This work was investigated the protein solubility properties of meat from chicken in different
body part. The effects of fresh and freezing condition were studied on the protein solubility as
a functional property of slaughter and non slaughtering chicken meat. Solubility of proteins
was significantly reduced for slaughtering fresh meat and in contrast, non slaughtering fresh
meat shows the higher protein solubility. On the other hand, frozen storage meat showed the
difference amount of protein solubility between slaughtering and non slaughtering condition
meat. Freezing condition also showed that the different solubility of different body part meat.
The protein solubility of some parts was significantly increased and some were decreased
between the slaughtering and non slaughtering condition.
Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessive disorder of the hemostasis involving a defective clotting factor IX. Amplification of the regions containing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) can be achieved by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This paper describes the analysis of 2 RFLPs involving the Dde1 and Taq1 restriction sites within the factor IX gene in a family with hemophilia B. Digestion of the PCR products with Taq1 revealed a 163bp fragment in all the family members. This finding suggests the absence of restriction site for Taq1 enzyme. However, the Dde1 digest results in bands 369bp and 319bp segregated amongst the family members. The pattern of inheritance of the 369bp fragment in this family suggested that both the patient's mother and aunt are not carriers and that the patient's factor IX gene could have undergone a de novo mutation producing a defective factor IX gene responsible for the hemophilia B. This is supported by the fact that no family history of hemophilia B is indicated in the other male members within the family.
We report a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver in a six-year-old girl who at presentation, had fever, right hypochondrium pain and hepatomegaly. The diagnosis was clinched by fine needle aspiration cytology and was subsequently reconfirmed by histopathological examination of the resected tumour. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given because primary resection was deemed not possible. The patient underwent a successful extensive hepatectomy followed by continuation chemotherapy
An adult female Elephant Trunk Snake (Acrochordus javanicus) was reported to have been weak and inappetent for five days. The following morning the snake found dead, while in the process of shedding its skin. On post mortem examination, there were multiple circumscribed caseous nodules of various sizes distributed all over the liver, along the respiratory tract and on the lungs. Bacteriological analysis of the lungs and liver swab samples yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei, which was confirmed by PCR amplification of specific 16S rRNA. The condition was diagnosed as melioidosis and the organism was genotypically characterized as sequence type 51, a genotype that has been previously characterized in humans in Malaysia. Antibiotic susceptibility by both Disc diffusion or Kirby Bauer and E-test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that the organism exhibited susceptibility to meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole and co-amoxyclav; the antibiotics recommended in the treatment of melioidosis.
Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960’s from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today’s M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970’s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living or non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/gas flow system.. An alternative system such as a process tomography system, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/gas flow in pipe/vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases.
Leptospirosis is re-emerging in Malaysia and many other tropical countries. Its infection of human and animal’s worldwide. The study was carried out to identify predominate Leptospira serovars within rat populations in Kuala Lumpur (KL) by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). As well to investigate the frequency of infection by polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR). The isolated cultures that obtained from culturing kidney tissue of 112 trapped rats from four sites in KL, were identified by MAT using panel of 16 standard hyper immune anti-sera. Besides, identification of Leptospira strains by PCR amplification with G1/G2 and ompL1 Borgpetersenii genes. Results from typing by MAT revealed that 8/57 (7.1%) of cultured isolates reacted against; hyper-immune antisera of serogroup Javanica and 13/57 (22.8%) against serogroup Bataviae. Whereas, the rest of isolates recorded across reactivity 1/20 against serogroups; Icterohaemorrhagiae 2/57, Canicola 1/57, Australis 2/57. From PCR-G1/G2; 50/112 (50.9%) cultures were positive included (40/57 cultures positive to isolation and 10/55 cultures negative to isolation). While, from PCR-ompL1 Borgpetersenii gene; 21/112 (18.7%) cultures positive included (17/57 cultures positive to isolation and 4/55 cultures were negative to isolation). It is obvious from this study that serogroups Javanica and Bataviae were the predominant among rat populations in KL. Also it revealed the high frequency of pathogenic strains among rat populations and their potential risk of humans and animals contracting infection.
Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4 are rare. The deletions may occur at the proximal or the distal portions of the chromosome and different breakpoints may be involved. We report an interstitial deletion of 4q: 46XY der 4 (q28;q35) in a six-year-old boy with dysmorphic features associated with moderate mental retardation. Parental chromosomal analysis showed a balanced paternal translocation.
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the UBI MAGIWELTM ζ-GLOBIN ELISA Kit for the presumptive diagnosis of αo-thalassaemia. The ELISA results obtained were confirmed by molecular characterisation of αo-thalassaemia using a Duplex-PCR. Methods: Routine peripheral blood counts and red cell indices were determined in 94 blood samples sent for Hb analysis. Hb subtypes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Hb electrophoresis conducted on agarose gel at pH 8.5. Zeta-globin chain levels were determined using the UBI MAGIWELTM ζ-GLOBIN ELISA Kit. Molecular analysis was performed using a duplex-PCR which simultaneously amplifies
a normal 136 bp sequence between the ψα−α2-globin genes and a 730 bp Southeast Asian deletion-specific sequence (–SEA) between the ψα2−θ1-globin genes. Results: Using the ELISA assay kit, 20 blood samples were presumptively identified as α-thalassaemia carriers from elevated ζ-globin chains (OD>0.3) while the remaining 74 blood samples showed OD
Lumefantrine is a widely used antimalarial in children in sub-Saharan Africa and is predominantly metabolised by CYP3A4. The concomitant use of lumefantrine with the antiretroviral efavirenz, which is metabolised by CYP2B6 and is an inducer of CYP3A4, increases the risk of lumefantrine failure and can result in an increased recrudescence rate in HIV-infected children. This is further confounded by CYP2B6 being highly polymorphic resulting in a 2-3 fold higher efavirenz plasma concentration in polymorphic subjects, which enhances the potential for an efavirenz-lumefantrine drug-drug interaction (DDI). This study developed a population-based PBPK model capable of predicting the impact of efavirenz-mediated DDIs on lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in African paediatric population groups, which also considered the polymorphic nature of CYP2B6. The validated model demonstrated a significant difference in lumefantrine target day 7 concentrations (Cd7) in the presence and absence of efavirenz and confirmed the capability of efavirenz to initiate this DDI. This was more apparent in the *6/*6 compared to *1/*1 population group and resulted in a significantly lower (P
Entero-cutaneous fistula resulting from a locally invasive large bowel carcinoma is a difficult surgical challenge. En-bloc resection of the involved organs and the entero-cutaneous fistula tract with a healthy tissue margin will result in a composite abdominal wall defect that requires closure. Reconstructive surgical options include primary closure, components separation and the use of local, regional or free flaps with or without prosthetic mesh. We report a case of an abdominal enterocutaneous fistula secondary to a locally invasive sigmoid carcinoma, which was reconstructed with a pedicled antero-lateral thigh perforator (ALT) flap. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a malignant entero-cutaneous fistula, which was reconstructed with an ALT flap.
Heparin resistance (HR) is an increasingly common occurrence due to a greater awareness of the benefits of antithrombosis prophylaxis in hospitalised patients with low molecular weight and unfractionated heparin. Furthermore as more high-risk patients with prior heparin exposure undergo cardiac surgery we can expect to encounter more such cases. Adequate anticoagulation is essential for the safe conduct of any operation requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and is usually achieved with systemic heparinisation. We report a case of successful anticoagulation with the intraoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma in a high-risk coronary patient with HR and highlight the perils of unwitting overheparinisation in such cases. This case highlights the importance of clinical awareness of this phenomenon and the available alternative anticoagulants.
A new and efficient method has been designed to prepare 2,2'-arylene-substituted bis(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one) derivatives by using the mixture of cyanuric chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide in a microwave-assisted reaction. The method used and presented here has good rate enhancement and excellent yields.
