BACKGROUND: The main risks for glaucoma are increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). This review aims to examine the potential impact of lower limb isometric resistance exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure.
METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the potential impact of isometric exercise on IOP and OPP. The literature on the relationship between isometric resistance exercise and IOP was systematically searched according to the "Cochrane Handbook" in the databases of Pubmed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus through December 31, 2020. The search terms used were "exercise," "train," "isometric," "intraocular pressure," and "ocular perfusion pressure," and the mean differences of the data were analyzed using the Stata 16.0 software, with a 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: A total of 13 studies, which included 268 adult participants consisting of 162 men and 106 women, were selected. All the exercise programs that were included were isometric resistance exercises of the lower limbs with intervention times of 1min, 2min, or 6min. The increase in IOP after intervention was as follows: I2=87.1%, P=0.001 using random-effects model combined statistics, SMD=1.03 (0.48, 1.59), and the increase in OPP was as follows: I2=94.5%, P=0.001 using random-effects model combined statistics, SMD=2.94 (1.65, 4.22), with both results showing high heterogeneity.
CONCLUSION: As isometric exercise may cause an increase in IOP and OPP, therefore, people with glaucoma and related high risk should perform isometric exercise with caution.
A detailed study on the solution chemistry of red soil in South China is presented. Data are collected from two simulated column-leaching experiments with an improved setup to evaluate the effects of atmospheric N deposition (ADN) composition and ADN flux on agricultural soil acidification using a (15)N tracer technique and an in situ soil solution sampler. The results show that solution pH values decline regardless of the increase of the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio in the ADN composition or ADN flux, while exchangeable Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations increase at different soil depths (20, 40, and 60 cm). Compared with the control, ADN (60 kg per ha per year N, NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio of 2 : 1) decreases solution pH values, increases solution concentrations of NO3(-)-N, Al(3+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at the middle and lower soil depths, and promotes their removal. NH4(+)-N was not detected in red soil solutions of all the three soil layers, which might be attributed to effects of nitrification, absorption and fixation in farmland red soil. Some of the NO3(-)-N concentrations at 40-60 cm soil depth exceed the safe drinking level of 10 mg L(-1), especially when the ADN flux is beyond 60 kg ha(-1) N. These features are critical for understanding the ADN agro-ecological effects, and for future assessment of ecological critical loads of ADN in red soil farmlands.
Clausena lansium, also known as wampee (Clausena wampi), is a plant species native to China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia, where it is widely cultivated, and also grown in India, Sri Lanka, Queensland, Florida, and Hawaii, but less frequently (3). The fruit can be consumed fresh or made into juice, jam, or succade. In summer to fall 2014, a soft rot disease was found in a wampee planting region in Yunan County, Guangdong Province, China. On Sept. 18, we collected diseased samples from a wampee orchard with about 20% disease incidence. The infected fruit initially showed pinpoint spots on the peel, water-soaked lesions, and light to dark brown discoloration. Spots expanded in 2 days, and tissues collapsed after 5 days. Severely affected fruit showed cracking or nonodorous decay. Five diseased samples were collected, and causal agents were isolated from symptomatic tissues 1 cm under the peel after surface sterilization in 0.3% NaOCl for 10 min and rinsing in sterile water three times. Tissues were placed on a Luria Bertani (LB) plate for culture. Ten representative isolates were selected for further characterization. No colony was isolated from healthy tissues. Colonies were round, smooth, with irregular edges, and produced a yellow pigment in culture. Biolog identification (Version 4.20.05) showed that all strains were gram negative, negative for indole production, and utilized glucose, maltose, trehalose, sucrose, D-lactose, and pectin but not sorbitol or gelatin. The isolates were identified as Pantoea agglomerans (SIM 0.69). