Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 124 in total

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  1. Misson M, Du X, Jin B, Zhang H
    Enzyme Microb. Technol., 2016 Mar;84:68-77.
    PMID: 26827776 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.12.008
    Functional nanomaterials have been pursued to assemble nanobiocatalysts since they can provide unique hierarchical nanostructures and localized nanoenvironments for enhancing enzyme specificity, stability and selectivity. Functionalized dendrimer-like hierarchically porous silica nanoparticles (HPSNs) was fabricated for assembling β-galactosidase nanobiocatalysts for bioconversion of lactose to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The nanocarrier was functionalized with amino (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups to facilitate enzyme binding, benchmarking with non-functionalized HPSNs. Successful conjugation of the functional groups was confirmed by FTIR, TGA and zeta potential analysis. HPSNs-NH2 showed 1.8-fold and 1.1-fold higher β-galactosidase adsorption than HPSNs-COOH and HPSNs carriers, respectively, with the highest enzyme adsorption capacity of 328mg/g nanocarrier at an initial enzyme concentration of 8mg/ml. The HPSNs-NH2 and β-galactosidase assembly (HPSNs-NH2-Gal) demonstrated to maintain the highest activity at all tested enzyme concentrations and exhibited activity up to 10 continuous cycles. Importantly, HPSNs-NH2-Gal was simply recycled through centrifugation, overcoming the challenging problems of separating the nanocarrier from the reaction medium. HPSNs-NH2-Gal had distinguished catalytic reaction profiles by favoring transgalactosylation, enhancing GOS production of up to 122g/l in comparison with 56g/l by free β-galactosidase. Furthermore, it generated up to 46g/l GOS at a lower initial lactose concentration while the free counterpart had negligible GOS production as hydrolysis was overwhelmingly dominant in the reaction system. Our research findings show the amino-functionalized HPSNs can selectively promote the enzyme activity of β-galactosidase for transgalactosylation, which is beneficial for GOS production.
  2. Misson M, Jin B, Chen B, Zhang H
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2015 Oct;38(10):1915-23.
    PMID: 26104537 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-015-1432-5
    A functionalized polystyrene nanofiber (PSNF) immobilized β-galactosidase assembly (PSNF-Gal) was synthesized as a nanobiocatalyst aiming to enhance the biocatalyst stability and functional ability. The PSNF fabricated by electrospinning was functionalized through a chemical oxidation method for enzyme binding. The bioengineering performance of the enzyme carriers was further evaluated for bioconversion of lactose to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The modified PSNF-Gal demonstrated distinguished performances to preserve the same activity as the free β-galactosidase at the optimum pH of 7.0, and to enhance the enzyme stability of PSNF-Gal in an alkaline condition up to pH 10. The PSNF assembly demonstrated improved thermal stability from 37 to 60 °C. The nanobiocatalyst was able to retain 30 % of its initial activity after ninth operation cycles comparing to four cycles with the unmodified counterpart. In contrast with free β-galactosidase, the modified PSNF-Gal enhanced the GOS yield from 14 to 28 %. These findings show the chemically modified PSNF-based nanobiocatalyst may be pertinent for various enzyme-catalysed bioprocessing applications.
  3. Misson M, Zhang H, Jin B
    J R Soc Interface, 2015 Jan 06;12(102):20140891.
    PMID: 25392397 DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2014.0891
    The nanobiocatalyst (NBC) is an emerging innovation that synergistically integrates advanced nanotechnology with biotechnology and promises exciting advantages for improving enzyme activity, stability, capability and engineering performances in bioprocessing applications. NBCs are fabricated by immobilizing enzymes with functional nanomaterials as enzyme carriers or containers. In this paper, we review the recent developments of novel nanocarriers/nanocontainers with advanced hierarchical porous structures for retaining enzymes, such as nanofibres (NFs), mesoporous nanocarriers and nanocages. Strategies for immobilizing enzymes onto nanocarriers made from polymers, silicas, carbons and metals by physical adsorption, covalent binding, cross-linking or specific ligand spacers are discussed. The resulting NBCs are critically evaluated in terms of their bioprocessing performances. Excellent performances are demonstrated through enhanced NBC catalytic activity and stability due to conformational changes upon immobilization and localized nanoenvironments, and NBC reutilization by assembling magnetic nanoparticles into NBCs to defray the high operational costs associated with enzyme production and nanocarrier synthesis. We also highlight several challenges associated with the NBC-driven bioprocess applications, including the maturation of large-scale nanocarrier synthesis, design and development of bioreactors to accommodate NBCs, and long-term operations of NBCs. We suggest these challenges are to be addressed through joint collaboration of chemists, engineers and material scientists. Finally, we have demonstrated the great potential of NBCs in manufacturing bioprocesses in the near future through successful laboratory trials of NBCs in carbohydrate hydrolysis, biofuel production and biotransformation.
