Materials and methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.
Results: The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs).
Conclusion: The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico-chemical properties, sufficient porosity, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility, which favors it as a valuable candidate in bone tissue engineering for repairing the bone defects.
DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study.
STUDY SAMPLE: 1068 subjects issued with HAs at a tertiary hospital from 2001 to 2013.
RESULTS: Half of the subjects presented with more severe (>55 dB) hearing loss (HL) in their better ear. In multivariable analysis, older age, Malay ethnicity, conductive and mixed HL, and combination type of HL were associated with more severe HL at first presentation. Over 70% of subjects were older than 65 years. Worse pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds of the better ear, gradual onset and sensorineural HL were associated with older age presentation. For unilaterally fitted subjects, PTA thresholds were the only determinant of having the better ear aided. Better PTA thresholds, younger age and sensorineural HL were associated with choosing in ear compared to behind the ear HAs. Younger age and worse PTA of the better ear were associated with ≥4 h of daily HA usage.
CONCLUSIONS: Age, ethnicity and type of HL were important determinants for more severe HL at first HA fitting. Older patients and those with better hearing were less likely to use their HAs regularly.
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to inspect the ameliorative action of A. chinensis synthesized ZnONPs against M. pneumoniae infected pneumonia mice model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnO NPs was synthesized from Albizia chinensis bark extract and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analyses. The antibacterial effectual of synthesized ZnONPs were examined against clinical pathogens. The pneumonia was induced to BALB/c mice via injecting the M. pneumoniae and treated with synthesized ZnONPs, followed by the total protein content, total cell counts and inflammatory mediators level was assessed in the BALF of experimental animals. The Histopathological investigation was done in the lung tissues of test animals.
RESULTS: The outcomes of this work revealed that the formulated ZnONPs was quasi-spherical, radial and cylindrical; the size was identified as 116.5 ± 27.45 nm in diameter. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of formulated ZnO-NPs displayed noticeable inhibitory capacity against the tested fungal and bacterial strains. The administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs in MP infected mice model has significantly reduced the levels of total protein, inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor (TGF). Besides, the histopathological examination of MP infected mice lung tissue showed the cellular arrangements were effectively retained after administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, synthesized ZnO-NPs alleviate pneumonia progression via reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cells in MP infected mice model.