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was conducted for rapid classification of the strains. Sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB, and rpoB were amplified using corresponding primers (2). All sequences of the 10 isolates were identical in each gene. BLASTn was performed, and maximum likelihood trees based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the four genes were constructed using MEGA6. Bootstrap values after 1,000 replicates were expressed as percentages. Results showed that the tested strain named CL1 was most homologous to P. anthophila, with 98% identity for atpD (KM521543), 100% for gyrB (KM521544), infB (KM521545), and rpoB (KM521546). The 16S rRNA sequence (KM521542) amplified by primers 27f and 1492r shared 99% identity with that of P. anthophila M19_2C (JN644500). P. anthophila was previously reclassified from P. agglomerans (3); therefore, we suggest naming this wampee pathogen P. anthophila. Subsequently, 10 wampee fruits were injected with 20 μl of bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU/ml) of strains CL1 and CL2, respectively, and another 10 were injected with 20 μl of LB medium as controls, all kept at 28°C for 4 days. Symptoms similar to those of natural infections were observed on inoculated fruits but not on the negative controls. Bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and further identified as P. anthophila by gyrB sequencing. P. anthophila was reported to naturally infect balsam and marigold (1,2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. anthophila naturally causing soft rot disease and cracking on C. lansium (wampee). References: (1) C. Brady et al. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 31:447, 2008. (2) C. Brady et al. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:2339, 2009. (3) J. Morton. Fruits of Warm Climates. Echo Point Books & Media, Miami, FL, 1987.
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tioman Island rock gecko, Cnemaspis limi, which is known as an endemic species to Malaysia. The complete mitogenome is 16,680 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs and one control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 53.09% (T: 23.20%, C: 32.48%, A: 29.89% and G: 14.43%). The major non-coding region (control region) is 1254 bp in length with the A + T content of 55.09% and four replicates of a 76-bp repeat within this region.
Primary aldosteronism is present in ≈10% of hypertensives. We previously performed a microarray assay on aldosterone-producing adenomas and their paired zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. Confirmation of top genes validated the study design and functional experiments of zona glomerulosa selective genes established the role of the encoded proteins in aldosterone regulation. In this study, we further analyzed our microarray data using AmiGO 2 for gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved in pathological and physiological aldosterone regulation. Genes differentially regulated in aldosterone-producing adenoma and zona glomerulosa were associated with steroid metabolic processes gene ontology terms. Terms related to the Wnt signaling pathway were enriched in zona glomerulosa only. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed "NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway" and "LPS (lipopolysaccharide)/IL-1 (interleukin-1)-mediated inhibition of RXR (retinoid X receptor) function" were affected in both aldosterone-producing adenoma and zona glomerulosa with associated genes having up to 21- and 8-fold differences, respectively. Comparing KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma, zona glomerulosa, and zona fasciculata samples with wild-type samples, 138, 56, and 59 genes were differentially expressed, respectively (fold-change >2; P<0.05). ACSS3, encoding the enzyme that synthesizes acetyl-CoA, was the top gene upregulated in KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma compared with wild-type. NEFM, a gene highly upregulated in zona glomerulosa, was upregulated in KCNJ5 wild-type aldosterone-producing adenomas. NR4A2, the transcription factor for aldosterone synthase, was highly expressed in zona fasciculata adjacent to a KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma. Further interrogation of these genes and pathways could potentially provide further insights into the pathology of primary aldosteronism.
Heart failure (HF) is a major global healthcare problem with an estimated prevalence of approximately 26 million. In Asia-Pacific regions, HF is associated with a significant socioeconomic burden and high rates of hospital admission. Epidemiological data that could help to improve management approaches to address this burden in Asia-Pacific regions are limited, but suggest patients with HF in the Asia-Pacific are younger and have more severe signs and symptoms of HF than those of Western countries. However, local guidelines are based largely on the European Society of Cardiology and American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines, which draw their evidence from studies where Western patients form the major demographic and patients from the Asia-Pacific region are underrepresented. Furthermore, regional differences in treatment practices likely affect patient outcomes. In the following review, we examine epidemiological data from existing regional registries, which indicate that these patients represent a distinct subpopulation of patients with HF. In addition, we highlight that patients with HF are under-treated in the region despite the existence of local guidelines. Finally, we provide suggestions on how data can be enriched throughout the region, which may positively affect local guidelines and improve management practices.