  4. Qi J, Zhang H, Wang Y, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:2777-2788.
    PMID: 29785105 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S151242
    Introduction: Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions.

    Materials and methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

    Results: The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs).

    Conclusion: The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico-chemical properties, sufficient porosity, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility, which favors it as a valuable candidate in bone tissue engineering for repairing the bone defects.

  5. Li D, Zhang H, Hsu-Hage BH, Wahlqvist ML, Sinclair AJ
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2001 Dec;55(12):1036-42.
    PMID: 11781668
    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) platelet phospholipid (PL) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition in subjects who were the Melbourne Chinese migrants, compared with those who were the Melbourne Caucasians and (2) the relationship between platelet PL PUFA and intake of fish, meat and PUFA.
  6. Misson M, Dai S, Jin B, Chen BH, Zhang H
    J. Biotechnol., 2016 Mar 20;222:56-64.
    PMID: 26876609 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.02.014
    The nanoenvironment of nanobiocatalysts, such as local hydrophobicity, pH and charge density, plays a significant role in optimizing the enzymatic selectivity and specificity. In this study, Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase (Gal) was assembled onto polystyrene nanofibers (PSNFs) to form PSNF-Gal nanobiocatalysts. We proposed that local hydrophobicity on the nanofiber surface could expel water molecules so that the transgalactosylation would be preferable over hydrolysis during the bioconversion of lactose, thus improve the galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) yield. PSNFs were fabricated by electro-spinning and the operational parameters were optimized to obtain the nanofibers with uniform size and ordered alignment. The resulting nanofibers were functionalized for enzyme immobilization through a chemical oxidation method. The functionalized PSNF improved the enzyme adsorption capacity up to 3100mg/g nanofiber as well as enhanced the enzyme stability with 80% of its original activity. Importantly, the functionalized PSNF-Gal significantly improved the GOS yield and the production rate was up to 110g/l/h in comparison with 37g/l/h by free β-galactosidase. Our research findings demonstrate that the localized nanoenvironment of the PSNF-Gal nanobiocatalysts favour transgalactosylation over hydrolysis in lactose bioconversion.
  7. Zheng S, Zhang H, Lakshmipriya T, Gopinath SCB, Yang N
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:9726967.
    PMID: 31380444 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9726967
    Gestational diabetes (hyperglycaemia) is an elevated blood sugar level diagnosed during the period of pregnancy and affects the baby's health. Hyperglycaemia has been found within the gestational weeks between 24 and 28, and the foetus has also the possibility of getting out prior to this test frame; it causes excessive birth weight, early birth, low-blood sugar level, respiratory distress syndrome, and type-2 diabetes to the mother. It creates a mandatory situation to identify the hyperglycaemia at least during the pregnancy weeks from 18 to 20. Further, a continuous monitoring of the level of glucose is necessary for the proper delivery. In this work, a method is introduced for glucose detection at 0.06 mg/mL, assisted by gold nanorod (GNR)-conjugated glucose oxidase (GOx) on interdigitated electrode sensor. In the absence of GNR, GOx shows the limit of glucose detection to be 0.25 mg/mL. Moreover, with GOx-GNR the reactions of all the glucose concentrations have recorded higher levels of the current from the baseline. With the specificity analysis, it was found that the glucose only reacts with GOx-GNR and discriminates other sugars efficiently. This method of detection is useful to diagnose and continuously monitor the glucose level during the pregnancy period.
