MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, clinical data, including clinical staging, Computed Tomography (CT) scan findings and histopathological results were collected and analysed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Ampang, Ministry of Health Malaysia.
RESULTS: A total of 31 patients had surgery for CC from 1st August 2018 till 31st August 2020. Radical hysterectomy was done on 23 of them as primary treatment for early stage cervical cancer. Both pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection was done in 6 patients while 17 patients had only pelvic lymph node dissection. All patients had thoracoabdomino- pelvic CT scans done preoperatively. Among the 82.6% patients with no enlarged pelvic lymph nodes on CT scan, all were confirmed by histology to be negative of malignancy. In the remainder 17.4% of patients with enlarged pelvic nodes on CT scan, three quarters had histology positive pelvic nodes for malignancy (p=0.002). Among patients with no enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes on CT scan, 83.3% had histologically negative para-aortic nodes. Among patients with clinical tumour diameter 2- 3.9 cm, 14.3% had positive pelvic nodes while a quarter of patients with clinical tumour diameter ≥ 4cm had histological positive pelvic nodes. None of the patients with tumour diameter < 2cm had positive pelvic nodes (p=0.993). Positive pelvic lymph nodes involvement was present in 37.5% of those with positive lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). All patients with negative LVSI had no histological positive pelvic nodes (p=0.103). Among patients with tumour invasion involving the inner third of the stroma, 16.7% had histological positive pelvic nodes while 18.2% with outer third stromal invasion had positive nodes (p=0.977). None of the patients had histologically positive para-aortic lymph nodes with negative pelvic lymph nodes. Among patients with clinical stage 1B2, 20% would have been upstaged to stage 3C based on radiological imaging and final histology confirmation.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that in early stage CC, there is a statistically significant correlation between CT scan findings of enlarged pelvic lymph nodes and histological positive pelvic lymph nodes.
METHODOLOGY: Jaw sections containing 67 teeth (86 roots) were collected from unclaimed bodies due for cremation. Imaging was carried out to detect AP by digital PR with a central view (DP group), digital PR combining central with 10˚ mesially and distally angled (parallax) views (DPS group) and CBCT scans. All specimens underwent histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of AP. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PR and CBCT were analysed using rater mean (n = 5). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.27, 0.38 and 0.89 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. CBCT had specificity and positive predictive value of 1.0 whilst DP and DPS had specificity and positive predictive value of 0.99. The negative predictive value was 0.39, 0.44 and 0.81 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) for the various imaging methods was 0.629 (DP), 0.688 (DPS), and 0.943 (CBCT).
CONCLUSIONS: All imaging techniques had similar specificity and positive predictive values. Additional parallax views increased the diagnostic accuracy of PR. CBCT had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting AP compared to PR, using human histopathological findings as a reference standard.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, recombinant TYMVcHis6 expressed in Escherichia coli self-assembled into VLPs of approximately 30-32 nm. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of protein fractions from the immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) showed that TYMVcHis6 VLPs interacted strongly with nickel ligands in IMAC column, suggesting that the fusion peptide is protruding out from the surface of VLPs. These VLPs are highly stable over a wide pH range from 3·0 to 11·0 at different temperatures. At pH 11·0, specifically, the VLPs remained intact up to 75°C. Additionally, the disassembly and reassembly of TYMVcHis6 VLPs were studied in vitro. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that TYMVcHis6 VLPs were dissociated by 7 mol l-1 urea and 2 mol l-1 guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) without impairing their reassembly property.
CONCLUSIONS: A 10-residue peptide was successfully displayed on the surface of TYMVcHis6 VLPs. This chimera demonstrated high stability under extreme thermal conditions with varying pH and was able to dissociate and reassociate into VLPs by chemical denaturants.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first C-terminally modified TYMVc produced in E. coli. The C-terminal tail which is exposed on the surface can be exploited as a useful site to display multiple copies of functional ligands. The ability of the chimeric VLPs to self-assemble after undergo chemical denaturation indicates its potential role to serve as a nanocarrier for use in targeted drug delivery.
METHOD: A total of 95 men (47 men with intellectual disability; 48 men without intellectual disability), aged 20-39 years, participated in this study. Anthropometric profile, dietary intake, physical activity level and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were collected.
RESULTS: The men with intellectual disability had moderate diet quality whilst the men without intellectual disability had poor diet quality. More participants with intellectual disability (97.9%) were inactive compared with their counterparts (10.4%). The SOS value was similar between groups and was lower than the reference. Increasing age and low physical activity level were negative predictors for bone health status.
CONCLUSION: Both young men with and without intellectual disability have suboptimal nutritional and bone health status. Strategies to improve their nutritional and bone health status are warranted.