SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The package known as "Preemie Mom: A Guide for You" was designed based on Stufflebeam's model and has four phases: (1) content evaluation from available sources of information, (2) input evaluation based on mothers' need related to premature baby care, (3) process evaluation for package designing and content drafting, and (4) product evaluation to determine its feasibility. The contents were extracted and collated for validation by consulting various specialists in related fields. A final draft was drawn based on comments given by experts. Comments from the mothers were taken for formatting, visual appearance, and content flow for easy understanding and usage.
RESULTS: All ten existing articles and eight relevant documents were gathered and critically appraised. The package was designed based on 11 main components related to the care of premature baby after discharge. The content validation was accepted at a minimum score of 0.85 for the item-level content validity index analysis. Both experts and mothers were agreed that the package is easy to use and well accepted as a guide after discharge. The agreement rate by the mothers was at 93.33% and greater for the front page, writing style, structure, presentation, and motives of the package.
CONCLUSIONS: "Preemie Mom: A Guide for You" is a validated health educational package and ready to be used to meet the needs of the mother for premature baby care at home.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2017 to October 2017 among parents of fourth form students in three schools in Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia. Parents who are able to read and understand Malay and consented to the study were required to answer a validated questionnaire on their knowledge regarding thalassemia. They were also asked the reason for their acceptance or refusal of the thalassemia screening of their children.
Results: In total, 273 participants took part in the study. The mean thalassemia knowledge score was 11.8 out of a maximum score of 21. Low knowledge scores (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79, 0.95; P = 0.002) and female sex (adj OR 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.53; P = 0.040) had significant associations with parental thalassemia screening refusal. The main reason for screening refusal was that parents perceived that their children were not at risk for the disease since they did not have a family member with thalassemia.
Conclusion: The mean thalassemia knowledge score among parents remains unsatisfactory. A high knowledge score is important since it is associated with parental acceptance of thalassemia screening for their children.
OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for Aranda Broga Blue orchid PLBs using droplet-vitrification method.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several critical factors in cryopreservation were accessed such as preculture concentrations and durations, choice of vitrification solutions, two-step or three-step vitrification, growth recovery medium and PVS2 exposure duration.
RESULTS: The best growth regeneration percentage (5%) was obtained when 3-4mm PLBs were precultured in 0.2M sucrose for 3 days, followed by osmoprotection for 20 minutes, dehydration in PVS2 for 20 minutes at 0 degree C, LN storage, thawed and unloading for 20 minutes, and growth regeneration in VW10 medium. PLBs were found to be very sensitive to osmotic stress imposed by high molecular weight cryoprotectant such as sucrose and glycerol. Osmotic potential of growth recovery medium is one of the main factors that affect growth recovery in cryopreserved PLBs.
CONCLUSION: Current report showed possibilities in cryopreserving Aranda Broga Blue PLBs using droplet-vitrification technique. However, further improvement of growth recovery can be done by focussing on approaches that facilitate sufficient water removal from PLBs without causing severe osmotic injuries to the plant cells.
Methods: Mice were immunized subcutaneously with three doses of USM.TOXO1 antigen (10 μg/ml). Following the immunization, the IgG antibody, IgG subclass, IFN-γ and IL-4 production were evaluated using ELISA, the study was conducted at Animal Research and Service Center (ARASC), USM Health Campus in 2016.
Results: Mice immunized with USM.TOXO1 significantly induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response polarized toward the IgG1 antibody isotype. While the cytokine analysis revealed a significant release of IFN-γ cytokines.
Conclusion: USM.TOXO1 is a potential vaccine candidate that elicits strong immunity in BALB/c mice. The proven immunogenicity of the generated antigen can serve as a premise for further use of epitope-based vaccine in the immunoprevention of human and animal toxoplasmosis.
METHODS: An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to evaluate the usefulness of USM.TOXO1 antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human sera. Whereas the reactivity of the developed antigen against IgM antibody was evaluated by western blot and Dot enzyme immunoassay (dot-EIA) analysis.
RESULTS: The diagnostic performance of the new antigens in IgG ELISA was achieved at the maximum values of 85.43% and 81.25% for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively. The USM.TOXO1 was also proven to be reactive with anti- T. gondii IgM antibody.
CONCLUSIONS: This finding makes the USM.TOXO1 antigen an attractive candidate for improving the toxoplasmosis serodiagnosis and demonstrates that multiepitope antigens could be a potential and promising diagnostic marker for the development of high sensitive and accurate assays.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a validated KAS questionnaire, performed among 338 TB contacts from 5 health clinics in Kedah, Malaysia. The respondents were selected via convenience sampling. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The mean KAS scores of participants are 73.5% [standard deviation (SD)=17.06], 83.0% (SD=10.33), and 67.0% (SD=16.72), respectively. Higher income (p=0.001), better knowledge score (p<0.001), and higher stigma score (p=0.003) are the significant associated factors for the attitude score.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that most of the TB contacts have good knowledge and constructive attitude toward TB prevention and screening, but their level of stigma on TB is high. The implementation of TB education and intervention programs among TB contacts are required especially among low-income groups.
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