Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 122 in total

  1. Yaacob Y, Muda S, Zakaria R
    Annals of thoracic medicine, 2012 Apr;7(2):107-9.
    PMID: 22558017 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.94534
    This was a case of a 35-year-old man with mediastinal mass requiring computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy for tissue diagnosis. A posterior approach with an 18-gauge biopsy needle was used to obtain tissue sample. Post biopsy, patient condition deteriorated and multiphase CT study detected active bleeding in arterial phase at the biopsy site with massive hemothorax. Subsequent angiography showed arterial bleeder arising from the apical branch of the right pulmonary artery. Selective endovascular embolization with NBCA (n-Butyl cyanoacrylate) was successful. Patient survived the complication. The case highlighted a rare complication in a common radiology procedure and the value of the interventional radiology unit in avoiding a fatal outcome.
  2. Zakaria R, Ismail Z, Chatterjee A
    Pharmacol Res, 2000 Aug;42(2):183-6.
    PMID: 10887050
    Reproductive dysfunction in the female diabetic rat is associated with impaired hypothalamic-hypophyseal system, anovulation, insufficiency of ovarian steroidogenesis and spontaneous failure of pregnancy. Formation of decidua, the highly modified endometrium of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy could only be achieved when the uterus was sensitized by a sequence of oestrogen and progesterone. In this study, we examined whether the impaired expression of endometrial decidualization in the pseudopregnant rat is linked with diabetes-associated hypersecretion of testosterone. Rats were made pseudopregnant by sterile mating. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin on day 1 p.c. Deciduogenic stimulus was given on day 5 p.c. Treatment of cyproterone acetate (10 mg kg(-1)) was scheduled from day 5 through day 9 p.c. Animals were killed on day 10 p.c, and the degree of endometrial decidual growth, plasma levels of oestradiol, progesterone, ACTH and testosterone were determined. Results showed that compared to controls there was a concomitant drop in endometrial decidual growth concurrently with impaired levels of oestradiol and progesterone in diabetic pseudopregnant rats. ACTH and testosterone levels were, however, profoundly elevated. Cyproterone acetate treatment in the diabetic pseudopregnant rat resulted in a simultaneous elevation of oestradiol and progesterone, which eventually helped the endometrial differentiation to decidua in the diabetic pseudopregnant rat parallel to controls. Present experimental data suggest that diabetes-associated impaired endometrial decidualization in the pseudopregnant rat is possibly caused by testosterone-induced oestrogen deficiency.
  3. Azman KF, Zakaria R
    Biogerontology, 2019 12;20(6):763-782.
    PMID: 31538262 DOI: 10.1007/s10522-019-09837-y
    To facilitate the process of aging healthily and prevent age-related health problems, efforts to properly understand aging mechanisms and develop effective and affordable anti-aging interventions are deemed necessary. Systemic administration of D-galactose has been established to artificially induce senescence in vitro and in vivo as well as for anti-aging therapeutic interventions studies. The aim of this article is to comprehensively discuss the use of D-galactose to generate a model of accelerated aging and its possible underlying mechanisms involved in different tissues/organs.
  4. Boon, Y. T., Naim, M. N., Zakaria, R., Abu Bakar, N. F., Ahmad, N.
    A study on the feasibility of using gel electrophoresis technique in grading the agarwood oil
    quality was investigated. Prior to electrophoresis, the emulsified agarwood oil droplets were
    screened by a diffuse layer of ions that have equal absolute charge to that of the droplets surface
    charge in aqueous phase. The condition was obtained by varying the concentrations of nonionic
    surfactant; Tween 80 until the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) value of 0.0167%
    (v/v) was achieved. The prepared droplets suspended in the aqueous within nano-metre size and
    had ability to migrate through the agarose gel with its own specific electrophoretic mobility.
    However, due to the limitation of gel pore size, only large oil droplets (>200 nm) indicated
    visible bands. Overall, a novel work for grading the emulsified agarwood oil droplet with its
    own electrical properties was feasible.
  5. Azman KF, Zakaria R
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2019 Dec;22(12):1368-1377.
    PMID: 32133053 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.14027
    This paper reviews the potential role of honey as a therapeutic antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress and improve cognitive ageing. All articles indexed to PubMed Central (PMC) were searched using the following key words: honey, antioxidant, memory and ageing. Honey is a natural insect-derived product with therapeutic, medicinal and nutritional values. Antioxidant properties of honey quench biologically-circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system. Antioxidant properties of honey may complement its nootropic effects to reduce cognitive ageing.
  6. Zakaria R, Sutan R, Jaafar R
    PMID: 32642469 DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_497_19
    INTRODUCTION: Educating a mother of a premature baby and providing a structured written educational information can enhance better understanding and practice. This article describes the development and implementation of a health educational package for preemie moms in the care of their premature baby after neonatal intensive care unit discharge.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The package known as "Preemie Mom: A Guide for You" was designed based on Stufflebeam's model and has four phases: (1) content evaluation from available sources of information, (2) input evaluation based on mothers' need related to premature baby care, (3) process evaluation for package designing and content drafting, and (4) product evaluation to determine its feasibility. The contents were extracted and collated for validation by consulting various specialists in related fields. A final draft was drawn based on comments given by experts. Comments from the mothers were taken for formatting, visual appearance, and content flow for easy understanding and usage.

