Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Subahir MN, Shah SA, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(6):1015-20.
    PMID: 20192575
    INTRODUCTION: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).

    METHODS: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (OR(M)) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0.

    RESULTS: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89-39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96).

    CONCLUSION: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.

  2. Ho CC, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian J. Androl., 2011 Jul;13(4):537-42.
    PMID: 21643001 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.135
    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
  3. Ting CM, Salleh ShH, Zainuddin ZM, Bahar A
    IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2011 Feb;58(2):321-31.
    PMID: 21257361 DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2010.2088396
    This paper proposes non-Gaussian models for parametric spectral estimation with application to event-related desynchronization (ERD) estimation of nonstationary EEG. Existing approaches for time-varying spectral estimation use time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) state-space models with Gaussian state noise. The parameter estimation is solved by a conventional Kalman filtering. This study uses non-Gaussian state noise to model autoregressive (AR) parameter variation with estimation by a Monte Carlo particle filter (PF). Use of non-Gaussian noise such as heavy-tailed distribution is motivated by its ability to track abrupt and smooth AR parameter changes, which are inadequately modeled by Gaussian models. Thus, more accurate spectral estimates and better ERD tracking can be obtained. This study further proposes a non-Gaussian state space formulation of time-varying autoregressive moving average (TVARMA) models to improve the spectral estimation. Simulation on TVAR process with abrupt parameter variation shows superior tracking performance of non-Gaussian models. Evaluation on motor-imagery EEG data shows that the non-Gaussian models provide more accurate detection of abrupt changes in alpha rhythm ERD. Among the proposed non-Gaussian models, TVARMA shows better spectral representations while maintaining reasonable good ERD tracking performance.
  4. Kong CH, Ibrahim MF, Zainuddin ZM
    Ann Saudi Med, 2009 Nov-Dec;29(6):429-32.
    PMID: 19847078 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.57163
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: For treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Plasma Kinetic loop Resection of the Prostate (PKRP) is an alternative to conventional monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). We compared outcomes with the two treatments in a randomized trial.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a one-year period, we randomly assigned patients with an indication for surgery for BPH and who met inclusion criteria to treatment with either PKRP or TURP. We measured prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, relief of bladder outlet obstruction, operative time, decline in serum sodium and hemoglobin, weight of resected prostatic chips, duration of catheterization and hospital stay. Patients were evaluated one month after discharge for obstructive symptoms. Complications were also recorded.
    RESULTS: Of 102 patients enrolled, 51 underwent PKRP and 51 underwent TURP. Relief of obstructive symptoms and mean operative time showed no statistically significant difference. The PKRP group had a smaller decline in hemoglobin than the TURP group (0.6 g/dL vs 1.8 g/dL, P=.01), a lower reduction in serum sodium levels (1.03 mmol/L vs 5.01 mmol/L, P=.01), a shorter catheterization time (37.2 hours versus 57.7 hours, P=.03) and a shorter hospital stay (1.5 days versus 2.6 days, P=.02). One patient in the bipolar PKRP group needed recatheterization versus four patients in the TURP group.
    CONCLUSION: PKRP reduces morbidity with an outcome similar to conventional monopolar TURP in the treatment of BPH.
  5. Isa MR, Ming MF, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):5999-6004.
    PMID: 23464393
    Measurement of quality of life among prostate cancer patients helps the health care providers to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective. The main aim of this study is to measure the quality of life among prostate cancer patients at University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and to ascertain the association factors for physical coefficient summary (PCS) and mental coefficient summary (MCS). A hospital based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted over a period of 6 months. A total of 193 respondents were recruited. Their total quality of life score was 70.1± 14.7 and the PCS score was lower compared to MCS. The factors associated for PCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, urinary problem of intermittency, dysuria and hematuria. Factors associated for MCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, presenting prostatic specific antigen and urinary problem of intermittency and dysuria. Our prostate cancer patients had moderate quality of life in the physical health components but their mental health was less affected.
  6. Hong GE, Kong CH, Singam P, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM, Azrif M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1351-3.
    PMID: 21198291
    INTRODUCTION: Analysis of epidemiological as well as survival differences among the multiethnic population of Malaysia with prostate cancer is important.

    METHODS: Patients confirmed by transrectal-ultrasonographic-guided-biopsy performed from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled and analysed according to ethnicity, age, PSA level, Gleason score, stage of disease and survival.

    RESULTS: Among 83 patients, there were 38 Malay, 40 Chinese, 3 Indians and 2 others. Median age at diagnosis was 69.9 (range: 59-93), 43 patients (51.8%) being diagnosed before the age of 70. The median PSA level upon diagnosis was 574 ng/ml (range: 1-8632) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range: 2-10). Over half were already in Stage 4 when diagnosed. The most common site of metastasis was the bone. As a result the commonest prescribed treatment was hormonal manipulation. Five patients underwent radical prostatectomy and a further thirteen patients had radical radiotherapy (stage I: 1 patient, stage II: 7 patients and stage III: 5 patients). Ten patients defaulted follow-up. The median disease-specific survival was 21.9 months (range: 1-53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma is a disease of the elderly and it is frequently diagnosed late in Malaysia. Greater efforts should be made to educate Malaysians regarding prostate cancer.

