Six species in the genus Busonia Distant are described and illustrated, including five new species from Thailand and Malaysia: Busonia curvata, B. fusca, B. lactata, B. micrata, B. serrata, spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China: Busonia albilateralis Maldonado-Capriles. A redescription of this genus is provided together with a key to species for separation of males.
A new species, Busoniomimus umbellatus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Malaysia. In addition the female of B. hainanensis Zhang & Li is described from China. A key is provided to males of this genus.
The Oriental leafhopper genus Abcoronalis gen. nov. is described and illustrated, and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). The genus differs from other Paraboloponina in having the coronal suture vestigial and the dorsal margin of the male pygofer with a pair of long, curved processes. The type species, Abcoronalis protrusus sp. nov. is from Borneo (Malaysia). A checklist and key of the subtribe Paraboloponina from Northern Borneo is provided.
Two new genera of Idiocerini, Lambirocerus gen. nov. with type species Lambirocerus cycloformulus sp. nov. and Undophomorpha gen. nov. with type species Undophomorpha glauctata sp. nov., are described and illustrated from Malaysia. The type species of Paraidioscopus Maldonado-Capriles, P. tagalicus (Baker) is also redescribed and illustrated.
The genus Eleazara Distant is reported from Malaysia for the first time based on one new species, E. viraktamathi sp. nov. This new species is described and illustrated. A checklist and key to the known species of Eleazara are provided.
The Oriental leafhopper genus Kalasha Distant is reviewed with redescriptions and photos of all known species, and two new species are described and illustrated. The female ovipositor of K. nativa Distant is described and photographed. Kalasha sondaica Jacobi, 1914 is proposed as a junior synonym of K. nativa Distant, 1908. A key to species of the genus is provided. Kalasha nativa Distant, originally described from India (Assam), is recorded from Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam for the first time, also representing the first records of the genus from Malaysia and Thailand.
The Oriental leafhopper genus Balala Distant is reviewed and newly recorded from Malaysia and Thailand. Four known species are redescribed and illustrated, with Balala lui newly recorded from Malaysia. And four new species are reported with descriptions and figures. A key to males of Balala species is provided. The female ovipositor of B. nigrifrons is described and photographed for the first time.
Data from three published studies of genetic variation at 18 microsatellite loci in water buffalo populations in China (18 swamp type, two river type), Nepal (one wild, one domestic river, one hybrid) and south-east Asia (eight swamp, three river) were combined so as to gain a broader understanding of genetic relationships among the populations and their demographic history. Mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities were significantly different among populations. Estimates of θ (a measure of population differentiation) were significant among the swamp populations for all loci and among the river populations for most loci. Differentiation among the Chinese swamp populations (which was due primarily to just one population) was much less than among the south-east Asian. The Nepal wild animals, phenotypically swamp type but genetically like river type, are significantly different from all the domestic river populations and presumably represent the ancestral Bubalus arnee (possibly with some river-type introgression). Relationships among the swamp populations (D(A) genetic distances, principal component analysis and structure analyses) show the south-east Asian populations separated into two groups by the Chinese populations. Given these relationships and the patterns of genetic variability, we postulate that the swamp buffalo was domesticated in the region of the far south of China, northern Thailand and Indochina. Following domestication, it spread south through peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, and north through China, and then to Taiwan, the Philippines and Borneo.
Through the investigation on botanical origin, output and sales of Togcao in producing areas, it has been proved that there are twenty-two species of six families used as Tongcao. The medicinal parts are the pith of stems or petioles. The provinces featuring more species and larger output of Tongcao are Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan and Shaanxi. A hundred and two pieces of commercial samples collected from twenty-six provinces in China, Hongkong area, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Republic of Korea have been identified. The result shows that both Xiaotongcao and Datongcao are called by the same name Tongcao. The main species is Xiaotongcao, which takes a proportion of 70% in Tongcao. And the Tongcao(Tetrapanax papyriferus, taking a proportion of 20%) as recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edition) is seldom used.
The leafhopper genus Dusuna Distant is revised to include seven species including one new species D. anacantha sp. nov. from China and one new combination D. distanti (Schmidt) n. comb. All species are described and illustrated. A checklist to species of the genus is provided together with a key to separate the two species known from the male. Figures of an unknown species from Malaysia (possibly new) are also included.
Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), contains abundant cellulose and hemicelluloses and can be used as a renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. This study, as the first attempt, aims to convert OPEFB derived sugars to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). OPEFB collected from a Malaysia palm oil refinery plant was chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed by an in-house prepared cellulase cocktail. The PHB producer, Bacillus megaterium R11, was isolated in Singapore and could accumulate PHB up to 51.3% of its cell dry weight (CDW) from both glucose and xylose. Tryptone was identified as its best nitrogen source. PHB content and production reached 58.5% and 9.32 g/L, respectively, for an overall OPEFB sugar concentration of 45 g/L. These respectively reached 51.6% and 12.48 g/L for OPEFB hydrolysate containing 60 g/L sugar with a productivity of 0.260 g/L/h.
The leafhopper subfamily Idiocerinae is revised for Malaysia. Thirteen genera and 17 species are recognized including 1 new genus, Serridiocerus n. gen., 2 new species, Serridiocerus membranaceus n. sp. and Burmascopus longidens n. sp., 3 newly recorded genera and 2 newly recorded species: Burmascopus n. rec., Chunra n. rec., Philipposcopus n. rec., Chunra australis n. rec., Philipposcopus maquilingensis n. rec.. A checklist and a key to species of Malaysian Idiocerinae are also provided.
Extant literature has underlined the importance of newcomer proactive socialization to the organization. However, the effect of coworker ostracism on newcomers' proactive behaviors has not been noticed. Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we proposed a model exploring how coworker ostracism impacted newcomers' proactive behaviors via the mediation of psychological availability. Through an empirical study with a sample of 263 newcomers and three waves of longitudinal data, we found that coworker ostracism had a negative effect on newcomers' information seeking and guanxi developing. In addition, emotional intelligence enhanced the negative effect of coworker ostracism on newcomers' psychological availability and the indirect influence of coworker ostracism on newcomers' proactive behaviors via psychological availability. Important theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Pten deletion in the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) causes a myeloproliferative disorder, which may subsequently develop into a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). β-catenin expression was dramatically increased in the c-KitmidCD3+Lin- leukemia stem cells (LSC) and was critical for T-ALL development. Therefore, the inactivation of β-catenin in LSC may have a potential to eliminate the LSC. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of enhancement of the β-catenin expression and subsequently used a drug to inactivate β-catenin expression in T-ALL. Western blot (WB) analysis revealed an increased level of β-catenin in the leukemic cells, but not in the pre-leukemic cells. Furthermore, the WB analysis of the thymic cells from different stages of leukemia development showed that increased expression of β-catenin was not via the pS9-GSK3β signaling, but was dependent on the pT308-Akt activation. Miltefosine (Hexadecylphosphocholine) is the first oral anti-Leishmania drug, which is a phospholipid agent and has been shown to inhibit the PI3K/Akt activity. Treatment of the PtenΔ/Δ leukemic mice with Miltefosine for different durations demonstrated that the pT308-Akt and the β-catenin expressions were inhibited in the leukemia blast cells. Miltefosine treatment also suppressed the TGFβ1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Analysis of TGFβ1 in the sorted subpopulations of the blast cells showed that TGFβ1 was secreted by the CD3+CD4- subpopulation and may exert effects on the subpopulations of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- leukemia blast cells. When a TGFβR1 inhibitor, SB431542 was injected into the PtenΔ/Δ leukemic mice, the Smad3 and β-catenin expressions were down-regulated. On the basis of the results, we conclude that Miltefosine can suppress leukemia by degrading β-catenin through repression of the pT308-Akt and TGFβ1/Smad3 signaling pathways. This study demonstrates a possibility to inhibit Pten loss-associated leukemia genesis via targeting Akt and Smad3.
This study aims to analyze the development trend of the manufacturing industry transformation and upgrading in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (2008-2018). On the basis of synergetics, the order parameter method of factor analysis is used to study these factors. The results show that: (1) There are five slow variable factors, such as intelligent manufacturing industry, technological innovation, scale agglomeration, market demand, and fixed asset investment, which are important power sources of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in Greater Bay Area. The development of these factors is relatively mature, and they cooperate with each other. (2) Similar to a fast variable of manufacturing development ecology, green development is an important coordinating factor in removing bottlenecks. Finally, suggestions for the development of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry are put forward.