    RESULTS: All ten existing articles and eight relevant documents were gathered and critically appraised. The package was designed based on 11 main components related to the care of premature baby after discharge. The content validation was accepted at a minimum score of 0.85 for the item-level content validity index analysis. Both experts and mothers were agreed that the package is easy to use and well accepted as a guide after discharge. The agreement rate by the mothers was at 93.33% and greater for the front page, writing style, structure, presentation, and motives of the package.

    CONCLUSIONS: "Preemie Mom: A Guide for You" is a validated health educational package and ready to be used to meet the needs of the mother for premature baby care at home.

  7. Zakaria R, Ahmad AH, Othman Z
    Folia Biol. (Praha), 2016;62(5):181-187.
    PMID: 27978412
    Pineal melatonin biosynthesis is regulated by the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Melatonin has been found to modulate the learning and memory process in human as well as in animals. Endogenous melatonin modulates the process of newly acquired information into long-term memory, while melatonin treatment has been found to reduce memory deficits in elderly people and in various animal models. However, the mechanisms mediating the enhancing effect of melatonin on memory remain elusive. This review intends to explore the possible mechanisms by looking at previous data on the effects of melatonin treatment on memory performance in rodents.
  8. Hajissa K, Zakaria R, Suppian R, Mohamed Z
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:315.
    PMID: 26062975 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0932-0
    Serological investigation remains the primary approach to achieve satisfactory results in Toxoplasma gondii identification. However, the accuracy of the native antigen used in the current diagnostic kits has proven to be insufficient as well as difficult to standardize, so significant efforts have been made to find alternative reagents as capture antigens. Consequently, multi-epitope peptides are promising diagnostic markers, with the potential for improving the accuracy of diagnostic kits. In this study, we described a simple, inexpensive and improved strategy to acquire such diagnostic markers. The study was aimed at producing novel synthetic protein consisting of multiple immunodominant epitopes of several T. gondii antigens.
  9. Mat MAC, Yaacob LH, Zakaria R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Feb;27(1):124-133.
    PMID: 32158352 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.1.13
    Introduction: Acceptance of a screening programme for thalassemia is important in managing the disease and its associated complications. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of thalassemia and factors associated with thalassemia screening refusal among parents of secondary school children.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2017 to October 2017 among parents of fourth form students in three schools in Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia. Parents who are able to read and understand Malay and consented to the study were required to answer a validated questionnaire on their knowledge regarding thalassemia. They were also asked the reason for their acceptance or refusal of the thalassemia screening of their children.

    Results: In total, 273 participants took part in the study. The mean thalassemia knowledge score was 11.8 out of a maximum score of 21. Low knowledge scores (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79, 0.95; P = 0.002) and female sex (adj OR 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.53; P = 0.040) had significant associations with parental thalassemia screening refusal. The main reason for screening refusal was that parents perceived that their children were not at risk for the disease since they did not have a family member with thalassemia.

    Conclusion: The mean thalassemia knowledge score among parents remains unsatisfactory. A high knowledge score is important since it is associated with parental acceptance of thalassemia screening for their children.