  7. Ho CC, Jamaludin WJ, Goh EH, Singam P, Zainuddin ZM
    PMID: 21842723
    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are associated with multiple complications. Among them are disconnection and migration of the tubing into the peritoneal cavity. Here we describe a case of a fractured ventriculoperitoneal shunt which migrated and coiled in the scrotum, masquerading as a scrotal swelling. Removal of the shunt via a scrotal incision was performed concomitantly with repair of the hernia sac.
  8. Shahar S, Shafurah S, Hasan Shaari NS, Rajikan R, Rajab NF, Golkhalkhali B, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(3):605-11.
    PMID: 21627352
    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer.

    DESIGN: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.

    RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.

  9. Kong CH, Ali SA, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2010 Sep;14 Suppl 3:e250-2.
    PMID: 20117032 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.10.006
    Spontaneous bladder perforation secondary to tuberculosis (TB) is very rare. Only three cases have been reported so far in the literature. Due to its rarity, the diagnosis of spontaneous bladder perforation is often missed. Confirmation of TB via culture takes a long time and starting empirical treatment for TB is necessary. We relate our experience with a young woman who presented with clinical features of a perforated appendix and was only diagnosed with bladder perforation during laparotomy. She also had distal right ureteral stricture and left infundibular stenosis. The provisional diagnosis of TB was attained via typical histopathological features and a positive Mantoux test. She was started empirically on anti-TB treatment and recovered without any complications. Urine culture after 6 weeks confirmed the diagnosis of TB.
  10. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

  11. Ho CC, Khandasamy Y, Singam P, Hong Goh E, Zainuddin ZM
    Libyan J Med, 2010 Nov 25;5.
    PMID: 21483557 DOI: 10.3402/ljm.v5i0.5686
    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract.
  12. Ho CC, Seong PK, Zainuddin ZM, Abdul Manaf MR, Parameswaran M, Razack AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3289-92.
    PMID: 23803117
    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical profiles of patients with low risk of having bone metastases, for which bone scanning could be safely eliminated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross sectional study looked at prostate cancer patients seen in the Urology Departments in 2 tertiary centres over the 11 year period starting from January 2000 to May 2011. Patient demographic data, levels of PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score for the biopsy core, T-staging as well as the lymph node status were recorded and analysed.

    RESULTS: 258 men were included. The mean age of those 90 men (34.9%) with bone metastasis was 69.2 ± 7.3 years. Logistic regression found that PSA level (P=0.000) at diagnosis and patient's nodal-stage (P=0.02) were the only two independent variables able to predict the probability of bone metastasis among the newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Among those with a low PSA level less than 20 ng/ml, and less than 10 ng/ml, bone metastasis were detected in 10.3% (12 out of 117) and 9.7% (7 out of 72), respectively. However, by combining PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower, and nodal negative as the two criteria to predict negative bone scan, a relatively high negative predictive value of 93.8% was obtained. The probability of bone metastasis in prostate cancer can be calculated with this formula: -1.069+0.007(PSA value, ng/ml) +1.021(Nodal status, 0 or 1)=x Probability of bone metastasis=2.718 x/1+2.718 x.

    CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with a PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower and negative nodes have a very low risk of bone metastasis (negative predictive value 93.8%) and therefore bone scans may not be necessary.

  13. Isa MR, Moy FM, Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S37-40.
    PMID: 23454597 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.011
    To determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on health related quality of life among prostate cancer patients.
  14. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

  15. Mohamad M, Wahab NA, Yunus R, Murad NA, Zainuddin ZM, Sundaram M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3437-45.
    PMID: 27509989
    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern in the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis (BM) secondary to prostate cancer (CaP). In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that the expression of vinculin (VCL) and chemokine X3C ligand 1 (CX3CL1) might be downregulated in clinical samples, most likely due to the posttranscriptional modification by microRNAs. Targeted genes would be upregulated upon transfection of the bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, with specific microRNA inhibitors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MicroRNA software predicted that miR21 targets VCL while miR29a targets CX3CL1. Twenty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 16 high grade CaP formalinfixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were analysed. From the bone scan results, high grade CaP samples were further classified into CaP with no BM and CaP with BM. Transient transfection with respective microRNA inhibitors was done in both RWPE1 (normal) and PC3 cell lines. QPCR was performed in all FFPE samples and transfected cell lines to measure VCL and CX3CL1 levels.

    RESULTS: QPCR confirmed that VCL messenger RNA (mRNA) was significantly down regulated while CX3CL1 was upregulated in all FFPE specimens. Transient transfection with microRNA inhibitors in PC3 cells followed by qPCR of the targeted genes showed that VCL mRNA was significantly up regulated while CX3CL1 mRNA was significantly downregulated compared to the RWPE1 case.

    CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of VCL in FFPE specimens is most likely regulated by miR21 based on the in vitro evidence but the exact mechanism of how miR21 can regulate VCL is unclear. Upregulated in CaP, CX3CL1 was found not regulated by miR29a. More microRNA screening is required to understand the regulation of this chemokine in CaP with bone metastasis. Understanding miRNAmRNA interactions may provide additional knowledge for individualized study of cancers.