Crabs within the family Portunidae are important marine species in both aquaculture and fishery sectors. The current aquaculture status of most portunids, however, still relies on wild-caught fisheries due to the lack of essential knowledge regarding their reproductive biology and underlying governing mechanism. With the advancement of sequencing technology, transcriptome sequencing has been progressively used to understand various physiological processes, especially on non-model organisms. In the present study, we compared the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sexes of Portunus sanguinolentus based on their gonadal transcriptome profiles and subsequently contrasted them with the gonadal DEGs of Charybdis feriatus, the other member of Family Portunidae. In total, 40,964 DEGs between ovaries and testes were uncovered, with 27,578 up- and 13,386 down-regulated in females. Among those, some sex-related DEGs were identified, including a dmrt-like (DMRT) gene which was specifically expressed in males. C. feriatus has approximately 63.5% of genes common with P. sanguinolentus, with 62.6% showing similar expression patterns. Interestingly, the DMRT gene was specifically expressed in male P. sanguinolentus while its homologous gene-doublesex (DSX)-was specifically expressed in male C. feriatus. The DEGs obtained from the gonadal transcriptome of P. sanguinolentus are a beneficial resource for future genetic and genomic research in P. sanguinolentus and its close species. The transcriptomic comparison analysis might provide references for better understanding the sex determination and differentiation mechanisms among portunids.
In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise F(st), structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.
In the title compound, C25H19NO4, the indole moiety is not completely planar, the heterocyclic ring being distorted very slightly towards a half-chair conformation. The benzoyl and 4-methoxyphenyl substituents are individually almost planar and are in a bisecting and nearly perpendicular configuration, respectively, with respect to the plane of the indole moiety. The molecular and packing structures in the crystal are stabilized by intramolecular and intermolecular C-H...O interactions.
The sequences of the mitochondrial ND4 gene (1339 bp) and the ND4L gene (290 bp) were determined for all the 14 extant taxa of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup. The average A + T content of ND4 genes is 76.5% and that of ND4L genes is 83.5%. A total of 114 variable sites were scored. The ND4 gene sequence divergence ranged from 0 to 5.4% within the subgroup. The substitution rate of the ND4 gene is about 1.25% per million years. The base substitution of the genes is strongly transition biased. Neighbor-joining and parsimony were used to construct a phylogeny based on the resultant sequence data set. According to these trees, five distinct mtDNA clades can be identified. D. niveifrons represents the most diverged lineage. D. sulfurigaster bilimbata and D. kepulauana form two independent lineages. The other two clades are the kohkoa complex and the albomicans complex. The kohkoa complex consists of D. sulfurigaster sulfurigaster, D. pulaua, D. kohkoa, and Taxon-F. The albomicans complex can be divided into two groups: D. nasuta, D. sulfurigaster neonasuta, D. sulfurigaster albostrigata, and D. albomicans from Chiangmai form one group; and D. pallidifrons, Taxon-I, Taxon-J, and D. albomicans from China form the other group. High genetic differentiation was found among D. albomicans populations. Based on our phylogenetic results, we hypothesize that D. niveifrons diverged first from the D. nasuta subgroup in Papua New Guinea about 3.5 Mya. The ancestral population spread to the north and when it reached Borneo, it diversified sequentially into the kohkoa complex, D. s. bilimbata, and D. kepulauana. About 1 Mya, another radiation occurred when the ancestral populations reached the Indo-China Peninsula, forming the albomicans complex. Discrepancy between morphological groupings and phylogenetic results suggests that the male morphological traits may not be orthologous.
In the title compounds, C(21)H(18)N(2)O(4) and C(25)H(18)N(2)O(4), respectively, the five-membered ring of the indole system is almost planar. The oxetane and oxazole rings are individually planar. The orientations of the indole, oxetane, oxazole and phenyl moieties are conditioned by the sp(3) nature of the spiro-C atoms. In both compounds, the relative orientation of the indole and oxazole rings is opposite.