Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Yong CK
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61 Suppl B:45-7.
    PMID: 17605180
    This is a report of a case of peroneal subluxation caused by peroneus quartus, a supernumerary muscle in the peroneal muscle group. Peroneus quartus' anatomy and its clinical relevance in lateral ankle pain, swelling and peroneal subluxation are described. It may be accurately diagnosed by peroneal tendoscopy. The technical note of this procedure is also described.
  2. Yong CK
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61 Suppl B:27-31.
    PMID: 17605179
    Posterolateral corner (PLC) laxity of the knee results in rotatory instability, in association with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) laxity led to a grossly unstable knee. This is a series of eight patients with chronic PLC and PCL laxity treated with arthroscopic quadriceps tendon PCL reconstruction and extraarticular hamstring PLC reconstruction. Seven cases had high tibial osteotomy to address associated genu varus deformity. With prospective pre- and post-operative assessments, there was a significant improvement in the 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective assessment and knee examination, Lysholm-Gillquist and Tegner activity scores, as well as KT-1000 arthrometry measurement after one year in all knees. Surgical treatment of PLC laxity must address coexisting problems of the PCL and mechanical alignment for a successful outcome.
  3. Lakhwani MN, Dadlani NI, Wong YC
    ANZ J Surg, 2009 May;79(5):352-7.
    PMID: 19566516 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.04888.x
    Chronic venous disorders are conditions of increasing prevalence in the developing world, and venous ulceration is the terminal sequel. Currently there are only limited data on all aspects of this from Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in the demography and outcome between varicose vein surgery (VVS) and the relatively new endovenous laser therapy (EVT) in patients from Penang, Malaysia.
  4. Yong CK, Choon DSK
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:83-90.
    PMID: 16381290
    We studied the factors influencing the mid-term outcomes of tibial plateau fractures treated conservatively (n=21) and surgically (n=27) from December 1994 to December 1997. Joint stability was an important prognostic determinant. In the surgical group, the most important factor was good anatomical reduction. Functional outcomes were comparable between the conservative and surgical groups. We concluded that conservative treatment is a valid option for fractures with minimal displacement and surgical treatment is justified for severely displaced or depressed fractures. Attention must be paid to the recognition and restoration of joint stability and articular surface congruency for a satisfactory outcome.
  5. Hooi PY, Yong CM, Cheong I
    Int J Clin Pract, 2001 May;55(4):272-4.
    PMID: 11406914
    A prospective study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who received an antibiotic within 12 hours of admission to the medical wards. During the four-week study, 234 patients were admitted to medical wards from casualty; 68 patients (29%) received an antibiotic. The survey indicated that antibiotics were inappropriate in 22-65% of those treated. This study also shows that as many as 67% of patients who received intravenous antibiotics could have been equally well treated with oral preparations.
  6. John Lim BB, Yong CM
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 07;76(4):534-540.
    PMID: 34305115
    BACKGROUND: The significance of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph nodes) metastasis in the five-year survival of early stage cervical cancer (CC) patients is well established. The previous International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 staging of CC was clinical and excluded advanced radiological assessment in assigning a stage. However, with the current FIGO 2018 staging, advanced radiological assessment and pathological findings were allowed to assign a stage which would alter the subsequent management. This pilot study aims to obtain local data on the correlation between radiological retroperitoneal lymph node positivity and histological lymph node positivity in early stage CC (stage 1A2 to 2A1) and seeks to correlate independent prognostic factors for recurrence to histological lymph node positivity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, clinical data, including clinical staging, Computed Tomography (CT) scan findings and histopathological results were collected and analysed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Ampang, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 patients had surgery for CC from 1st August 2018 till 31st August 2020. Radical hysterectomy was done on 23 of them as primary treatment for early stage cervical cancer. Both pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection was done in 6 patients while 17 patients had only pelvic lymph node dissection. All patients had thoracoabdomino- pelvic CT scans done preoperatively. Among the 82.6% patients with no enlarged pelvic lymph nodes on CT scan, all were confirmed by histology to be negative of malignancy. In the remainder 17.4% of patients with enlarged pelvic nodes on CT scan, three quarters had histology positive pelvic nodes for malignancy (p=0.002). Among patients with no enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes on CT scan, 83.3% had histologically negative para-aortic nodes. Among patients with clinical tumour diameter 2- 3.9 cm, 14.3% had positive pelvic nodes while a quarter of patients with clinical tumour diameter ≥ 4cm had histological positive pelvic nodes. None of the patients with tumour diameter < 2cm had positive pelvic nodes (p=0.993). Positive pelvic lymph nodes involvement was present in 37.5% of those with positive lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). All patients with negative LVSI had no histological positive pelvic nodes (p=0.103). Among patients with tumour invasion involving the inner third of the stroma, 16.7% had histological positive pelvic nodes while 18.2% with outer third stromal invasion had positive nodes (p=0.977). None of the patients had histologically positive para-aortic lymph nodes with negative pelvic lymph nodes. Among patients with clinical stage 1B2, 20% would have been upstaged to stage 3C based on radiological imaging and final histology confirmation.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that in early stage CC, there is a statistically significant correlation between CT scan findings of enlarged pelvic lymph nodes and histological positive pelvic lymph nodes.