  10. Hajissa K, Zakaria R, Suppian R, Mohamed Z
    J Adv Vet Anim Res, 2019 Jun;6(2):174-182.
    PMID: 31453188 DOI: 10.5455/javar.2019.f329
    Despite the significant progress in the recent efforts toward developing an effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, the search for new protective vaccination strategy still remains a challenge and elusive goal because it becomes the appropriate way to prevent the disease. Various experimental approaches in the past few years showed that developing a potential vaccine against the disease can be achievable. The combination of multi-epitopes expressing different stages of the parasite life cycle has become an optimal strategy for acquiring a potent, safe, and effective vaccine. Epitope-based vaccines have gained attention as alternative vaccine candidates due to their ability of inducing protective immune responses. This mini-review highlights the current status and the prospects of Toxoplasma gondii vaccine development along with the application of epitope-based vaccine in the future parasite immunization as a novel under development and evaluation strategy.
  11. Juperi S, Zakaria R, Mansor A
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2012 May;23(1):35-44.
    PMID: 24575224 MyJurnal
    To investigate the distribution of Anacardiaceae in Teluk Bahang Permanent Forest Reserve (TBPFR) in Pulau Pinang, all trees with a diameter at breast high (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were enumerated in a study site constituting 0.4 ha of the reserve. Seventy five individuals of Anacardiaceae (14% of all trees) are recorded. These individuals represent 4 genera and 5 species, namely, Mangifera pentandra, Mangifera macrocarpa, Gluta elegans, Campnosperma auriculatum and Swintonia floribunda. The mean density of Anacardiaceae within the study plots is 7.50±8.14 (mean±S.D.) per ha whereas the basal area (BA) calculated is 0.97 m(2)/0.40 ha. The importance value (IVi) for Anacardiaceae is 81%. The estimated total aboveground biomass (TAGB) for Anacardiaceae is 24.24 ton/0.40 ha. A total of 333 Anacardiaceae saplings with a DBH < 5 cm are recorded. These saplings have been identified as juveniles of the genera Gluta (9.99%), Swintonia (84.90%) and Mangifera (5.11%).
  12. Azman KF, Safdar A, Zakaria R
    Exp Gerontol, 2021 07 15;150:111372.
    PMID: 33905879 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2021.111372
    Aging is associated with a variety of morphological and functional changes in the liver. Oxidative stress and inflammation are now widely accepted as the main mechanisms involved in the aging process that may subsequently cause severe injury to mitochondrial DNA which leads to apoptosis. As aging may increase the risks for various liver diseases and plays as an adverse prognostic factor increasing the mortality rate, knowledge regarding the mechanisms of age-related liver susceptibility and the possible therapeutic interventions is imperative. Due to cost and time constraints, a mimetic aging model is generally preferred to naturally aged animals to study the underlying mechanisms of aging liver. The use of D-galactose in aging research is dated back to 1962 and has since been used widely. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the effects of D-galactose-induced aging on the liver and the underlying mechanisms involved. Its potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed. It is hoped that this invaluable information may facilitate researchers in choosing the appropriate aging model and provide a valuable platform for testing potential therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of age-related liver diseases.
  13. Poobathy R, Zakaria R, Murugaiyah V, Subramaniam S
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195642.
    PMID: 29649288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195642
    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.
  14. Ping KS, Poobathy RR, Zakaria R, Subramaniam S
    Cryo Letters, 2018 5 8;38(4):290-298.
    PMID: 29734430
      BACKGROUND: Conservation of commercially important ornamental plants is important to maintain its unique beauty to cater the market demands.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for Aranda Broga Blue orchid PLBs using droplet-vitrification method.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several critical factors in cryopreservation were accessed such as preculture concentrations and durations, choice of vitrification solutions, two-step or three-step vitrification, growth recovery medium and PVS2 exposure duration.

    RESULTS: The best growth regeneration percentage (5%) was obtained when 3-4mm PLBs were precultured in 0.2M sucrose for 3 days, followed by osmoprotection for 20 minutes, dehydration in PVS2 for 20 minutes at 0 degree C, LN storage, thawed and unloading for 20 minutes, and growth regeneration in VW10 medium. PLBs were found to be very sensitive to osmotic stress imposed by high molecular weight cryoprotectant such as sucrose and glycerol. Osmotic potential of growth recovery medium is one of the main factors that affect growth recovery in cryopreserved PLBs.

    CONCLUSION: Current report showed possibilities in cryopreserving Aranda Broga Blue PLBs using droplet-vitrification technique. However, further improvement of growth recovery can be done by focussing on approaches that facilitate sufficient water removal from PLBs without causing severe osmotic injuries to the plant cells.

