Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 91 in total

  1. Zamri-Saad M, Mera HR
    PMID: 11666033
    An experiment was designed to study the in vivo effect of Pasteurella haemolytica A2 infection on the phagocytosis activity of caprine broncho-alveolar macrophages and the extent of pneumonic lesions. Twelve healthy local Kacang goats, about 7 months of age, were divided into two groups of six. Goats in group 1 were inoculated intratracheally with 4 ml inoculum containing 2.8 x 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Goats in group 2 were inoculated intratracheally with 4 ml of inoculum containing 9.5 x 10(8) CFU/ml of Pasteurella haemolytica A2 isolated earlier from pneumonic lungs of goat. At intervals of 3 and 7 days post-challenge five goats from each group were killed and the lungs were washed with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Smears were prepared from the lung washing fluid and the number of macrophages with phagocytic activity was determined. At day 3 post-infection, goats of both groups showed a similar pattern of pneumonic lesion. The lung washing fluid of goats in group 2 was found to contain numerous neutrophils and macrophages. Goats in group 2 showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher extent of lung lesions than group 1. Similarly, the average extent of lung lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) more severe in group 2 at day 7 post-infection. The lung washing fluid contained mostly macrophages. The phagocytic activity following S. aureus infection was more efficient and significantly (P < 0.01) higher compared with infection by P. haemolytica A2. There were weak correlations between the extent of pneumonic lesion and the phagocytic activity. Thus, goats with poor phagocytic activity were likely to develop more extensive lung lesions.
  2. Amirul, F.M.A., Mokrish, A., Zuki, A.B., Zamri-Saad, M., Hassim, H.A., Lai, K.S.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(1):1-6.
    Thin does or very over-conditioned does and does carrying with multiple pregnancies are more likely to develop pregnancy ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia). Pregnancy ketosis is one of the metabolic disorders in ruminant animal such as does and ewes during the last weeks of pregnancy (5 – 6 weeks before gestation) and beside high ketone body levels characterised by free fatty acids levels (FFA). These FFA are derived from the adipose tissue. The ability of adipocytes to respond to changes in the energy balance, by secretion of FFA makes this parameter a main indicator for disorder that coincide with changes in energy balance. It is biochemically and endocrinologically characterized by ketosis, hypoinsulinemia and an elevation of B- hydroxybtyrate concentration in the plasma, free fatty acids (FFA), and cortisol. However, the effect of plasma free fatty acid on pathophysiology, metabolites and histological changes of this disorder remain poorly understood. Clinical signs, often with a slow onset, are characterised by neuorological signs like teeth grinding, stress and dull eyes. Ketosis also affected on pathological part which characterized by fatty liver. In this review, we are focusing various key aspects of the disease with special reference on the clinical, biochemical and histological changes during development of pregnancy ketosis in goat population.
  3. Zamri-Saad M, Kamarudin MI
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 12;9(12):1136-1140.
    PMID: 27955740 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.007
    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease characterized by reproductive failure in animals and undulent fever in humans. In cattle, it is caused by Brucella abortus while in goats by Brucella melitensis, the main cause of brucellosis in humans. Brucellosis in livestock has been associated with importation of animals from breeder herd of unknown disease status. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis Brucella abortus in 2014 ranged between 1% and 2% in Thailand and Indonesia, and 4%-5% in Malaysia and Myanmar. Prevalence of goat brucellosis Brucella melitensis is approximately 1% in Malaysia and Thailand. 'Test-and-slaughter' is the general policy against brucellosis adopted by most ASEAN countries to eradicate the disease. Under this program, the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) is used as the screening test to identify infected farm/herd while the complement fixation test (CFT) is the confirmatory test. The test-and-slaughter eradication strategy that was implemented since 1979 had managed to keep the prevalence rate to less than 5%, from 3.3% in 1979, 0.23% in 1988, 1% in 1998 and 5% in 2016. The test-and-slaughter program seemed effective in reducing the prevalence of brucellosis but was unable to eradicate the disease due to several factors, which include failure to locate and identify the remaining affected animals and to control their movement, importation of breeder animals from non-brucellosis free countries and lack of participation by the farmers following unreliable test results. To support the eradication policy, research activities since 1980s have suggested combinations of serological tests to improve diagnosis while surveillance should be focused on hotspots areas. The prevalence can be further reduced by strictly sourcing breeder animals from brucella-free areas or countries.
  4. Zamri-Saad M, Effendy AW
    Vet Res Commun, 1999 Dec;23(8):467-73.
