The human small intestine, with its enormous absorptive surface area, is invariably the principal site of drug absorption. Hence, the residence time of a dosage form in this part of the gut can have a great influence on the absorption of the contained drug. Various methods have been employed to monitor the gastrointestinal transit of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but the use of gamma-scintigraphy has superceded all the other methods. However, careful consideration of the time interval for image acquisition and proper analysis of the scintigraphic data are important for obtaining reliable results. Most studies reported the mean small intestinal transit time of various dosage forms to be about 3-4h, being closely similar to that of food and water. The value does not appear to be influenced by their physical state nor the presence of food, but the timing of food intake following administration of the dosage forms can influence the small intestinal transit time. While the mean small intestinal transit time is quite consistent among dosage forms and studies, individual values can vary widely. There are differing opinions regarding the effect of density and size of dosage forms on their small intestinal transit properties. Some common excipients employed in pharmaceutical formulations can affect the small intestinal transit and drug absorption. There is currently a lack of studies regarding the effects of excipients, as well as the timing of food intake on the small intestinal transit of dosage forms and drug absorption.
The purpose of this research was to study processing variables at the laboratory and pilot scales that can affect hydration rates of xanthan gum matrices containing diclofenac sodium and the rate of drug release. Tablets from the laboratory scale and pilot scale proceedings were made by wet granulation. Swelling indices of xanthan gum formulations prepared with different amounts of water were measured in water under a magnifying lens. Granules were thermally treated in an oven at 60 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C to study the effects of elevated temperatures on drug release from xanthan gum matrices. Granules from the pilot scale formulations were bulkier compared to their laboratory scale counterparts, resulting in more porous, softer tablets. Drug release was linear from xanthan gum matrices prepared at the laboratory scale and pilot scales; however, release was faster from the pilot scales. Thermal treatment of the granules did not affect the swelling index and rate of drug release from tablets in both the pilot and laboratory scale proceedings. On the other hand, the release from both proceedings was affected by the amount of water used for granulation and the speed of the impeller during granulation. The data suggest that processing variables that affect the degree of wetness during granulation, such as increase in impeller speed and increase in amount of water used for granulation, also may affect the swelling index of xanthan gum matrices and therefore the rate of drug release.
The present study was conducted to investigate the inclusion complexation of artemisinin (ART) with natural cyclodextrins (CyD), namely alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CyDs with the aim of improving its solubility and dissolution rate. Complex formation in aqueous solution and solid state was studied by solubility analysis, dissolution, and thermal analysis. Solubility diagrams indicated that the complexation of ART and the three CyDs occurred at a molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a remarkable increase in ART solubility. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters calculated by using the van't Hoff equation revealed that the complexation process was associated with negative enthalpy of formation and occurred spontaneously. The complexation capability of CyDs with ART increased in the order of alpha- < gamma- < beta-CyDs and could be ascribed to the structural compatibility between the molecular size of ART and the diameter of the CyD cavities. Dissolution profiles of the three complexes demonstrated an increased rate and extent of dissolution compared with those of their respective physical mixtures and a commercial preparation. In solid-state analysis, using differential scanning calorimetry, the gamma-CyD was capable of complexing the highest percentage of ART, followed by beta- and alpha-CyDs. The respective estimated percentage of ART complexed by the CyDs were 85%, 40%, and 12%.
A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of acyclovir in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of the plasma sample after deproteination. It is both specific and sensitive with a detection limit of 30 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and is thus suitable for use in pharmacokinetic studies of acyclovir. The method had a mean absolute recovery of 96%, while the within-day and between-day coefficients of variation and percentages error were all less than 8%. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 62.5-4000 ng/ml.
A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of ketoconazole in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of the plasma sample after deproteinization using acetonitrile. The mobile phase comprised 0.05 M disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) adjusted to pH 6. Analysis was run at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min with the detector operating at an excitation wavelength of 260 nm and an emission wavelength of 375 nm. The method is specific and sensitive with a quantification limit of approximately 60 ng/ml and a detection limit of 40 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Mean absolute recovery value was about 105%, while the within-day and between-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 14%. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 62.5-8000 ng/ml.
A single dose comparative bioavailability study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of tocotrienols from two self-emulsifying formulations, one of which produced an emulsion that readily lipolysed under in vitro condition (SES-A), while the other produced a finer dispersion with negligible lipolysis (SES-B) in comparison with that of a non-self-emulsifying formulation in soya oil. The study was conducted according to a three-way crossover design using six healthy human volunteers. Statistically significant differences were observed between the logarithmic transformed peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) values of both SES-A and -B compared to NSES-C indicating that SES-A and -B achieved a higher extent of absorption compared to NSES-C. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval of the AUC(0-infinity) values of both SES-A and -B over those of NSES-C were between 2-3 suggesting an increase in bioavailability of about two-three times compared to NSES-C. Both SES-A and -B also achieved a faster onset of absorption. However, both SES-A and -B had comparable bioavailability, despite the fact that SES-B was able to form emulsions with smaller droplet size. Thus, it appeared that both droplet sizes as well as the rate and extent of lipolysis of the emulsion products formed were important for enhancing the bioavailability of the tocotrienols from the self-emulsifying systems.