  15. Hajissa K, Zakaria R, Suppian R, Mohamed Z
    Iran J Parasitol, 2018 8 3;13(2):215-224.
    PMID: 30069205
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent intracellular protozoan parasite which causes serious clinical and veterinary problems. Development of an effective vaccine for controlling toxoplasmosis is an extremely important aim. In the present study, the protective efficacy of recombinant multiepitope antigen (USM.TOXO1) expressing nine potential epitopes identified from SAG1, GRA2, and GRA7 of Toxoplasma gondii was evaluated in BALB/c mice.

    Methods: Mice were immunized subcutaneously with three doses of USM.TOXO1 antigen (10 μg/ml). Following the immunization, the IgG antibody, IgG subclass, IFN-γ and IL-4 production were evaluated using ELISA, the study was conducted at Animal Research and Service Center (ARASC), USM Health Campus in 2016.

    Results: Mice immunized with USM.TOXO1 significantly induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response polarized toward the IgG1 antibody isotype. While the cytokine analysis revealed a significant release of IFN-γ cytokines.

    Conclusion: USM.TOXO1 is a potential vaccine candidate that elicits strong immunity in BALB/c mice. The proven immunogenicity of the generated antigen can serve as a premise for further use of epitope-based vaccine in the immunoprevention of human and animal toxoplasmosis.

  16. Tahir NSM, Zakaria R, Draman N
    Korean J Fam Med, 2019 Sep;40(5):348-350.
    PMID: 30477049 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.18.0001
    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The relationship between dyspepsia and particularly gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety is poorly defined. However, GERD was noted to be strongly associated and often coincident in onset with generalized anxiety disorder in the community. In this paper, we report the case of an adult man who presented with severe weight loss and underlying GERD, and was later found to have an anxiety disorder as the cause of both.
  17. Hajissa K, Zakaria R, Suppian R, Mohamed Z
    BMC Infect Dis, 2017 12 29;17(1):807.
    PMID: 29284420 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2920-9
    BACKGROUND: The inefficiency of the current tachyzoite antigen-based serological assays for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection mandates the need for acquirement of reliable and standard diagnostic reagents. Recently, epitope-based antigens have emerged as an alternative diagnostic marker for the achievement of highly sensitive and specific capture antigens. In this study, the diagnostic utility of a recombinant multiepitope antigen (USM.TOXO1) for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis was evaluated.

    METHODS: An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to evaluate the usefulness of USM.TOXO1 antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human sera. Whereas the reactivity of the developed antigen against IgM antibody was evaluated by western blot and Dot enzyme immunoassay (dot-EIA) analysis.

    RESULTS: The diagnostic performance of the new antigens in IgG ELISA was achieved at the maximum values of 85.43% and 81.25% for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively. The USM.TOXO1 was also proven to be reactive with anti- T. gondii IgM antibody.

    CONCLUSIONS: This finding makes the USM.TOXO1 antigen an attractive candidate for improving the toxoplasmosis serodiagnosis and demonstrates that multiepitope antigens could be a potential and promising diagnostic marker for the development of high sensitive and accurate assays.

  18. Loh SY, Zakaria R, Mohamad N
    Medeni Med J, 2023 Mar 28;38(1):45-53.
    PMID: 36974481 DOI: 10.4274/MMJ.galenos.2023.14478
    OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) is an old disease and it has infected millions of people worldwide. Since it is a highly infectious disease, many people became TB contact due to prolonged exposure to a person with TB infection. This group of people is at a higher risk of getting latent and active TB infection, hence a vulnerable group for active TB screening. This study explored the factors that determined the attitude score, the level of knowledge, attitude, and stigma (KAS) regarding TB disease among TB contact.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a validated KAS questionnaire, performed among 338 TB contacts from 5 health clinics in Kedah, Malaysia. The respondents were selected via convenience sampling. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean KAS scores of participants are 73.5% [standard deviation (SD)=17.06], 83.0% (SD=10.33), and 67.0% (SD=16.72), respectively. Higher income (p=0.001), better knowledge score (p<0.001), and higher stigma score (p=0.003) are the significant associated factors for the attitude score.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that most of the TB contacts have good knowledge and constructive attitude toward TB prevention and screening, but their level of stigma on TB is high. The implementation of TB education and intervention programs among TB contacts are required especially among low-income groups.

  19. Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:953830.
    PMID: 25097894 DOI: 10.1155/2014/953830
    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.
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