  7. Yong C, Teo YM, Kapur J
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 Aug;71(4):193-198.
    PMID: 27770118
    To evaluate the performance of contrastenhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the risk stratification of indeterminate renal lesions picked up incidentally on abdominal imaging, in patients with renal impairment.
  8. Yong CK, Choon DS, Soon HC
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2008 Aug;16(2):197-200.
    PMID: 18725672
    To present midterm results of Duracon total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed between 1991 and 2001.
  9. Kanagasingam S, Lim CX, Yong CP, Mannocci F, Patel S
    Int Endod J, 2017 May;50(5):417-426.
    PMID: 27063209 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12650
    AIM: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of periapical radiography (PR) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting apical periodontitis (AP) using histopathological findings as a reference standard.

    METHODOLOGY: Jaw sections containing 67 teeth (86 roots) were collected from unclaimed bodies due for cremation. Imaging was carried out to detect AP by digital PR with a central view (DP group), digital PR combining central with 10˚ mesially and distally angled (parallax) views (DPS group) and CBCT scans. All specimens underwent histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of AP. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PR and CBCT were analysed using rater mean (n = 5). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.27, 0.38 and 0.89 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. CBCT had specificity and positive predictive value of 1.0 whilst DP and DPS had specificity and positive predictive value of 0.99. The negative predictive value was 0.39, 0.44 and 0.81 for DP, DPS and CBCT scans, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) for the various imaging methods was 0.629 (DP), 0.688 (DPS), and 0.943 (CBCT).

    CONCLUSIONS: All imaging techniques had similar specificity and positive predictive values. Additional parallax views increased the diagnostic accuracy of PR. CBCT had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting AP compared to PR, using human histopathological findings as a reference standard.

  10. Yong CK, Tan CN, Penafort R, Singh DA, Varaprasad MV
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(1):13-18.
    Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation is considered standard treatment for most intertrochanteric fractures. However, excessive sliding at the fracture site and medialisation of femoral shaft may lead in fixation failure. In contrast, fixed-angled 95° condylar blade plate (CBP) has no effective dynamic capacity and causes little bone loss compared to DHS. We compared the outcome of 57consecutive unstable intertrochanteric fragility fractures treated with these two fixation methods. CBP instrumentation is more difficult requiring longer incision, operating time and higher surgeon-reported operative difficulty. The six month post-operative mortality rate is 16%. Post-operative Harris hip scores were comparable between the two methods. Limb length shortening more than 20 mm was 6-fold more common with DHS. In elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fragility fractures, fixed angled condylar blade plate appears to be a better choice than dynamic hip screws for preventing fixation failures.
  11. Sumitro K, Yong CS, Tan LT, Choo S, Lim CY, Shariman H, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):50-52.
    PMID: 32843946
    The djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum) is a native delicacy in Southeast Asia, though consumption can sometimes lead to djenkolism. Clinical features of djenkolism include acute abdominal pain, hematuria, urinary retention, and acute kidney injury (AKI). The pain can be severe, which often leads to a misdiagnosis of acute abdomen. In this paper, we report the case of an Indonesian migrant with djenkolism. Due to the short history and severity of the abdominal pain, medical professionals suspected acute abdomen and proceeded with a negative exploratory laparotomy. However, djenkolism was suspected once relatives informed the professionals that the patient had consumed djenkol beans hours earlier. The patient recovered through aggressive hydration and urine alkalinization with bicarbonate infusion. We highlight the importance of being aware of this rare cause of AKI, especially in Southeast Asia, in order to provide early diagnoses and prompt treatments.
  12. Daood U, Aati S, Akram Z, Yee J, Yong C, Parolia A, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2021 Jul 27;9(15):5344-5358.
    PMID: 34190236 DOI: 10.1039/d1bm00555c
    The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
  13. Tan FH, Kong JC, Ng JF, Alitheen NB, Wong CL, Yong CY, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2021 Oct;131(4):2072-2080.
    PMID: 33629458 DOI: 10.1111/jam.15048
    AIMS: To display a short peptide (GSRSHHHHHH) at the C-terminal end of turnip yellow mosaic virus coat protein (TYMVc) and to study its assembly into virus-like particles (TYMVcHis6 VLPs).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, recombinant TYMVcHis6 expressed in Escherichia coli self-assembled into VLPs of approximately 30-32 nm. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of protein fractions from the immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) showed that TYMVcHis6 VLPs interacted strongly with nickel ligands in IMAC column, suggesting that the fusion peptide is protruding out from the surface of VLPs. These VLPs are highly stable over a wide pH range from 3·0 to 11·0 at different temperatures. At pH 11·0, specifically, the VLPs remained intact up to 75°C. Additionally, the disassembly and reassembly of TYMVcHis6 VLPs were studied in vitro. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that TYMVcHis6 VLPs were dissociated by 7 mol l-1 urea and 2 mol l-1 guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) without impairing their reassembly property.

