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  1. Zhang X, Dang M, Zhang W, Lei Y, Zhou W
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2020 Feb;46(2):264-271.
    PMID: 32000536 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1716377
    Topical drug delivery for local anesthetics has been an interesting area of research for formulators considering the resistance and barrier properties of skin and high clearance rate of drugs like prilocaine and lidocaine (duration of action < 2.5 h). In this study, efforts have been made to sustain the release of prilocaine and lidocaine by using depot microemulsion system. Drug loaded microemulsions were formulated using Capmul MCM, Pluronic F127, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and water from pseudo-ternary diagrams. The Smix at 1:4 ratio showed larger microemulsion area in comparison to 1:2 ratio. The ex-vivo studies indicate sustained release of prilocaine and lidocaine from the microemulsion up to 8 h, in comparison to 4 h with ointments. Skin irritation study on rabbits confirmed the safety of drug loaded microemulsions for local drug delivery. The improved ex vivo data is reflected in the in vivo studies, were radiant heat tail-flick test and sciatic nerve model showed prolong duration of action for both prilocaine and lidocaine microemulsions in comparison to ointment. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of prilocaine and lidocaine was non-significant. The improved efficacy was due to high penetration of microemulsion and depot effect due to local precipitation (destabilization of microemulsion) of drug in the skin layer. The sustained local anesthetic effect is highly desirable for the treatment of skin irritation due to skin burns and pre- and post-operative pain.
  2. Yang Z, Cui Q, Zhou W, Qiu L, Han B
    Mol Genet Genomic Med, 2019 06;7(6):e680.
    PMID: 30968607 DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.680
    BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is a common genetic disorder. High prevalence of thalassemia is found in South China, Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean regions. Thalassemia was thought to exist only in southern China, but an increasing number of cases from northern China have been recently reported.

    METHODS: During 2012 to 2017, suspected thalassemia people were detected for common α- and β-thalassemia mutations by gap-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and reverse dot blot (RDB) analysis in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. One thousand and fifty-nine people with thalassemia mutations were analyzed retrospectively. We picked mutated individuals who originally came from northern areas, and conducted telephone follow-up survey in order to collect their ancestral information. Besides, we used "thalassemia", "mutation", and "Southeast Asian countries" as keywords to search the relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases.

    RESULTS: All carriers included in our study were resided in northern China. Among them, 17.3% were native northerners and 82.7% were immigrants from southern China. Although substantial difference was found in α- and β-thalassemia ratio and detailed spectrum of α- and β-globin mutation spectrum between our data and data obtained from a previous meta-analysis literature focused on southern China, the most common gene mutations were the same. Similar β-thalassemia mutation spectrum was found among Thai, Malaysian Chinese, and Guangdong people, however, no other similarities in gene profile were found between Chinese and other ethnic groups in Southeast Asia.

    CONCLUSION: Chinese people in different areas had similar gene mutation, whereas they had significantly different mutation spectrums from other ethnic groups in Southeast Asia.

  3. Cheong MW, Chong ZS, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, Bin Yu
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):686-95.
    PMID: 23107679 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.162
    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.
  4. Cheong MW, Zhu D, Sng J, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, et al.
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):696-703.
    PMID: 23107680 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.139
    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.
  5. Li JH, Vicknasingam B, Cheung YW, Zhou W, Nurhidayat AW, Jarlais DC, et al.
    Subst Abuse Rehabil, 2011;2:11-20.
    PMID: 24474851 DOI: 10.2147/SAR.S15458
    Ketamine, a derivative of phencyclidine that was developed in the 1960s, is an anesthetic and analgesic with hallucinogenic effects. In this paper, the pharmacological and toxicological effects of ketamine are briefly reviewed. Ketamine possesses a wide safety margin but such a therapeutic benefit is somewhat offset by its emergence phenomenon (mind-body dissociation and delirium) and hallucinogenic effects. The increasing abuse of ketamine, initially predominantly in recreational scenes to experience a "k-hole" and other hallucinatory effects but more recently also as a drug abused during the workday or at home, has further pushed governments to confine its usage in many countries. Recently, urinary tract dysfunction has been associated with long-term ketamine use. In some long-term ketamine users, such damage can be irreversible and could result in renal failure and dialysis. Although ketamine has not yet been scheduled in the United Nations Conventions, previous studies using different assessment parameters to score the overall harms of drugs indicated that ketamine may cause more harm than some of the United Nations scheduled drugs. Some countries in Southeast and East Asia have reported an escalating situation of ketamine abuse. Dependence, lower urinary tract dysfunction, and sexual impulse or violence were the most notable among the ketamine-associated symptoms in these countries. These results implied that the danger of ketamine may have been underestimated previously. Therefore, the severity levels of the ketamine-associated problems should be scrutinized more carefully and objectively. To prevent ketamine from being improperly used and evolving into an epidemic, a thorough survey on the prevalence and characteristics of illicit ketamine use is imperative so that suitable policy and measures can be taken. On the other hand, recent findings that ketamine could be useful for treating major depressive disorder has given this old drug a new impetus. If ketamine is indeed a remedy for treating depression, more research on the risks and benefits of its clinical use will be indispensable.
