The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.
This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental indicators and health expenditures in the panel of five selected Asian countries, over the period of 2000-2013. The study used panel cointegration technique for evaluating the nexus between environment and health in the region. The results show that energy demand, forest area, and GDP per unit use of energy have a significant and positive impact on increasing health expenditures in the region. These results have been confirmed by single equation panel cointegration estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimators. In addition, the study used robust least squares regression to confirm the generalizability of the results in Asian context. All these estimators indicate that environmental indicators escalate the health expenditures per capita in a region; therefore, Asian countries should have to upsurge health expenditures for safeguard from environmental evils in a region.
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of air pollutants, including mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on ecological footprint, habitat area, food supply, and biodiversity in a panel of thirty-four developed and developing countries, over the period of 1995-2014. The results reveal that NOx and SO2 emissions both have a negative relationship with ecological footprints, while N2O emission and real GDP per capita have a direct relationship with ecological footprints. NOx has a positive relationship with forest area, per capita food supply and biological diversity while CO2 emission and GHG emission have a negative impact on food production. N2O has a positive impact on forest area and biodiversity, while SO2 emissions have a negative relationship with them. SO2 emission has a direct relationship with per capita food production, while GDP per capita significantly affected per capita food production and food supply variability across countries. The overall results reveal that SO2, CO2, and GHG emissions affected potential habitat area, while SO2 and GHG emissions affected the biodiversity index. Trade liberalization policies considerably affected the potential habitat area and biological diversity in a panel of countries.
The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.
This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for an interactive environmental model that facilitates the process of sustainable development across the globe.
A new class of triazinoindole-bearing thiosemicarbazides (1-25) was synthesized and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. All synthesized analogs exhibited excellent inhibitory potential, with IC50 values ranging from 1.30 ± 0.01 to 35.80 ± 0.80 µM when compared to standard acarbose (an IC50 value of 38.60 ± 0.20 µM). Among the series, analogs 1 and 23 were found to be the most potent, with IC50 values of 1.30 ± 0.05 and 1.30 ± 0.01 µM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) was mainly based upon bringing about different substituents on the phenyl rings. To confirm the binding interactions, a molecular docking study was performed.
The natural catastrophic events largely damage the country's sustainability agenda through massive human fatalities and infrastructure destruction. Although it is partially supported the economic growth through the channel of "Schumpeter creative destruction" hypothesis, however, it may not be sustained in the long-run. This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between natural disasters (i.e., floods, storm, and epidemic) and per capita income by controlling FDI inflows and foreign aid in the context of Malaysia, during the period of 1965-2016. The study employed time series cointegration technique, i.e., autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL)-bounds testing approach for robust inferences. The results show that flood, storm, and epidemic disasters substantially decrease the country's per capita income, while FDI inflows and foreign aid largely supported the country's economic growth in the short-run. These results are disappeared in the long-run, where flood and storm disasters exhibit the positive association with the economic growth to support the Schumpeter creative destruction hypothesis. The foreign aid decreases the per capita income and does not maintain the "aid-effectiveness" hypotheses in a given country. The causality estimates confirmed the disaster-led growth hypothesis, as the causality estimates running from (i) storm to per capita income, (ii) epidemic to per capita income, and (iii) storm to foreign aid. The results emphasized for making disaster action plans to reduce human fatalities and infrastructure for sustainable development.
The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.
Isoquinoline analogues (KA-1 to 16) have been synthesized and evaluated for their E. coli thymidine phosphorylase inhibitory activity. Except compound 11, all other analogs showed outstanding thymidine inhibitory potential ranging in between 4.40 ± 0.20 to 69.30 ± 1.80 µM when compared with standard drug 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 4.42 µM). Structure Activity Relationships has been established for all compounds, mainly based on substitution pattern on phenyl ring. All analogs were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS. The binding interactions of isoquinoline analogues with the active site of TP enzyme, the molecular docking studies were performed. Furthermore, the angiogenic inhibitory potentials of isoquinoline analogues (KA-1-9, 14, 12 and 16) were determined in the presence of standard drug Dexamethasone based on percentage inhibitions at various concentrations. Herein this work analogue KA-12, 14 and 16 emerged with most potent angiogenic inhibitory potentials among the synthesized analogues.