  8. Wu J, Zhang H, Wang S, Yuan L, Grünhofer P, Schreiber L, et al.
    J. Plant Res., 2019 Jul;132(4):531-540.
    PMID: 31127431 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-019-01115-9
    Areca nuts (seeds of Areca catechu L.) are a traditional and popular masticatory in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, certain parts of China, and some other countries. Four related pyridine alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine) are considered being the main functional ingredients in areca nut. Until now, A. catechu is the only known species producing these alkaloids in the Arecaceae family. In the present study, we investigated alkaloid contents in 12 Arecaceae species and found that only Areca triandra Roxb. contained these pyridine alkaloids. We further analyzed in more detail tissue-specific and development-related distribution of these alkaloids in leaves, male and female flowers and fruits in different stages of maturity in A. triandra by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the alkaloids were most abundant in young leaves, the pericarp of ripe fruits and the endosperm of unripe fruits in developmental stage 2. Abundance of the 4 different alkaloids in A. triandra fruits varied during maturation. Pericarps of ripe fruits had the highest arecaidine concentration (4.45 mg g-1) and the lowest guvacoline concentration (0.0175 mg g-1), whereas the endosperm of unripe fruits of developmental stage 2 contained the highest guvacoline concentration (3.39 mg g-1) and the lowest guvacine concentration (0.245 mg g-1). We conclude that A. triandra is useful in future as a further valuable source of Areca alkaloids.
  9. Zhang Y, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Pan B, Li Y, Majid HA, et al.
    JGH Open, 2019 Apr;3(2):173-178.
    PMID: 31061894 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12125
    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are a chronic condition that can significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Therefore, this paper will review the roles of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polypols (FODMAP) diet in treating IBS, particularly in an Asian setting. About 20% of the general population is diagnosed with IBS. However, there are limited effective medical therapies available for treating IBS. Therefore, IBS presents a major challenge to the health-care providers. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of a diet low in FODMAP for the treatment of IBS. A low FODMAP diet can decrease the delivery of readily fermentable substrates to the small intestine and colon, thereby improving functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
  10. Wang Y, Bi L, Liao Y, Lu D, Zhang H, Liao X, et al.
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2019 Sep 30;180:80-87.
    PMID: 31078019 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.066
    Ammonia emissions is an important issue during composting because it can cause secondary pollution and a significant of nitrogen loss. Based on research adding Bacillus stearothermophilus can reduce ammonia emissions during composting because it can use sugar in organic matter fermentation to produce organic acids over 50 °C. This study conducted the batch experiments by adding different concentrations of Bacillus stearothermophilus to reduce the ammonia emissions and find out its characteristic during layer manure composting by using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as a bulking agent. The results show that the application of Bacillus stearothermophilus can accelerate the rate of temperature and significantly decrease pH, the warming period was 2 days in the treatment with Bacillus stearothermophilus, while it was 4 days in the treatment without Bacillus stearothermophilus. Ammonia emissions were mainly occurred in warming and high temperature period during composting. The ammonia emissions in the treatment with 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus were significantly lower than the other lower Bacillus stearothermophilus treatment and control during composting (p  0.05). MiSeq System Sequencing results find that the addition of Bacillus stearothermophilus changed the bacterial community structure under warming and high-temperature periods during composting, increased the relative abundance of lactic acid bacillus and nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the reason for the low ammonia emission in 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus treatments might be not only due to the Bacillus stearothermophilus itself, but also Bacillus stearothermophilus can change the indigenous microorganism community, including increase the relative content of lactic acid Bacillus and nitrification bacteria, thus reducing the pH and promoting nitrification, and reducing ammonia emissions.
  11. Ma A, Wang Y, Liu XL, Zhang HM, Eamsobhana P, Yong HS, et al.
    J. Helminthol., 2019 Jan;93(1):26-32.
    PMID: 29144215 DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X17001080
    Human gnathostomiasis is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. Currently, serological tests are commonly applied to support clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a simple and rapid filtration-based test, dot immune-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was developed using a partially purified antigen of Gnathostoma third-stage larvae (L3). A total of 180 serum samples were tested to evaluate the diagnostic potential of DIGFA for gnathostomiasis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% (29/30) and 100% (25/25), respectively. The cross-reactivity with sera from other helminthiasis patients ranged from 0 to 4%, with an average of 1.6% (2/125). DIGFA using a partially purified L3 antigen was not only simple and rapid, but also more accurate than standard assays for the diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis. DIGFA may represent a promising tool for application in laboratories or in the field, without requiring any instrumentation.