  6. Sun H, Chen G, Sunarso J, Dai J, Zhou W, Shao Z
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 May 23;10(20):16939-16942.
    PMID: 29741862 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b03702
    An abundant, highly active, and durable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst is an enabling component for a more sustainable energy future. We report, herein, a molybdenum and niobium codoped B-site-ordered double perovskite oxide with a compositional formula of Ba2CoMo0.5Nb0.5O6-δ (BCMN) as an active and robust catalyst for OER in an alkaline electrolyte. BCMN displayed a low overpotential of 445 mA at a current density of 10 mA cm-2disk. BCMN also showed long-term stability in an alkaline medium. This work hints toward the possibility of combining a codoping approach with double perovskite structure formation to achieve significant enhancement in the OER performance.
  7. She S, Yu J, Tang W, Zhu Y, Chen Y, Sunarso J, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Apr 11;10(14):11715-11721.
    PMID: 29546981 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b00682
    Perovskite oxide is an attractive low-cost alternative catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) relative to the precious metal oxide-based electrocatalysts (IrO2 and RuO2). In this work, a series of Sr-doped La-based perovskite oxide catalysts with compositions of La1- xSr xFeO3-δ ( x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1) are synthesized and characterized. The OER-specific activities in alkaline solution increase in the order of LaFeO3-δ (LF), La0.8Sr0.2FeO3-δ (LSF-0.2), La0.5Sr0.5FeO3-δ (LSF-0.5), SrFeO3-δ (SF), and La0.2Sr0.8FeO3-δ (LSF-0.8). We establish a direct correlation between the enhancement in the specific activity and the amount of surface oxygen vacancies as well as the surface Fe oxidation states. The improved specific activity for LSF-0.8 is clearly linked to the optimum amount of surface oxygen vacancies and surface Fe oxidation states. We also find that the OER performance stability is a function of the crystal structure and the deviation in the surface La and/or Sr composition(s) from their bulk stoichiometric compositions. The cubic structure and lower deviation, as is the case for LSF-0.8, led to a higher OER performance stability. These surface performance relations provide a promising guideline for constructing efficient water oxidation.
  8. Zhang Y, Knibbe R, Sunarso J, Zhong Y, Zhou W, Shao Z, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Dec;29(48).
    PMID: 28628239 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700132
    Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electricity generators that can convert the chemical energy in various fuels directly to the electric power with high efficiency. Recent advances in materials and related key components for SOFCs operating at ≈500 °C are summarized here, with a focus on the materials, structures, and techniques development for low-temperature SOFCs, including the analysis of most of the critical parameters affecting the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte, anode, and cathode. New strategies, such as thin-film deposition, exsolution of nanoparticles from perovskites, microwave plasma heating, and finger-like channeled electrodes, are discussed. These recent developments highlight the need for electrodes with higher activity and electrolytes with greater conductivity to generate a high electrochemical performance at lower temperatures.
  9. Chen G, Zhou W, Guan D, Sunarso J, Zhu Y, Hu X, et al.
    Sci Adv, 2017 06;3(6):e1603206.
    PMID: 28691090 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1603206
    Perovskite oxides exhibit potential for use as electrocatalysts in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, their low specific surface area is the main obstacle to realizing a high mass-specific activity that is required to be competitive against the state-of-the-art precious metal-based catalysts. We report the enhanced performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) for the OER with intrinsic activity that is significantly higher than that of the benchmark IrO2, and this result was achieved via fabrication of an amorphous BSCF nanofilm on a surface-oxidized nickel substrate by magnetron sputtering. The surface nickel oxide layer of the Ni substrate and the thickness of the BSCF film were further used to tune the intrinsic OER activity and stability of the BSCF catalyst by optimizing the electronic configuration of the transition metal cations in BSCF via the interaction between the nanofilm and the surface nickel oxide, which enables up to 315-fold enhanced mass-specific activity compared to the crystalline BSCF bulk phase. Moreover, the amorphous BSCF-Ni foam anode coupled with the Pt-Ni foam cathode demonstrated an attractive small overpotential of 0.34 V at 10 mA cm-2 for water electrolysis, with a BSCF loading as low as 154.8 μg cm-2.