    PMID: 10672963
    A trial was conducted to observe the immediate and chronic effects in goats of dexamethasone administration on the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) response to intranasal administration of formalin-killed Pasteurella haemolytica A2. Twenty-four goats were divided into four groups. Those in group 1 were injected intramuscularly with 1 mg/kg dexamethasone on three consecutive days, followed by intranasal exposure to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 one day after the last dexamethasone treatment. The goats in group 2 were similarly injected with dexamethasone followed by intranasal exposure to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 21 days after the last dexamethasone treatment. The animals in group 3 were exposed intranasally to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 without prior dexamethasone treatment. The animals in group 4 were untreated controls. The intranasal exposures to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 were repeated 2 weeks later. Intranasal exposure to formalin-killed P. haemolytica 1 day after dexamethasone treatment further reduced the number and size of BALT compared to the untreated control. Significantly (p < 0.01) more reduction of BALT occurred in goats exposed to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 21 days after dexamethasone treatment. On the other hand, intranasal exposure of goats without prior dexamethasone treatment stimulated the BALT compared to the untreated controls.
  5. Rafidah O, Zamri-Saad M, Shahirudin S, Nasip E
    Vet. Rec., 2012 Aug 18;171(7):175.
    PMID: 22815208 DOI: 10.1136/vr.100403
    The efficacy of an intranasal haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine containing live gdhA derivative Pasteurella multocida B:2 was tested in buffaloes in Sabah. Sixty buffaloes, kept grazing in the field with minimal human intervention were devided into three groups of 20 buffaloes per group. Buffaloes of group 1 were exposed intranasal to 5 ml vaccine containing 10(6) CFU/ml of live gdhA derivative P multocida B:2. Buffaloes of group 2 were not exposed to the vaccine but exposed to PBS and were allowed to commingle and graze in the same field as the buffaloes of group 1 while buffaloes of group 3 were similarly exposed to PBS and were grazing separately. Booster was on group 1, two weeks later. Twelve months after the first vaccination, three buffaloes from each group were brought into the experimental house and challenged subcutaneously with 10(9) CFU/ml of live wild-type P multocida B:2. All challenged buffaloes of groups 1 and 2 survived with only mild, transient signs while all control unvaccinated buffaloes developed severe signs of haemorrhagic septicaemia and were euthanased between 28 hours and 38 hours postchallenge with signs and lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These data showed that the gdhA mutant strain, given intranasally as two doses two weeks apart, successfully induced systemic immunity in exposed buffaloes and also led to spread of vaccine strain to the in-contact animals, where it acted as an effective live vaccine to protect both exposed buffaloes and in-contact buffaloes against challenge with the virulent parent strain.
  6. Annas S, Zamri-Saad M
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jun 24;11(7).
    PMID: 34202429 DOI: 10.3390/ani11071876
    The world is currently facing an ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current control measures used by many countries include social distancing, wearing face masks, frequent hand washing, self-isolation, and vaccination. The current commercially available vaccines are injectable vaccines, although a few intranasal vaccines are in trial stages. The reported side effects of COVID-19 vaccines, perceptions towards the safety of the vaccines, and frequent mutation of the virus may lead to poor herd immunity. In veterinary medicine, attaining herd immunity is one of the main considerations in disease control, and herd immunity depends on the use of efficacious vaccines and the vaccination coverage in a population. Hence, many aerosol or intranasal vaccines have been developed to control veterinary respiratory diseases such as Newcastle disease, rinderpest, infectious bronchitis, and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Different vaccine technologies could be employed to improve vaccination coverage, including the usage of an intranasal live recombinant vaccine or live mutant vaccine. This paper discusses the potential use of intranasal vaccination strategies against human COVID-19, based on a veterinary intranasal vaccine strategy.
  7. Atyah MA, Zamri-Saad M, Siti-Zahrah A
    Vet Microbiol, 2010 Aug 26;144(3-4):502-4.
    PMID: 20189324 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.02.004
    Swabs from the brain, eyes and kidneys of tilapia from 11 farms were collected for a period of 2 years. They were grown on blood agar before cultures of suspected Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to ABI STAPH Detection Kit and PCR for identification. They were then grown on oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and subjected to PCR using the MRSA 17 kb forward and reverse primers to identify the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 559 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained, from which 198 (35%) isolates were identified as S. aureus. Of the 198 S. aureus isolated from tilapias, 98 (50%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Since global spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has increased in the past decade, this new finding in fish should be of concern.