Hydrogel particles that can be engineered to compartmentally culture cells in a three-dimensional (3D) and high-throughput manner have attracted increasing interest in the biomedical area. However, the ability to generate hydrogel particles with specially designed structures and their potential biomedical applications need to be further explored. This work introduces a method for fabricating hydrogel particles in an ellipsoidal cap-like shape (i.e., ellipsoidal cap-like hydrogel particles) by employing an open-pore anodic aluminum oxide membrane. Hydrogel particles of different sizes are fabricated. The ability to produce ellipsoidal cap-like magnetic hydrogel particles with controlled distribution of magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated. Encapsulated cells show high viability, indicating the potential for using these hydrogel particles as structure- and remote-controllable building blocks for tissue engineering application. Moreover, the hydrogel particles are also used as sacrificial templates for fabricating ellipsoidal cap-like concave wells, which are further applied for producing size controllable cell aggregates. The results are beneficial for the development of hydrogel particles and their applications in 3D cell culture.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common type of secondary hypertension occurring in ∼10% of hypertensive patients. Up to 50% of PA is caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). This study is to identify the potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved with aldosterone regulation, APA formation, or APA and ZG cell functions.
In this study, three potential probiotic strains were selected to ferment blueberry and blackberry juices. The viable cell counts of selected strains were increased by 0.4-0.7 log CFU/mL in berry juices environments after 48-h fermentation. Meanwhile, the contents of cyanindin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside decreased over 30%. Heatmap presented an upgrade trend of syringic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and lactic acid during fermentation. However, the contents of p-coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, critic acid and malic acid showed downgrade trend. The metabolism of phenolics probably contributed to the enhancement of the ABTS radical scavenging activity (40%-60%) in fermented berry juices. Moreover, the three strains presented different capacities on changing the quality of berry juices according to the PCA and LDA analysis. The contents of individual organic acids had positive correlations with sensory quality, especially for sourness. Overall, probiotic fermentation could improve the sensory quality of berry juices.
Phalaenopsis orchids, originally from tropical Asia, are mainly planted in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan and have gained popularity from consumers all over the world. The cultivation area of Phalaenopsis orchids has been rising and large-scale bases have been established in mainland China, especially South China because of suitable environmental conditions. In September 2011, a soft rot of Phalaenopsis aphrodita was found in a Phalaenopsis planting base in Guangzhou with an incidence of ~15%. Infected plants initially showed water-soaked, pale-to-dark brown pinpoint spots on leaves that were sometimes surrounded by a yellow halo. Spots expanded rapidly with rising humidity and temperatures, and in a few days, severely extended over the blade with a light tan color and darker brown border. Lesions decayed with odorous fumes and tissues collapsed with inclusions exuding. The bacterium advanced to the stem and pedicle. Finally, leaves became papery dry and the pedicles lodged. Six diseased samples were collected, and bacteria were isolated from the edge of symptomatic tissues after sterilization in 0.3% NaOCl for 10 min, rinsing in sterile water three times, and placing on nutrient agar for culture. Twelve representative isolates were selected for further characterization. All strains were gram negative, grew at 37°C, were positive for indole production, and utilized malonate, glucose, and sucrose but not glucopyranoside, trehalose, or palatinose. Biolog identification (version 4.20.05, Hayward, CA) was performed and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (SIM 0.868) was confirmed for the tested isolates (transfer to genus Dickeya). PCR was used to amplify the 16S rDNAgene with primers 27f and 1492r, dnaX gene with primers dnaXf and dnaXr (3), and gyrB gene with primers gyrBf (5'-GAAGGYAAAVTKCATCGTCAGG-3') and gyrB-r1 (5'-TCARATATCRATATTCGCYGCTTTC-3') designed on the basis of the published gyrB gene sequences of genus Dickeya. BLASTn was performed online, and phylogeny trees (100% bootstrap values) were created by means of MEGA 5.05 for these gene sequences, respectively. Results commonly showed that the representative tested strain, PA1, was most homologous to Dickeya dieffenbachiae with 98% identity for 16S rDNA(JN940859), 97% for dnaX (JN989971), and 96% for gyrB (JN971031). Thus, we recommend calling this isolate D. dieffenbachiae PA1. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by injecting 10 P. aphrodita seedlings with 100 μl of the bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU/ml) and another 10 were injected with 100 μl of sterile water as controls. Plants were inoculated in a greenhouse at 28 to 32°C and 90% relative humidity. Soft rot symptoms were observed after 2 days on the inoculated plants, but not on the control ones. The bacterium was isolated from the lesions and demonstrated identity to the inoculated plant by the 16S rDNA sequence comparison. Previously, similar diseases of P. amabilis were reported in Tangshan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Wuhan and causal agents were identified as Erwinia spp. (2), Pseudomonas grimontii (1), E. chrysanthemi, and E. carotovora subsp. carovora (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of D. dieffenbachiae causing soft rot disease on P. aphrodita in China. References: (1) X. L. Chu and B. Yang. Acta Phytopathol. Sin. 40:90, 2010. (2) Y. M. Li et al. J. Beijing Agric. Coll. 19:41, 2004. (3) M. Sławiak et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 125:245, 2009. (4) Z. Y. Wu et al. J. Zhejiang For. Coll. 27:635, 2010.
In this study, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and 5 Lactobacillus fermentum strains adapting well to the unfavorable fruit system were isolated under different fruit environments. The fermentation ability of these autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in blueberry juice, and the influence of microbial metabolism on juice composition were explored. After 48 h of fermentation, the viable cell counts exceeded 10.0 log CFU/mL, malic acid content decreased from 511.47 ± 10.50 mg/L to below 146.38 ± 3.79 mg/L, and lactic acid content increased from 0 mg/L to above 2184.90 ± 335.80 mg/L. Moreover, the metabolism of these strains exerted a profound influence on the phenolic composition of juice. Total phenolic content in blueberry juice increased by 6.1-81.2% under lactic acid fermentation, and the antioxidant capacity in vitro enhanced by at least 34.0%. Anthocyanin content showed a declining trend, while the profile of non-anthocyaninic phenolics exhibited complex changes. The increments of rutin, myricetin and gallic acid contents through 48 h lactic acid fermentation exceeded 136%, 71% and 38%, respectively. Instead, the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid decreased with fermentation. Overall, Lactobacillus plantarum LSJ-TY-HYB-T9 and LSJ-TY-HYB-T7, and Lactobacillus fermentum LSJ-TY-HYB-C22 and LSJ-TY-HYB-L16 could be the suitable strains to produce fermented fruit juices, including blueberry in practical applications.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbA), a well characterized glycometabolism enzyme, has been found to participate in other important processes besides the classic catalysis. To understand the important functions of three fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from Clonorchis sinensis (CsFbAs, CsFbA-1/2/3) in host-parasite interplay, the open reading frames of CsFbAs were cloned into pET30a (+) vector and the resulting recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for expression of the proteins. Purified recombinant CsFbAs proteins (rCsFbAs) were approximately 45.0 kDa on 12% SDS-PAGE and could be probed with each rat anti-rCsFbAs sera by western blotting analysis. ELISA and ligand blot overlay indicated that rCsFbAs of 45.0 kDa as well as native CsFbAs of 39.5 kDa from total worm extracts and excretory-secretory products of Clonorchis sinensis (CsESPs) could bind to human plasminogen, and the binding could be efficiently inhibited by lysine analog ε-aminocaproic acid. Our results suggested that as both the components of CsESPs and the plasminogen binding proteins, three CsFbAs might be involved in preventing the formation of the blood clot so that Clonorchis sinensis could acquire enough nutrients from host tissue for their successful survival and colonization in the host. Our work will provide us with new information about the biological function of three CsFbAs and their roles in hostparasite interplay.
Atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN) increases the N content in soil and subsequently impacts microbial activity of soil. However, the effects of ADN on paddy soil microbial activity have not been well characterized. In this study, we studied how red paddy soil microbial activity responses to different contents of ADN through a 10-months ADN simulation on well managed pot experiments. Results showed that all tested contents of ADN fluxes (27, 55, and 82kgNha-1 when its ratio of NH4+/NO3--N (RN) was 2:1) enhanced the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and 27kgNha-1 ADN had maximum effects while comparing with the fertilizer treatment. Generally, increasing of both ADN flux and RN (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 with the ADN flux of 55kgNha-1) had similar reduced effects on microbial activity. Furthermore, both ADN flux and RN significantly reduced soil bacterial alpha diversity (p<0.05) and altered bacterial community structure (e.g., the relative abundances of genera Dyella and Rhodoblastus affiliated to Proteobacteria increased). Redundancy analysis demonstrated that ADN flux and RN were the main drivers in shaping paddy soil bacteria community. Overall, the results have indicated that increasing ADN flux and ammonium reduced soil microbial activity and changed the soil bacterial community. The finding highlights how paddy soil microbial community response to ADN and provides information for N management in paddy soil.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common type of secondary hypertension occurring in ∼10% of hypertensive patients. Up to 50% of PA is caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). We recently performed a microarray assay using 21 pairs of zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF), and 14 paired APAs. This study is to identify the potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved with aldosterone regulation, APA formation, or APA and ZG cell functions.
With the population growth, urbanization and industrialization, China has become a hotspot of atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN), which is a threat to ecosystem and food safety. However, the impacts of increased ADN on rice growth and grain metal content are little studied. Based on previous long-term ADN studies, greenhouse experiment was conducted with four simulated ADN rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3 as δ15N, respectively) to assess rice growth and metal uptake in a red soil ecosystem of southeast China during 2016-2017. Results showed that simulated ADN could promote rice growth and increase yields by 15.68-24.41% (except N2) and accumulations of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) in organs. However, there was no linear relationship between ADN rate and rice growth or Cd or Cu uptake. The 15N-ADN was mainly accumulated in roots (21.31-67.86%) and grains (25.26-49.35%), while Cd and Cu were primarily accumulated in roots (78.86-93.44% and 90.00-96.24%, respectively). 15N-ADN and Cd accumulations in roots were significantly different between the two growing seasons (p
Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is the primary active component in the newly registered, commercial biopesticide Shenqinmycin and is produced during fermentation by the engineered rhizobacterium strain Pseudomonas PA1201. Both phz1 and phz2 gene clusters contribute to PCA biosynthesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of OxyR in the regulation of PCA biosynthesis in PA1201. We first showed a functional link between oxyR expression and PCA biosynthesis. Deletion of oxyR and overexpression of oxyR both increase PCA biosynthesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying OxyR regulation of PCA production were investigated using several approaches. OxyR acts divergently in phz1 and phz2. Overexpression of oxyR activated the expression of phz1 and phz1-dependent PCA production. However, overexpression of oxyR had little effect on phz2-dependent PCA biosynthesis, while deletion of oxyR promoted phz2-dependent PCA production and exerted a negative effect on phz2 expression. Further, OxyR directly bound to the phz2 promoter region. In addition, the regulation of PCA biosynthesis by OxyR was associated with quorum sensing (QS) systems. Overexpression of OxyR positively regulated pqs QS system. Finally, transcriptomic analysis and subsequent genetic analysis revealed the small RNA phrS plays a key role in OxyR-dependent PCA accumulation. Specifically, OxyR directly binds to the phrS promoter region to positively regulate phrS expression wherein PhrS regulates the PCA positive regulator MvfR in order to control PCA biosynthesis.
