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  1. Jamaludin TSS, Zakaria MA, Saidi S, Chong MC
    MyJurnal
    Objective: As the incidence of emergencies has steadily increased in recent years, it is important to en-sure that individuals, including university students, are adequately trained to deal with such events. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of, and attitudes towards, first aid among IIUM Kuantan campus students.

    Method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey with stratified random sam-pling study was conducted among 348 students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire which was adapted from Hong Kong Red Cross. The questionnaire was available in both English and the Malay language.

    Results: A total of 42.8% participants had a moderate level of first aid knowledge. However, 90.8% participants had aware-ness of and a positive attitude towards first aid knowledge. On the other hand, 55.4% of study participants had not experienced taking first aid courses and they had little knowledge of this. There were significant associations between gender, Kulliyyah or faculty, year of study, and first aid training experience, and the level of first aid knowledge based on a one-way ANOVA test with p-values of < 0.05 representing statistical significance.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that most health sciences university students have good awareness and attitudes towards first aid. Nevertheless, implementation of regular educational programs with structured modules may be able to improve their knowledge of first aid practices and skills.
  2. Zakaria MA, Abdullah JM, George JP, Mutum SS, Lee NN
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):229-32.
    PMID: 16898318 MyJurnal
    Third ventricular cavernous angiomas are rare vascular malformations of the brain. We report an eight-year old boy with a rare third ventricular cavernous angioma that hemorrhaged presenting with symptoms of acute hydrocephalus. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a heterogenous ill-defined, solid and cystic intraventricular mass in the third ventricle which was mildly enhanced with contrast and there was associated hydrocephalus. The mass was removed with success and follow up after two years revealed no neurological abnormalities.
  3. Zakaria MA, Mohd Yusoff MZ, Zakaria MR, Hassan MA, Wood TK, Maeda T
    3 Biotech, 2018 Oct;8(10):435.
    PMID: 30306004 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-018-1461-2
    Pseudogenes in the Escherichia coli genome are assumed to be non-functional. In this study, Keio collection BW25113∆yqiG and YqiG-producing strain (BW25113/pCA24N-YqiG) were used to evaluate the importance of pseudogene yqiG in hydrogen metabolism. Our results show pseudogene protein YqiG was identified as an essential protein in the production of biohydrogen from glucose. The mutant yqiG decreased biohydrogen production from 37 µmol mg-1 protein to 6 µmol mg-1 protein compared to the wild-type strain, and glucose consumption was reduced by 80%. Through transcriptional analysis, we found that the yqiG mutation represses pflB transcription tenfold; pflB encodes pyruvate-formate lyase, one of the key enzymes in the anaerobic metabolism of E. coli. Moreover, production of YqiG stimulated glycolysis and increased biohydrogen productivity 1.5-fold compared to that of the wild-type strain. Thus, YqiG is important for the central glycolysis reaction and is able to influence hydrogen metabolism activity in E. coli.
  4. Zakaria MA, Rajab NF, Chua EW, Selvarajah GT, Masre SF
    Cancer Invest, 2020 Sep;38(8-9):445-462.
    PMID: 32713210 DOI: 10.1080/07357907.2020.1802474
    Tissues become more rigid during tumorigenesis and have been identified as a driving factor for tumor growth. Here, we highlight the concept of tissue rigidity, contributing factors that increase tissue rigidity, and mechanisms that promote tumor growth initiated by increased tissue rigidity. Various factors lead to increased tissue rigidity, promoting tumor growth by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Consequently, result in recruitment of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor protection from immunosurveillance. We also discussed the rationale for targeting tumor tissue rigidity and its potential for cancer treatment.
  5. Zakaria MA, Rajab NF, Chua EW, Selvarajah GT, Masre SF
    Int J Oncol, 2021 02;58(2):185-198.
    PMID: 33491756 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2020.5164
    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer known to man, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite advancements being made in lung cancer treatments, the prognosis of patients with the disease remains poor, particularly among patients with late‑stage lung cancer. The elucidation of the signaling pathways involved in lung cancer is a critical approach for the treatment of the disease. Over the past decades, accumulating evidence has revealed that Rho‑associated kinase (ROCK) is overexpressed in lung cancer and is associated with tumor growth. The present review discusses recent findings of ROCK signaling in the pathogenesis of lung cancer that were conducted in pre‑clinical studies. The significant role of ROCK in cancer cell apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis is discussed. The present review also suggests the use of ROCK as a potential target for the development of lung cancer therapies, as ROCK inhibition can reduce multiple hallmarks of cancer, particularly by decreasing cancer cell migration, which is an initial step of metastasis.
  6. Zakaria MA, Rajab NF, Chua EW, Selvarajah GT, Masre SF
    Sci Rep, 2021 Nov 18;11(1):22500.
    PMID: 34795360 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-01988-8
    Mice have served as an excellent model to understand the etiology of lung cancer for years. However, data regarding dual-stage carcinogenesis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remain elusive. Therefore, we aim to develop pre-malignant (PM) and malignant (M) lung SCC in vivo using N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU). BALB/C mice were allotted into two main groups; PM and M groups which received treatment for 15 and 30 weeks, respectively. Then, the mice in each main group were allotted into three groups; control, vehicle, and cancer (n = 6), which received normal saline, 70% acetone, and 0.04 M NTCU by skin painting, respectively. Histopathologically, we discovered a mix of hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia lesions in the PM group and intracellular bridge; an SCC feature in the M group. The M group was positive for cytokeratin 5/6 protein which confirmed the lung SCC subtype. We also found significantly higher (P 
  7. Abdullah MA, Ibrahim MAR, Shapiee MNA, Zakaria MA, Mohd Razman MA, Muazu Musa R, et al.
    PeerJ Comput Sci, 2021;7:e680.
    PMID: 34497873 DOI: 10.7717/peerj-cs.680
    This study aims at classifying flat ground tricks, namely Ollie, Kickflip, Shove-it, Nollie and Frontside 180, through the identification of significant input image transformation on different transfer learning models with optimized Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. A total of six amateur skateboarders (20 ± 7 years of age with at least 5.0 years of experience) executed five tricks for each type of trick repeatedly on a customized ORY skateboard (IMU sensor fused) on a cemented ground. From the IMU data, a total of six raw signals extracted. A total of two input image type, namely raw data (RAW) and Continous Wavelet Transform (CWT), as well as six transfer learning models from three different families along with grid-searched optimized SVM, were investigated towards its efficacy in classifying the skateboarding tricks. It was shown from the study that RAW and CWT input images on MobileNet, MobileNetV2 and ResNet101 transfer learning models demonstrated the best test accuracy at 100% on the test dataset. Nonetheless, by evaluating the computational time amongst the best models, it was established that the CWT-MobileNet-Optimized SVM pipeline was found to be the best. It could be concluded that the proposed method is able to facilitate the judges as well as coaches in identifying skateboarding tricks execution.
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