The bioavailability of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin artemisinin complexes was evaluated in comparison with a normal commercially available preparation, Artemisinin 250. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in the study conducted according to a three-way crossover design. The bioavailability was compared using the parameters, total area under the plasma level-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)), peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and time to reach peak plasma concentration (T(max)). A statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the complexes and Artemisinin 250 for the three parameters. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin complexes. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the AUC(0-infinity) values of the beta-cyclodextrin complex over those of Artemisinin 250 was estimated to be between 1.51-2.04, while that of C(max) was between 1.73-2.93. For the gamma-cyclodextrin complex, the respective intervals were 1.30-1.76 and 1.43-2.43. These findings indicated that the beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin complexes had a much higher rate and extent of bioavailability compared to Artemisinin 250. In addition, the absorption of artemisinin was observed to be poor and negligible when the preparations started to arrive in the colon. This could be attributed to poor dissolution of artemisinin in the semi-solid faecal matter in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract.
A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of testosterone in human plasma. Testosterone and the internal standard, griseofulvin, were extracted from 0.50 ml plasma sample using a mixture of dichloromethane-2,2,4-trimethylpentane (3:2, v/v). The mobile phase, consisted of 0.02 M sodium dihydrogenphosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (51:47:2, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.1 and delivered to a C(18) analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., 4 microm particles) at a flow-rate of 1 ml/min while the detection wavelength was set at 240 nm with a sensitivity range of 0.005 a.u.f.s. The method has a quantification limit of 1.6 ng/ml. Recoveries of testosterone were all greater than 92% over the linear concentration range of 1.6-400 ng/ml while that of griseofulvin was approximately 95%. The within- and between-day RSD values were all less than 8% while the accuracy values ranged from 96.0 to 106.0% over the concentration range studied. The method was applied to the analysis of early morning plasma testosterone levels of 12 healthy human male volunteers. The levels were found to range from 3.1 to 8.4 ng/ml, within the normal range reported in the literature.
Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P
This study explored the potential of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from agrowastes, okara (soybean solid waste), oil palm trunk (OPT), and oil palm frond (OPF) obtained via alkali treatment, in the nanoencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus . SDF solutions were amended with 8% poly(vinyl alcohol) to produce nanofibers using electrospinning technology. The spinning solution made from okara had a higher pH value at 5.39 ± 0.01 and a higher viscosity at 578.00 ± 11.02 mPa·s (P < 0.05), which resulted in finer fibers. FTIR spectra of nanofibers showed the presence of hemicellulose material in the SDF. Thermal behavior of nanofibers suggested possible thermal protection of probiotics in heat-processed foods. L. acidophilus was incorporated into the spinning solution to produce nanofiber-encapsulated probiotic, measuring 229-703 nm, visible under fluorescence microscopy. Viability studies showed good bacterial survivability of 78.6-90% under electrospinning conditions and retained viability at refrigeration temperature during the 21 day storage study.
Oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), and okara are agrowastes generated abundantly by the palm oil and soy industries. There are vast potentials for these fibrous biomass rather than disposal at landfills or incineration. Fibrous materials (FM) and alkali-treated fibrous residues (FR) were produced from the selected wastes and subsequently characterized. Functional properties such as emulsifying properties, mineral-binding capacity, and free radical scavenging activity were also evaluated for possible development of functional products. Supernatants (FS) generated from the alkaline treatment contained soluble fractions of fibers and were also characterized and used for the production of nanofibers. Okara FM had the highest (P < 0.05) protein (31.5%) and fat (12.2%) contents, which were significantly reduced following alkali treatment. The treatment also increased total dietary fiber (TDF) in okara by 107.9%, in OPT by 67.2%, and in OPF by 25.1%. The increased fiber fractions in FR enhanced functional properties such as water-holding capacities and oil-holding capacities. Okara displayed the highest (P < 0.05) emulsifying properties compared to OPT and OPF. High IDF content of OPT and OPF contributed to high antioxidant activities (377.2 and 367.8% higher than that of okara, respectively; P < 0.05). The soluble fraction from alkali treatment of fibers was successfully electrospun into nanofibers, which can be further developed into nanoencapsulants for bioactive compound or drug delivery.
A novel multiparticulate sustained-release theophylline formulation, which consisted of spherical drug pellets coated with a rate-controlling membrane, was evaluated in vivo. Two preparations that differ solely in the coat thickness, and hence rate of in vitro drug release, were studied in comparison with a solution of the drug. Both preparations produced serum concentration profiles that are reflective of a slow and sustained rate of absorption. The in vivo release versus time profiles calculated using a deconvolution procedure showed that the two preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of drug release. Satisfactory correlation was also obtained between the in vivo and the in vitro results. When the two preparations were further compared using the parameters, time to reach peak concentration (Tp), peak concentration (Cp), and total area under the serum concentration versus time curves (AUC), a statistically significant difference was observed in the Tp and Cp values but not the AUC values, suggesting that the preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of absorption. In addition, the extent of absorption from both preparations was comparable to that obtained with the drug solution.