  16. Tan GH, Shah SA, Ali NM, Goh EH, Singam P, Ho CCK, et al.
    Investig Clin Urol, 2017 05;58(3):186-191.
    PMID: 28480344 DOI: 10.4111/icu.2017.58.3.186
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the urethral stricture (US) rate and identify clinical and surgical risk factors associated with US occurrence after transurethral resection of the prostate using the bipolar Gyrus PlasmaKinetic Tissue Management System (PK-TURP).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an age-matched case-control study of US occurrence after PK-TURP. Retrospective data were collected from the hospital records of patients who had a minimum of 36 months of follow-up information. Among the data collected for analysis were prostate-specific antigen level, estimated prostate weight, the amount of prostate resected, operative time, history of urinary tract infection, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and whether the PK-TURP was combined with other endourological procedures. The resection rate was calculated from the collected data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinical and surgical risk factors related to US formation.

    RESULTS: A total of 373 patients underwent PK-TURP between 2003 and 2009. There were 13 cases of US (3.5%), and most of them (10 of 13, 76.9%) presented within 24 months of surgery. Most of the US cases (11 of 13, 84.6%) occurred at the bulbar urethra. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified slow resection rate as the only risk factor significantly associated with US occurrence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The US rate of 3.5% after PK-TURP in this study is comparable to contemporary series. A slow resection rate seems to be related to US occurrence. This should be confirmed by further studies; meanwhile, we must be mindful of this possibility when operating with the PK-TURP system.

  17. Inn FX, Ahmed N, Hou LG, Abidin ZAZ, Yi LL, Zainuddin ZM
    Int Urol Nephrol, 2019 Nov;51(11):1949-1953.
    PMID: 31441009 DOI: 10.1007/s11255-019-02262-7
    PURPOSE: The internal drainage provided by a ureteral stent helps with the relief and prevention of ureteral obstruction. By definition, correct stent placement is one with a complete loop in both the renal pelvis and bladder. This prevents stent migration proximally or distally despite urinary flow, patient movement, and ureteral peristalsis.

    METHODS: We performed a comparative prospective cross-sectional study assessing the impact of intravesical stent position on the quality of life in 46 patients with a ureteral stent. This is done using the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ).

    RESULTS: 52.5% of patients had an ipsilateral positioned intravesical stent, while the remaining had their stent positioned contralaterally. Intravesical stent position significantly influenced the quality of life. The USSQ score was worse for the contralateral group. Subscore analysis found that urinary symptoms and body pain index contribute significantly to the morbidity. Majority of patients in the ipsilateral group reported no discomfort as compared to the contralateral group.

    CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing the impact of intravesical stent position on the quality of life in the Asian population. Intravesical stent position has a significant influence on patient's morbidity and quality of life in particular towards their urinary irritative symptoms and body pain. It is imperative to ensure correct distal placement of ureteric stent that does not cross the midline to the contralateral site. We believe that the USSQ should be used in daily clinical practice in assessing the symptoms related to indwelling ureteric stents.

  18. Ho CC, Tong SF, Low WY, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Lee VK, et al.
    BJU Int., 2012 Jul;110(2):260-5.
    PMID: 22093057 DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10755.x
    Study Type - Therapy (RCT). Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Testosterone deficiency syndrome can be treated with testosterone replacement in the form of injectable, transdermal, buccal and oral preparations. Long-acting i.m. testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg, which is given at 10-14 week intervals, has been shown to be adequate for sustaining normal testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. This study confirms that long-acting i.m. testosterone undecanoate is effective in improving the health-related quality of life in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome as assessed by the improvement in the Aging Male Symptoms scale. Testosterone treatment can be indicated in men who have poor health-related quality of life resulting from testosterone deficiency syndrome.
  19. Hee TG, Shah SA, Ann HS, Hemdan SN, Shen LC, Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib N, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6327-30.
    PMID: 24377526
    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.
  20. Ezat SW, Syed Junid SM, Noraziani K, Zafar A, Saperi S, Nur AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3357-62.
    PMID: 23803129
    The human skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer and bone metastases are a major cause of cancer morbidity. The five most frequent cancers in Malaysia among males includes prostate whereas breast cancer is among those in females, both being associated with skeletal lesions. Bone metastases weaken bone structure, causing a range of symptoms and complications thus developing skeletal-related events (SRE). Patients with SRE may require palliative radiotherapy or surgery to bone for pain, having hypercalcaemia, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. These complications contribute to a decline in patient health- related quality of life. The multidimensional assessment of health-related quality of life for those patients is important other than considering a beneficial treatment impact on patient survival, since the side effects of treatment and disease symptoms can significantly impact health-related quality of life. Cancer treatment could contribute to significant financial implications for the healthcare system. Therefore, it is essential to assess the health-related quality of life and treatment cost, among prostate and breast cancer patients in countries like Malaysia to rationalized cost-effective way for budget allocation or utilization of health care resources, hence helping in providing more personalized treatment for cancer patients.
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