This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
Heavy metals in water and wastewater are taken into account as one of the most hazardous environmental issues that significantly impact human health. The use of biochar systems with different materials helped significantly remove heavy metals in the water, especially wastewater treatment systems. Nevertheless, heavy metal's sorption efficiency on the biochar systems is highly dependent on the biochar characteristics, metal sources, and environmental conditions. Therefore, this study implicates the feasibility of biochar systems in the heavy metal sorption in water/wastewater and the use of artificial intelligence (AI) models in investigating efficiency sorption of heavy metal on biochar. Accordingly, this work investigated and proposed 20 artificial intelligent models for forecasting the sorption efficiency of heavy metal onto biochar based on five machine learning algorithms and bagging technique (BA). Accordingly, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), M5Tree, and Gaussian process (GP) algorithms were used as the key algorithms for the aim of this study. Subsequently, the individual models were bagged with each other to generate new ensemble models. Finally, 20 intelligent models were developed and evaluated, including SVM, RF, M5Tree, GP, ANN, BA-SVM, BA-RF, BA-M5Tree, BA-GP, BA-ANN, SVM-RF, SVM-M5Tree, SVM-GP, SVM-ANN, RF-M5Tree, RF-GP, RF-ANN, M5Tree-GP, M5Tree-ANN, GP-ANN. Of those, the hybrid models (i.e., BA-SVM, BA-RF, BA-M5Tree, BA-GP, BA-ANN, SVM-RF, SVM-M5Tree, SVM-GP, SVM-ANN, RF-M5Tree, RF-GP, RF-ANN, M5Tree-GP, M5Tree-ANN, GP-ANN) are introduced as the novelty of this study for estimating the heavy metal's sorption efficiency on the biochar systems. Also, the biochar characteristics, metal sources, and environmental conditions were comprehensively assessed and used, and they are considered as a novelty of the study as well. For this aim, a dataset of sorption efficiency of heavy metal was collected and processed with 353 experimental tests. Various performance indexes were applied to evaluate the models, such as RMSE, R2, MAE, color intensity, Taylor diagram, box and whiskers plots. This study's findings revealed that AI models could predict heavy metal's sorption efficiency onto biochar with high reliability, and the efficiency of the ensemble models is higher than those of individual models. The results also reported that the SVM-ANN ensemble model is the most superior model among 20 developed models. The predictive model proposed that heavy metal's efficiency sorption on biochar can be accurately forecasted and early warning for the water pollution by heavy metal.
Previously, we have identified a gene encoding thrombospondin-related anonymous protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgTRAP), and have shown that the antisera raised against recombinant BgTRAP expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited the growth of parasites. In the present study, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the BgTRAP (VV/BgTRAP) was constructed. A specific band with a molecular mass of 80 kDa, which is similar to that of native BgTRAP on the merozoites of B. gibsoni, was detected in the supernatant of VV/ BgTRAP-infected RK13 cells. Mice inoculated with VV/BgTRAP produced a specific antiBgTRAP response. The antiserum against VV/BgTRAP showed reactivity against the native BgTRAP on parasites. These results indicated that the recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BgTRAP might be a vaccine candidate against canine B. gibsoni infection.
Recent discoveries of somatic mutations permit the recognition of subtypes of aldosterone-producing adenomas with distinct clinical presentations and pathological features. Here we describe three women with hyperaldosteronism, two who presented in pregnancy and one who presented after menopause. Their aldosterone-producing adenomas harbored activating mutations of CTNNB1, encoding β-catenin in the Wnt cell-differentiation pathway, and expressed LHCGR and GNRHR, encoding gonadal receptors, at levels that were more than 100 times as high as the levels in other aldosterone-producing adenomas. The mutations stimulate Wnt activation and cause adrenocortical cells to de-differentiate toward their common adrenal-gonadal precursor cell type. (Funded by grants from the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre and others.).