Lipophilicity was evaluated as a possible mechanism for drug retardation from a glyceryl monostearate matrix system. Lipophilicity of the glyceryl monostearate matrix system was studied using contact angle measurement of water droplets on the surface of compressed disks, extrudate ascension of water, and movement of water through a powder mixture packed in a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. Increase in glyceryl monostearate content resulted in an increase in water droplet contact angle, decrease in the rate of water ascending the extrudate, and increase in the pressure values as a function of flow rate of water moving through the powder mixture. These could be due to the increase in lipophilicity of the matrix, rendering the matrix less wettable. As a result, the rate of water penetration into the matrix decreased, and the drug release could be sustained.
This study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two controlled-release metformin preparations (Diabetmin Retard and Glucophage Retard) and also to correlate the in vitro and in vivo data obtained with the two preparations. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a completely randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC0-infinity, time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax, and peak plasma concentration Cmax, while correlation was determined between in vitro release and in vivo absorption. Diabetmin Retard demonstrated a slower rate of in vitro release, but a faster rate of in vivo absorption than Glucophage Retard. However, the in vivo absorption of both products was found to be slower than that of drug released in vitro. A satisfactory relationship could be established between the in vitro and in vivo results, but there was no rank order correlation. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two preparations in the parameters AUC0-infinity and Cmax. However, a slight but statistically significant difference was observed between the Tmax values, but it may not be therapeutically significant. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity values, as well as the logarithmic transformed Cmax values, of Diabetmin Retard over those of Glucophage Retard was within the acceptance criteria of 0.80-1.25.
The bioavailability of a generic preparation of naltrexone (Narpan) was compared with the innovator product, Trexan. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a completely randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using the parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC0-infinity, peak plasma concentration Cmax, and time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax. No statistically significant difference was observed between the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity and the logarithmically transformed Cmax values of the two preparations. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed between the untransformed Tmax values. In addition, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity values of Narpan over those of Trexan was found to lie between 0.87 and 1.01, while that of the logarithmic transformed Cmax values was between 0.94 and 1.23, both being within the bioequivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. The numerical values of the elimination half-life (t1/2) obtained with the two preparations were also not significantly different and were comparable to those reported in the literature.
A simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of terazosin in human plasma. The method involves a one-step single solvent extraction procedure using dichloromethane with a 0.25 ml plasma sample. Recovery values were all greater than 90% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml. Terazosin was found to adsorb to glass or plastic tubes, but this could be circumvented by using disposable plastic tubes. Also, rinsing the injector port with methanol after each injection helped to prevent any carry-over effect. The internal standard, prazosin, did not exhibit this problem. The method has a quantification limit of 0.25 ng/ml. The within- and between-day coefficient of variation and accuracy values were all less than 7% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml and hence the method is suitable for use in pharmacokinetic studies of terazosin.
A simple liquid chromatographic method using amperometric detection was developed for the determination of naltrexone in human plasma. Prior to analysis, naltrexone and the internal standard (naloxone) were extracted from plasma samples using a 9:1 mixture of chloroform and isopropyl alcohol. The mobile phase comprised 0.1 M disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (85.5:14.5, v/v). Analysis was run at a flow-rate of 0.8 ml/min with the detector operating under oxidative mode at an applied potential of +0.95 V. The method is specific and sensitive with a detection limit of approximately 1 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Mean recovery value of the extraction procedure was about 93%, while the within day and between day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 10%. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1.5-100 ng/ml.
A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using UV detection was developed for the determination of alpha-tocopherol in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of the plasma sample after deproteinization using acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (3:2). The mobile phase comprised methanol-tetrahydrofuran (94:6) and analysis was run at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min with the detector operating at 292 nm. A Crestpak C18S (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm ID) was used for the chromatographic separation. The method had a mean recovery of 93%, while the within-day and between-day coefficients of variation and percentage errors were all less than 7%. The speed, specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this method make it particularly suitable for routine determination of alpha-tocopherol in human plasma. Moreover, only a small sample plasma volume (100 microl) is required for the analysis.
A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of ranitidine in human plasma. Prior to analysis, ranitidine and the internal standard (metoprolol) were extracted from alkalinized plasma samples using dichloromethane. The mobile phase was 0.05 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate-acetonitrile (88:12, v/v) adjusted to pH 6.5. Analysis was run at a flow-rate of 1.3 ml/min and at a detection wavelength of 229 nm. The method is sensitive with a detection limit of 1 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, while the quantification limit was set at 15 ng/ml. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 15-2000 ng/ml. Mean recovery value of the extraction procedure was about 90%, while the within-day and between-day coefficients of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 15%.