In this study, polybutylene succinate (PBS) was blended with five types of modified tapioca starch to investigate the effect of modified tapioca starch in PBS blends for food packaging by identifying its properties. Tensile and flexural properties of blends found deteriorated for insertion of starch. This is due to poor interface, higher void contents and hydrolytic degradation of hydrophilic starch. FTIR results show all starch/PBS blends are found with footprints of starch except OH stretching vibration which is absent in B40 blends. Besides, Broad O⁻H absorption in all specimens show that these are hydrogen bonded molecules and no free O⁻H bonding was found. SEM testing shows good interfacial bonding between PBS and starch except E40 blends. Therefore, poor results of E40 blends was expected. In TGA, a slightly weight loss found between 80 to 100 °C due to free water removal. Apart from this, insertion of all types of starch reduces thermal stability of blend. However, high crystallinity of starch/PBS blend observed better thermal stability but lower char yield. Starch A and B blends are suggested to be used as food wrap and food container materials while starch D blend is suitable for grocery plastic bags according to observed results.
The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is far lag behind the sustainable targets that set out in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is highly needed to embark the priorities by their member countries to devise sustainable policies for accessing clean technologies, energy demand, finance, and food production to mitigate high-mass carbon emissions and conserve environmental agenda in the national policy agenda. The study evaluated United Nation's SDGs for environmental conservation and emission reduction in the panel of 35 selected SSA countries, during a period of 1995-2016. The study further analyzed the variable's relationship in inter-temporal forecasting framework for the next 10 years' time period, i.e., 2017-2026. The parameter estimates for the two models, i.e., CO2 model and PM2.5 models are analyzed by Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator that handle possible endogeneity issue from the given models. The results rejected the inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions, while it supported for PM2.5 emissions with a turning point of US$5540 GDP per capita in constant 2010 US$. The results supported the "pollution haven hypothesis" for CO2 emissions, while this hypothesis is not verified for PM2.5 emissions. The major detrimental factors are technologies, FDI inflows, and food deficit that largely increase carbon emissions in a panel of SSA countries. The IPAT hypothesis is not verified in both the emissions; however, population density will largely influenced CO2 emissions in the next 10 years' time period. The PM2.5 emissions will largely be influenced by high per capita income, followed by trade openness, and technologies, over a time horizon. Thus, the United Nation's sustainable development agenda is highly influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors that need sound action plans by their member countries to coordinate and collaborate with each other and work for Africa's green growth agenda.
In this study, it focused on empty fruit brunch (EFB) fibres reinforcement in polybutylene succinate (PBS) with modified tapioca starch by using hot press technique for the use of agricultural mulch film. Mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were studied. Mechanical analysis showed decreased in values of modulus strength for both tensile and flexural testing for fibres insertion. Higher EFB fibre contents in films resulted lower mechanical properties due to poor fibre wetting from insufficient matrix. This has also found evident in SEM micrograph, showing poor interfacial bonding. Water vapour permeability (WVP) shows as higher hydrophilic EFB fibre reinforcement contents, the rate of WVP also increase. Besides this, little or no significant changes on thermal properties for composite films. This is because high thermal stability PBS polymer show its superior thermal properties dominantly. Even though EFB fibres insertion into PBS/tapioca starch biocomposite films have found lower mechanical properties. It successfully reduced the cost of mulch film production without significant changes of thermal performances.
Here in this study regarding the over expression of TP, which causes some physical, mental and socio problems like psoriasis, chronic inflammatory disease, tumor angiogenesis and rheumatoid arthritis etc. By this consideration, the inhibition of this enzyme is vital to secure life from serious threats. In connection with this, we have synthesized twenty derivatives of isoquinoline bearing oxadiazole (1-20), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as HREI-MS, 1H- NMR and 13C-NMR and evaluated for thymidine phosphorylase inhibition. All analogues showed outstanding inhibitory potential ranging in between 1.10 ± 0.05 to 54.60 ± 1.50 µM. 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 1.12 µM) was used as a positive control. Through limited structure activity relationships study, it has been observed that the difference in inhibitory activities of screened analogs are mainly affected by different substitutions on phenyl ring. The effective binding interactions of the most active analogs were confirmed through docking study.
Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country. Energy resources comprise energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, both have distinct results with the financial indicators, as energy demand have a positive and significant relationship with the DCFC, DCPC, and CPI, while fossil fuel energy consumption have a negative relationship with these three financial indicators. The results of the study are of value to both environmentalists and policy makers.
The α-amylase acts as attractive target to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore in discovering a small molecule as α-amylase inhibitor, we have synthesized benzofuran carbohydrazide analogs (1-25), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as 1HNMR and EI-MS. All screened analog shows good α-amylase inhibitory potentials with IC50 value ranging between 1.078±0.19 and 2.926±0.05µM when compared with acarbose having IC50=0.62±0.22µM. Only nine analogs among the series such as analogs 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 21, 23 and 24 exhibit good inhibitory potential with IC50 values 1.644±0.128, 1.078±0.19, 1.245±0.25, 1.843±0.19, 1.350±0.24, 1.629±0.015, 1.353±0.232, 1.359±0.119 and 1.488±0.07µM when compare with standard drug acarbose. All other analogs showed good to moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentials. The SAR study was conducted on the basis of substituent difference at the phenyl ring. The binding interaction between analogs and active site of enzyme was confirmed by docking studies.
It is well documented that carbon emissions can be reduced by replacing conventional energy resources with renewable energy resources; thereby, the role of green technology is essential as it protect natural environment. Given that, the United Nations' agenda of "green is clean" may be achievable by adoption of green technologies. The objective of the study is to examine the link between information and communication technology (ICT), economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of South Korean economy, by using a novel Morlet wavelet approach. The study applies continuous wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet coherency, and the partial and the multiple wavelet coherency to the year during 1973-2016. The outcomes reveal that the connections among the stated variables progress over frequency and time domain. From the frequency domain point of view, the current study discovers noteworthy wavelet coherence and robust lead and lag linkages. From the time-domain sight, the results display robust but not consistent associations among the considered variables. From an economic point sight, the wavelet method displays that ICT helps to reduce environmental degradation in a medium and long run in the South Korean economy. This emphasizes the significance of having organized strategies by the policymakers to cope up with 2 to 3 years of the occurrence of the huge environmental degradation in South Korea.
In searchof the potenttherapeutic agent as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, we have synthesized twenty-five analogs (1-25) of quinoline-based Schiff bases as an inhibitoragainst α-glucosidase enzyme under positive control acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). From the activity profile it was foundthat analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 and 20with IC50values 12.40 ± 0.40, 9.40 ± 0.30, 14.10 ± 0.40, 6.20 ± 0.30, 14.40 ± 0.40, 7.40 ± 0.20 and 13.20 ± 0.40 µMrespectively showed most potent inhibition among the series even than standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). Here in the present study analog 4 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.30 µM) was found with many folds better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the reference drug. Eight analogs like 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 22, 24 and 25 among the whole series displayed less than 50% inhibition. The substituents effects on phenyl ring thereby superficially established through SAR study. Binding interactions of analogs and the active site of ligands proteins were confirmed through molecular docking study. Spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESIMS were used for characterization.
The study examines the role of quality education in access to justice, using a panel data of 21 diversified countries for the period of 1990-2015. The findings show that there is a positive relationship between the presence of scientific and technical journals (STJ) articles and crime rates. The R&D expenditures does not substantially reduce crime rate while per capita income, trademark applications, and technical cooperation grants significantly reduce crime rates across countries. The panel fixed effect (FE) model confirmed the inverted U-shaped relationship between per capita income (GDPpc) and crime rate in the presence of STJ, while this result is changed in the case of GMM estimator. The results of panel causality confirmed the unidirectional causality running from crime rate to STJ and R&D expenditures, while there is bidirectional causality between i) GDPpc and technical cooperation grants, and between ii) energy efficiency and refugee population by country. The variance decomposition analysis (VDA) shows that R&D expenditures have a greater share to influence crime rate, while technical cooperation grants will affect STJ for the next 10 years time. This finding bolsters the conversation on the relationship between education and a reduction in crime rates.