  12. Cao Y, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Jin Y, Zhang Y, Hayford F
    Foods, 2018 Apr 12;7(4).
    PMID: 29649123 DOI: 10.3390/foods7040059
    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
  13. Zhang H, Liao W, Chao W, Chen Q, Zeng H, Wu C, et al.
    J. Dermatol., 2008 Sep;35(9):555-61.
    PMID: 18837699 DOI: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2008.00523.x
    Sebaceous gland diseases are a group of common dermatological diseases with multiple causes. To date, a systematic report of the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases in adolescents has not been published. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for certain sebaceous gland diseases (seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea) and their relationship to gastrointestinal dysfunction in adolescents. From August-October, 2002-2005, a questionnaire survey was carried out to obtain epidemiological data about sebaceous gland diseases. Using random cluster sampling, 13 215 Han adolescents aged 12-20 years were recruited from four countries or districts (Macau; Guangzhou, China; Malaysia; and Indonesia). The statistical software SPSS ver. 13.0 was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea was 28.27%, 10.17%, 51.03%, 1.65% and 0.97%, respectively. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases included: age; duration of local residency; halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation; sweet food; spicy food; family history of acne; late night sleeping on a daily basis; excessive axillary, body and facial hair; excessive periareolar hair; and anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation) between patients with and without sebaceous gland diseases (chi(2) = 150.743; P = 0.000). Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an important risk factor for diseases of the sebaceous glands and is correlated with their occurrence and development.
  14. Chen W, Liao X, Wu Y, Liang JB, Mi J, Huang J, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2017 Mar;61:506-515.
    PMID: 28117129 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.01.014
    Biochar, because of its unique physiochemical properties and sorption capacity, may be an ideal amendment in reducing gaseous emissions during composting process but there has been little information on the potential effects of different types of biochar on undesired gaseous emissions. The objective of this study was to examine the ability and mechanism of different types of biochar, as co-substrate, in mitigating gaseous emission from composting of layer hen manure. The study was conducted in small-scale laboratory composters with the addition of 10% of one of the following biochars: cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar, layer manure biochar and coir biochar. The results showed that the cumulative NH3 production was significantly reduced by 24.8±2.9, 9.2±1.3, 20.1±2.6, 14.2±1.6, 11.8±1.7% (corrected for initial total N) in the cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar, layer manure biochar and coir biochar treatments, respectively, compared to the control. Total CH4 emissions was significantly reduced by 26.1±2.3, 15.5±2.1, 22.4±3.1, 17.1±2.1% (corrected for the initial total carbon) for cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar and coir biochar treatments than the control. Moreover, addition of cornstalk biochar increased the temperature and NO3(-)-N concentration and decreased the pH, NH4(+)-N and organic matter content throughout the composting process. The results suggested that total volatilization of NH3 and CH4 in cornstalk biochar treatment was lower than the other treatments; which could be due to (i) decrease of pH and higher nitrification, (ii) high sorption capacity for gases and their precursors, such as ammonium nitrogen from composting mixtures, because of the higher surface area, pore volumes, total acidic functional groups and CEC of cornstalk biochar.
  15. Ma ZF, Zhang H, Teh SS, Wang CW, Zhang Y, Hayford F, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2019;2019:2437397.
    PMID: 30728882 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2437397
    Goji berries (Lycium fruits) are usually found in Asia, particularly in northwest regions of China. Traditionally, dried goji berries are cooked before they are consumed. They are commonly used in Chinese soups and as herbal tea. Moreover, goji berries are used for the production of tincture, wine, and juice. Goji berries are high antioxidant potential fruits which alleviate oxidative stress to confer many health protective benefits such as preventing free radicals from damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of the review was to focus on the bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of goji berries including their molecular mechanisms of action. The health benefits of goji berries include enhancing hemopoiesis, antiradiation, antiaging, anticancer, improvement of immunity, and antioxidation. There is a better protection through synergistic and additive effects in fruits and herbal products from a complex mixture of phytochemicals when compared to one single phytochemical.
  16. Mazlan M, Hamezah HS, Taridi NM, Jing Y, Liu P, Zhang H, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017;2017:6019796.
    PMID: 29348790 DOI: 10.1155/2017/6019796
    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.
  17. Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 May 23;7(6).
    PMID: 29789516 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7060071
    Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.