  8. Zamri-Saad M, Romziah S, Kunavongkrit A, Valdez CA, Thien M
    Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot., 2009 Aug;28(2):719-25.
    PMID: 20128483
    The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in total. In general, world animal health and world public health are well integrated into the veterinary curriculum. Most curricula allocate approximately 3% of their total credit hours to subjects associated with animal and public health, but other subjects that may contain discussions on these issues range between 6% and 10%. Most veterinary schools in Southeast Asia offer a Master's programme in Veterinary Public Health, with detailed emphasis on animal and public health but focusing principally on topics of local importance. At the same time, undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary students are exposed to current issues in animal and public health through regional and international scientific meetings.
  9. Zamri-Saad M, Ernie ZA, Sabri MY
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2006 Oct-Nov;38(7-8):541-6.
    PMID: 17265769
    This study aimed to determine the effect of intranasal exposure to low doses of Pasteurella multocida B:2 on survival of goats challenged with high doses of the same organism. Eighteen goats were selected and divided into three groups. Goats of group 1 were exposed intranasally twice, with a two-week interval, to 7 x 10(6) cfu/ml of live P. multocida B:2. Goats of group 2 were not exposed to P. multocida B:2 but were kept together with the exposed group 1. Goats of group 3 remained as unexposed controls and were kept separated from the other two groups. Serum samples were collected at weekly intervals to determine the antibody levels. At week 5 post exposure, all goats were challenged subcutaneously with 3.7 x 10(10) cfu/ml of live P. multocida B:2. Following challenge exposure, 8 (67%) goats (4 goats from each of groups 1 and 2) were killed owing to haemorrhagic septicaemia. Four goats were killed peracutely within 48 h post challenge, while the other four goats were killed acutely between 2 and 4 days post challenge. None of the goats of group 3 were killed for haemorrhagic septicaemia. Goats of groups 1 and 2 showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher antibody levels following the first intranasal exposure to P. multocida B:2. However, only group 1 retained the significantly (p < 0.05) high antibody levels following a second intranasal exposure, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) higher than groups 2 and 3 at the time of challenge. P. multocida B:2 was successfully isolated from various organs of goats that were killed between 1 and 4 days post challenge.
  10. Annas S, Zamri-Saad M, Jesse FF, Zunita Z
    Microb Pathog, 2015 Nov;88:94-102.
    PMID: 26298001 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.08.009
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes.
  11. Zamri-Saad M, al-Ajeeli KS, Ibrahim AL
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 1992 Aug;24(3):177-8.
    PMID: 1304665
  12. Effendy AW, Zamri-Saad M, Puspa R, Rosiah S
    Vet. Rec., 1998 Apr 18;142(16):428-31.
    PMID: 9595632
    A trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of intranasal vaccination in protecting goats against pneumonic pasteurellosis with intramuscular vaccination using an oil adjuvant vaccine, and a combination of the two methods. Forty goats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was vaccinated twice intranasally with formalin-killed Pasteurella haemolytica A2, group 2 was vaccinated twice intramuscularly with an oil adjuvant vaccine containing P haemolytica A7, and group 3 was initially vaccinated intranasally with the formalin-killed P haemolytica A2 followed by intramuscular vaccination with the oil adjuvant vaccine. In each group the two vaccinations were carried out four weeks apart. Group 4 was the unvaccinated control group. All goats were challenged intratracheally with 4 ml of an inoculum containing live P haemolytica A2 at a concentration of 1.3 x 10(7) colony forming units/ml two weeks after the last vaccination and were killed 14 days after the challenge. Although group 2 showed the highest clinical score following the challenge, deaths were observed only in group 3. Three goats in group 1 had pneumonic lung lesions, compared with six goats in group 2 and all the goats in groups 3 and 4. The lung lesions in group 1 were significantly (P < 0.05) less severe than in groups 3 and 4. Similarly, the lesions in group 2 were markedly less severe than in groups 3 and 4, although the differences were not significant. The difference between the extent of the lung lesions in the goats in groups 1 and 2 was not significant. Antibody against P haemolytica A2 in group 1 reached peak levels and was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in the control group one week after the second vaccination, before declining.
  13. Zamri-Saad M, Kamal Hizat A, Kamil WM
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 1990 May;22(2):144-5.
    PMID: 2371754
  14. Jasni S, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR
    Br. Vet. J., 1991 Jul-Aug;147(4):352-5.
