± 1.1 μg/dL) because of the different kinetics of maternal-to-fetal transfer.
  10. Ramli MR, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M, Mohamad Haron DE, Ahmad ED
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2020 01;223(1):179-186.
    PMID: 31542349 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.09.005
    For decades, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been commonly used for industrial and commercial purposes due to their water- and stain-resistant properties. Persistent pollutants that contain PFAAs have been associated with adverse health effects in humans, and many studies have documented dietary intake, indoor air inhalation, and dermal contact as the potential routes for human exposure to PFAAs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of PFAAs in the serum samples of a general population in a specific region in Malaysia. Using 219 serum samples collected from residents of Klang Valley, Malaysia, the levels of nine PFAAs were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, questionnaire surveys on the dietary habits and lifestyles of the subjects were conducted. The results showed that PFAA concentrations of up to 32.57 ng/mL were detected in all serum samples. In 82.6% of the participants, at least seven PFAAs were detected in the serum samples, with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid being the predominant PFAA (median = 8.79 ng/mL). In the adjusted regression model, the concentrations of most PFAAs were higher in men than in women and positively correlated with age, although body mass index and smoking were not significantly associated with the serum PFAA concentrations. Taking into consideration the lifestyle variables, significant associations were found between nonstick cookware and perfluorononanoic acid, between dental floss and cosmetics and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and between leather sofa and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Besides, consumption of beef was significantly associated with increased levels of serum PFUnDA, whereas consumption of lamb and chicken eggs was negatively associated with the serum levels of PFUnDA and PFDA, respectively.
  11. Yoneda M, Georges-Courbot MC, Ikeda F, Ishii M, Nagata N, Jacquot F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(3):e58414.
    PMID: 23516477 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058414
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G). Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi). Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.
  12. Mózes FE, Lee JA, Selvaraj EA, Jayaswal ANA, Trauner M, Boursier J, et al.
    Gut, 2021 May 17.
    PMID: 34001645 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324243
    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is still needed for fibrosis staging in many patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aims of this study were to evaluate the individual diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement by vibration controlled transient elastography (LSM-VCTE), Fibrosis-4 Index (FIB-4) and NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) Fibrosis Score (NFS) and to derive diagnostic strategies that could reduce the need for liver biopsies.

    DESIGN: Individual patient data meta-analysis of studies evaluating LSM-VCTE against liver histology was conducted. FIB-4 and NFS were computed where possible. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) were calculated. Biomarkers were assessed individually and in sequential combinations.

    RESULTS: Data were included from 37 primary studies (n=5735; 45% women; median age: 54 years; median body mass index: 30 kg/m2; 33% had type 2 diabetes; 30% had advanced fibrosis). AUROCs of individual LSM-VCTE, FIB-4 and NFS for advanced fibrosis were 0.85, 0.76 and 0.73. Sequential combination of FIB-4 cut-offs (<1.3; ≥2.67) followed by LSM-VCTE cut-offs (<8.0; ≥10.0 kPa) to rule-in or rule-out advanced fibrosis had sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 66% (63-68) and 86% (84-87) with 33% needing a biopsy to establish a final diagnosis. FIB-4 cut-offs (<1.3; ≥3.48) followed by LSM cut-offs (<8.0; ≥20.0 kPa) to rule out advanced fibrosis or rule in cirrhosis had a sensitivity of 38% (37-39) and specificity of 90% (89-91) with 19% needing biopsy.

    CONCLUSION: Sequential combinations of markers with a lower cut-off to rule-out advanced fibrosis and a higher cut-off to rule-in cirrhosis can reduce the need for liver biopsies.

  13. McColl H, Racimo F, Vinner L, Demeter F, Gakuhari T, Moreno-Mayar JV, et al.
    Science, 2018 07 06;361(6397):88-92.
    PMID: 29976827 DOI: 10.1126/science.aat3628
    The human occupation history of Southeast Asia (SEA) remains heavily debated. Current evidence suggests that SEA was occupied by Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers until ~4000 years ago, when farming economies developed and expanded, restricting foraging groups to remote habitats. Some argue that agricultural development was indigenous; others favor the "two-layer" hypothesis that posits a southward expansion of farmers giving rise to present-day Southeast Asian genetic diversity. By sequencing 26 ancient human genomes (25 from SEA, 1 Japanese Jōmon), we show that neither interpretation fits the complexity of Southeast Asian history: Both Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers and East Asian farmers contributed to current Southeast Asian diversity, with further migrations affecting island SEA and Vietnam. Our results help resolve one of the long-standing controversies in Southeast Asian prehistory.
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