Cr(VI) biosorption and bioreduction ability of locally isolated Cr-resistant bacteria was investigated using the shake-flask technique. A mixture of S. epidermidis and B. cereus showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) level at 750 mg/L Cr(VI) followed by S. aureus and Bacillus sp. of 250 mg/L, and A. haemolyticus of 70 mg/L. From the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the treatment of cells with heat-acid resulted in the highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorped (78.25 mg/g dry wt. for S. epidermidis) compared to heat-acetone (67.93 mg/g dry wt. Bacillus sp.), heat only (36.05 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis) or untreated cells (45.40 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis and B. cereus). FTIR analysis showed the involvement of amine groups in Cr(VI) adsorption. In the bioreduction study, A. haemolyticus was able to completely reduce Cr(VI) up to 50 mg/L.
Cell-based therapy has great potential to treat patients with lung diseases. The administration of cells into an injured lung is one method of repairing and replacing lost lung tissue. However, different types of delivery have been studied and compared, and none of the techniques resulted in engraftment of a high number of cells into the targeted organ. In this in vitro study, a novel method of cell delivery was introduced to investigate the possibility of delivering aerosolized skin-derived fibroblasts.
We report our experience with intralesional injection of bleomycin in the treatment of neck lymphangioma. From May 1995 to April 1998, 11 patients aged between 6 to 22 months were treated with intralesional bleomycin injection. Ultrasonography and computed tomography were used to assess and select the cases suitable for sclerotherapy. Patients with lesions encasing the internal jugular vein and the carotid artery were chosen. With the patient under sedation and using ultrasound guidance, the cysts were aspirated and bleomycin was injected at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The number of procedures varied from 1 to 4 over a period of 8 months to 1 year. Patients were initially followed-up 3 monthly, then 6 monthly and subsequently yearly. In 4 patients, the neck mass was no longer visible (excellent response). In 5 patients, the neck mass had reduced to a size (more than 50% reduction) that was cosmetically acceptable (good response). There were 2 failures (poor response). There were no complications. Our results suggest that intralesional injection of bleomycin can be effectively used to treat selected cases of neck lymphangiomas.
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS), also known as duplication 17p11.2 syndrome, trisomy 17p11.2 or dup(17)(p11.2p11.2) syndrome, is a developmental disorder and a rare contiguous gene syndrome affecting 1 in 20,000 live births. Among the key features of such patients are autism spectrum disorder, learning disabilities, developmental delay, attention-deficit disorder, infantile hypotonia and cardiovascular abnormalities. Previous studies using microarray identified variations in the size and extent of the duplicated region of chromosome 17p11.2. However, there are a few genes which are considered as candidates for PTLS which include RAI1, SREBF1, DRG2, LLGL1, SHMT1 and ZFP179. In this report, we investigated a case of a 3-year-old girl who has developmental delay. Her chromosome analysis showed a normal karyotype (46,XX). Analysis using array CGH (4X44 K, Agilent USA) identified an ~4.2 Mb de novo duplication in chromosome 17p11.2. The result was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes in the critical PTLS region. This report demonstrates the importance of microarray and FISH in the diagnosis of PTLS.
Ivermectin has demonstrated many successes in the treatment of a range of nematode infections. Considering the increase in malaria resistance, attention has turned toward ivermectin as a candidate for repurposing for malaria. This study developed and validated an ivermectin physiology-based pharmacokinetic model in healthy adults (20-50 years), pediatric (3-5 years/15-25 kg) subjects, and a representative adult malaria population group (Thailand). Dosing optimization demonstrating a twice-daily dose for 3- or 5-day regimens would provide a time above the LC50 of more than 7 days for adult and pediatric subjects. Furthermore, to address the occurrence of CYP450 induction that is often encountered with antiretroviral agents, simulated drug-drug interaction studies with efavirenz highlighted that a 1-mg/kg once-daily dose for 5 days would counteract the increased ivermectin hepatic clearance and enable a time above LC50 of 138.8 h in adults and 141.2 h in pediatric subjects. It was also demonstrated that dosage regimen design would require consideration of the age-weight geographical relationship of the subjects, with a dosage regimen for a representative Thailand population group requiring at least a single daily dose for 5 days to maintain ivermectin plasma concentrations and a time above LC50 similar to that in healthy adults.