    PMID: 1913132
    Twenty transport-stressed goats were divided into two groups. The first group was further stressed with steroid. Pasteurella haemolytica was found at various sites in the nasal cavity of goats in this group as early as 2 weeks post-transportation. The successful isolations continued consistently with more goats having pure growth of P. haemolytica at later stages. Mild catarrh rhinitis, loss of epithelial cilia and erosions were the main lesions observed in the nasal cavity. Goats in the second group that were not given steroid injections had inconsistent bacterial isolation and less severe pathological lesions.
  15. Ghani, A.A.A., Shahudin, M.S., Azrolharith, R., Haizan, A.R., Zamri-Saad, M., Zuki, A.B., et al.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(1):23-25.
    A comparative study of nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal degradability of selected local plants, Macaranga sp.and Mallotus sp.was carried out and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was used as control.The results obtained from proximate analysis revealed that there were significant difference (P
  16. Puspitasari Y, Salleh A, Zamri-Saad M
    BMC Vet Res, 2020 Jun 09;16(1):186.
    PMID: 32517749 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02415-2
    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida B:2 causes haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes. However, buffaloes are found to be more susceptible to the infection than cattle. Upon infection, the pathogen rapidly spread from the respiratory tract to the blood circulation within 16-72 h, causing septicaemia. So far, limited study has been conducted to evaluate the response of endothelial cells of buffalo towards P. multocida B:2 and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes in the aortic endothelium of buffaloes (BAEC) following exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its endotoxin. The endothelial cells were harvested from the aorta of healthy buffaloes and were prepared as monolayer cell cultures. The cultures were divided into 3 groups before Group 1 was inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of whole cell P. multocida B:2, Group 2 with LPS, which was extracted earlier from 107 cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2 and Group 3 with sterile cell culture medium. The cells were harvested at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h post-inoculation for assessment of cellular changes using transmission electron microscopy.

    RESULTS: The BAEC of Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated moderate to severe endothelial lysis, suggestive of acute cellular injury. In general, severity of the ultrastructural changes increased with the time of incubation but no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the severity of the cellular changes between Groups 1 and 2 was observed in the first 18 h. The severity of lesions became significant (p 

  17. Puspitasari Y, Annas S, Adza-Rina MN, Zamri-Saad M
    Microb Pathog, 2019 Jun;131:170-174.
    PMID: 30978429 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.012
    Pasteurella multocida B:2 is a Gram-negative organism causing haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in buffaloes. It causes severe pulmonary infection, leading to infiltration of numerous macrophages and neutrophils. Despite the inflammatory response, buffaloes succumb to HS. This study aims to evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of macrophages and neutrophils of buffalo following exposure to P. multocida B:2. In-vitro infections were done using 107 cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2 for Group 1, Escherichia coli for Group 2 and Mannhaemia haemolytica A:2 for Group 3 cells. The inoculated cell cultures were harvested at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min post-exposure and the phagocytic, killing and cell death rates were determined. Both phagocytosis and killing rates of all bacteria increased over time. Phagocytosis involved between 71% and 73% neutrophils and between 60% and 64% macrophages at 120 min. Killing rate of all bacteria involved between 76% and 79% for neutrophils and between 70% and 74% for macrophages at 120 min. Death rate of neutrophils ranged between 67% in Group 3, and 88% in Group 1 at 120 min, significantly (p  0.05) than Group 2. Similar pattern was observed for death rate of macrophages. The phagocytosis and killing rates of P. multocida B:2 were similar to other bacterial species used in this study but more neutrophils and macrophages were dead following infection by P. multocida B:2 than M. haemolytica A:2.
  18. Zamri-Saad M, Amal MN, Siti-Zahrah A
    J Comp Pathol, 2010 Aug-Oct;143(2-3):227-9.
    PMID: 20334871 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.01.020
    The pathological changes present in 300 red tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) naturally infected by Streptococcus agalactiae are described. The most consistent gross findings were marked congestion of internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen and kidneys. Other features included exophthalmos, softening of the brain and the occasional accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity. Microscopical examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion of the liver, spleen and kidneys. The endothelial cells lining major blood vessels of the liver and occasionally the spleen were swollen and vacuolated. There was evidence of vascular thrombosis with infarction of surrounding tissue. Bacterial colonies were noted within and immediately surrounding the affected blood vessels. The meninges were thickened by the infiltration of numerous heterophils. Similar infiltrates of heterophils and lymphocytes were observed in the lamina propria of the intestine. The kidneys were severely congested and haemorrhagic, with extensive interstitial nephritis.
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