    CONCLUSIONS: A 10-residue peptide was successfully displayed on the surface of TYMVcHis6 VLPs. This chimera demonstrated high stability under extreme thermal conditions with varying pH and was able to dissociate and reassociate into VLPs by chemical denaturants.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first C-terminally modified TYMVc produced in E.  coli. The C-terminal tail which is exposed on the surface can be exploited as a useful site to display multiple copies of functional ligands. The ability of the chimeric VLPs to self-assemble after undergo chemical denaturation indicates its potential role to serve as a nanocarrier for use in targeted drug delivery.

  14. Jamil NA, Jia Ling C, Md Ibrahim HI, Hamzaid NH, Kok Yong C
    J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 2020 May;33(3):632-639.
    PMID: 32080943 DOI: 10.1111/jar.12708
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the nutritional and bone health status between young men with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and those without intellectual disability and to determine predictors for their bone health status.

    METHOD: A total of 95 men (47 men with intellectual disability; 48 men without intellectual disability), aged 20-39 years, participated in this study. Anthropometric profile, dietary intake, physical activity level and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were collected.

    RESULTS: The men with intellectual disability had moderate diet quality whilst the men without intellectual disability had poor diet quality. More participants with intellectual disability (97.9%) were inactive compared with their counterparts (10.4%). The SOS value was similar between groups and was lower than the reference. Increasing age and low physical activity level were negative predictors for bone health status.

    CONCLUSION: Both young men with and without intellectual disability have suboptimal nutritional and bone health status. Strategies to improve their nutritional and bone health status are warranted.

  15. Majani AF, Ghazali SR, Yoke Yong C, Pauzi N, Adenan F, Manogaran K
    Psychol Rep, 2023 Aug;126(4):1605-1619.
    PMID: 35084251 DOI: 10.1177/00332941221075246
    Multiple exposures to life-threatening events may lead to various mental health issues and indirectly affect the marriage of those affected. Very few studies have investigated trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and marital conflicts among firefighters, a group that faces such exposure occupationally. The present study explores the relationship between trauma exposure, PTSD, and depression in relation to marital conflicts among firefighters in Sarawak, adopting a cross-sectional research design. Different marital status reported significant PTSD and depressive symptoms. The widowed scored higher PTSD and depressive symptoms than the married and single groups. Firefighters with PTSD and depressive symptoms reported having more problems in aggression family history of distress, sexual dissatisfaction, and problem solving communication than those without. Regression analysis showed that problem solving communication (t (212) = 2.59, p = .01) and global distress scores (t (212) = 2.17, p < .05) in type of marital conflicts served as a significant predictor for depressive symptoms. The present study suggests that proper planning for treatment and intervention is needed to improve psychological well-being among firefighters and other high-risk professions following multiple exposures to traumatic events in carrying their job duty. Proper intervention programs also should be initiated for spouses of firefighters dealing with traumatized partners.
  16. Ibrahim Abdelwahab S, Syaed Koko W, Mohamed Elhassan Taha M, Mohan S, Achoui M, Ameen Abdulla M, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2012 Mar 5;678(1-3):61-70.
    PMID: 22227329 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.024
    Columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone, was isolated purely for the first time from the plant species Tinspora bakis. The anti-inflammatory effects of columbin were studied in vitro, in silico and in vivo. The effect of columbin on nitric oxide was examined on lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN) induced RAW264.7 macrophages. In vitro and in silico cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activities of columbin using biochemical kit and molecular docking, respectively, were investigated. Mechanism of columbin in suppressing NF-kappaB-translocation was tested using Cellomics®NF-κB activation assay and ArrayScan Reader in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, effects of columbin in vivo that were done on carrageenan-induced mice paw-oedema were tested. Lastly, the in vitro and in vivo toxicities of columbin were examined on human liver cells and mice, respectively. Treatment with columbin or N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) inhibited LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO production without affecting the viability of RAW264.7. Pre-treatment of stimulated cells with columbin did not inhibit the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus in LPS-stimulated cells. COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities of columbin were 63.7±6.4% and 18.8±1.5% inhibition at 100μM, respectively. Molecular docking study further helped in supporting the observed COX-2 selectivity. Whereby, the interaction of columbin with Tyr385 and Arg120 signifies its higher activity in COX-2, as Tyr385 was reported to be involved in the abstraction of hydrogen from C-13 of arachidonate, and Arg120 is critical for high affinity arachidonate binding. Additionally, columbin inhibited oedema formation in mice paw. Lastly, the compound was observed to be safe in vitro and in vivo. This study presents columbin as a potential anti-inflammatory drug.
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