  18. Tye AM, Young SD, Crout NM, Zhang H, Preston S, Bailey EH, et al.
    Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002 Mar 1;36(5):982-8.
    PMID: 11924544
    An isotopic dilution assay was developed to measure radiolabile As concentration in a diverse range of soils (pH 3.30-7.62; % C = 1.00-6.55). Soils amended with 50 mg of As kg(-1) (as Na2HAsO4 x 7H2O) were incubated for over 800 d in an aerated "microcosm" experiment. After 818 d, radiolabile As ranged from 27 to 57% of total applied As and showed a pH-dependent increase above pH 6. The radiolabile assay was also applied to three sets of soils historically contaminated with sewage sludge or mine-spoil. Results reflected the various geochemical forms in which the arsenic was present. On soils from a sewage disposal facility, radiolabile arsenate ranged from 3 to 60% of total As; mean lability was lower than in the equivalent pH range of the microcosm soils, suggesting occlusion of As into calcium phosphate compounds in the sludge-amended soils. In soils from mining areas in the U.K. and Malaysia, radiolabile As accounted for 0.44-19% of total As. The lowest levels of lability were associated with extremely large As concentrations, up to 17,000 mg kg(-1), from arsenopyrite. Soil pore water was extracted from the microcosm experiment and speciated using "GEOCHEM". The solid<==>solution equilibria of As in the microcosm soils was described by a simple model based on competition between HAsO4(2-) and HPO4(2-) for "labile" adsorption sites.
  19. Stebbing J, Zhang H, Xu Y, Lit LC, Green AR, Grothey A, et al.
    Oncogene, 2015 Apr 16;34(16):2103-14.
    PMID: 24909178 DOI: 10.1038/onc.2014.129
    Kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) facilitates signal transduction in Ras-dependent cancers, including pancreatic and lung carcinomas but its role in breast cancer has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate for the first time it functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer in contrast to data in other tumors. Breast cancer patients (n>1000) with high KSR1 showed better disease-free and overall survival, results also supported by Oncomine analyses, microarray data (n=2878) and genomic data from paired tumor and cell-free DNA samples revealing loss of heterozygosity. KSR1 expression is associated with high breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), high BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1) and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) levels. Phospho-profiling of major components of the canonical Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway showed no significant changes after KSR1 overexpression or silencing. Moreover, KSR1 stably transfected cells formed fewer and smaller size colonies compared to the parental ones, while in vivo mouse model also demonstrated that the growth of xenograft tumors overexpressing KSR1 was inhibited. The tumor suppressive action of KSR1 is BRCA1 dependent shown by 3D-matrigel and soft agar assays. KSR1 stabilizes BRCA1 protein levels by reducing BRCA1 ubiquitination through increasing BARD1 abundance. These data link these proteins in a continuum with clinical relevance and position KSR1 in the major oncoprotein pathways in breast tumorigenesis.
  20. Sun J, Zhang H, Tan Q, Zhou H, Guan D, Zhang X, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 Jul 02;8(1):9976.
    PMID: 29967414 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-28349-2
    In 2015, an unexpected multiple outbreak of dengue occurred in Guangdong, China. In total, 1,699 cases were reported, of which 1,627 cases were verified to have DENV infections by nucleic acid or NS1 protein, including 44 DENV-1, 1126 DENV-2, 18 DENV-3 and 6 DENV-4, and the other cases were confirmed by NS1 ELISA. Phylogenetic analyses of DENV-1 isolates identified two genotypes (I and V). The predominant DENV-2 outbreak isolates were the Cosmopolitan genotypes, which likely originated from Malaysia. The DENV-3 isolates were assigned into genotype I and genotype III. All 6 DENV-4 isolates from imported cases were likely originally from Cambodia, Thailand and the Philippines. The entomological surveillance showed a moderate risk for the BI index in Chaozhou and Foshan and a low risk in Guangzhou. The imported cases were mostly detected in Guangzhou and Foshan. Surprisingly, the most serious outbreak occurred in Chaozhou, but not in Guangzhou or Foshan. A combined analyses demonstrated the multiple geographical origins of this outbreak, and highlight the detection of suspected cases after the alerting of imported cases, early implementation of control policies and reinforce the vector surveillance strategies were the key points in the chain of prevention and control of dengue epidemics.
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