  10. Yu J, Zhong Y, Wu X, Sunarso J, Ni M, Zhou W, et al.
    PMID: 30250794 DOI: 10.1002/advs.201800514
    Hydrogen production from renewable electricity relies upon the development of an efficient alkaline water electrolysis device and, ultimately, upon the availability of low cost and stable electrocatalysts that can promote oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Normally, different electrocatalysts are applied for HER and OER because of their different reaction intermediates and mechanisms. Here, the synthesis of a heterostructured CoP@a-CoOx plate, which constitutes the embedded crystalline cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanoclusters and amorphous cobalt oxides (CoOx) nanoplates matrix, via a combined solvothermal and low temperature phosphidation route is reported. Due to the presence of synergistic effect between CoP nanoclusters and amorphous CoOx nanoplates in the catalyst, created from the strong nanointerfaces electronic interactions between CoP and CoOx phases in its heterostructure, this composite displays very high OER activity in addition to favorable HER activity that is comparable to the performance of the IrO2 OER benchmark and approached that of the Pt/C HER benchmark. More importantly, an efficient and stable alkaline water electrolysis operation is achieved using CoP@a-CoOx plate as both cathode and anode as evidenced by the obtainment of a relatively low potential of 1.660 V at a 10 mA cm-2 current density and its marginal increase above 1.660 V over 30 h continuous operation.
  11. Shen Y, Zhu Y, Sunarso J, Guan D, Liu B, Liu H, et al.
    Chemistry, 2018 May 11;24(27):6950-6957.
    PMID: 29411451 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201705675
    Because of their structural and compositional flexibility, perovskite oxides represent an attractive alternative electrocatalyst class to precious metals for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR); an important reaction in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Partial replacement of the original metal cation with another cation, namely, doping, can be used to tailor the ORR activity of perovskite, for which a metal has been exclusively used as the dopant component in the past. Herein, phosphorus is proposed as a non-metal dopant for the cation site to develop a new perovskite family with the formula of La0.8 Sr0.2 Mn1-x Px O3-δ (x=0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1; denoted as LSM, LSMP0.02, LSMP0.05, and LSMP0.1, respectively). Powder XRD patterns reveal that the solubility of phosphorus in the perovskite structure is around 0.05. Rotating ring-disk electrode experiments in the form of linear-sweep voltammetry scans demonstrated the best ORR performance for LSMP0.05, and also revealed close to a four-electron ORR pathway for all four compositions. A chronoamperometric test (9000 s) and 500 cycle accelerated durability test demonstrated higher durability for LSMP0.05 relative to that of LSM and the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The higher ORR activity for LSMP0.05 is attributed to the optimised average valence of Mn, as evidenced by combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy data. Doping phosphorus into perovskites is an effective way to develop high-performance electrocatalysts for ORR.
  12. Miao J, Sunarso J, Duan X, Zhou W, Wang S, Shao Z
    J Hazard Mater, 2018 May 05;349:177-185.
    PMID: 29425884 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.01.054
    The efficient oxidative removal of persistent organic components in wastewater relies on low-cost heterogeneous catalysts that offer high catalytic activity, stability, and recyclability. Here, we designed a series of nanostructured Co-Mn containing perovskite catalysts, LaCo1-xMnxO3+δ (LCM, x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0), with over-stoichiometric oxygen (δ > 0) to show superior catalytic activity for the degradation of a variety of persistent aqueous organic pollutants by activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The nature of LCM for catalysis was comprehensively investigated. A "volcano-shaped" correlation was observed between the catalytic activity and electron filling (eg) of Co in LCM. Among these compounds, LaCo0.5Mn0.5O3+δ (LCM55) exhibited an excellent activity with eg = 1.27. The high interstitial oxygen ion diffusion rate (DO2- = 1.58 ± 0.01 × 10-13 cm2 s-1) of LCM55 also contributes to its catalytic activity. The enhanced stability of LCM55 can be ascribed to its stronger relative acidity (3.22). Moreover, an increased solution pH (pH ≥ 7) generated a faster organic degradation rate and a decrease in metal leaching (0.004 mM) for LCM55 perovskite, justifying it as a potential material for environmental remediation.
  13. Miao J, Sunarso J, Su C, Zhou W, Wang S, Shao Z
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 10;7:44215.
    PMID: 28281656 DOI: 10.1038/srep44215
    Perovskite-like oxides SrCo1-xTixO3-δ (SCTx, x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) were used as heterogeneous catalysts to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for phenol degradation under a wide pH range, exhibiting more rapid phenol oxidation than Co3O4 and TiO2. The SCT0.4/PMS system produced a high activity at increased initial pH, achieving optimized performance at pH ≥ 7 in terms of total organic carbon removal, the minimum Co leaching and good catalytic stability. Kinetic studies showed that the phenol oxidation kinetics on SCT0.4/PMS system followed the pseudo-zero order kinetics and the rate on SCT0.4/PMS system decreased with increasing initial phenol concentration, decreased PMS amount, catalyst loading and solution temperature. Quenching tests using ethanol and tert-butyl alcohol demonstrated sulfate and hydroxyl radicals for phenol oxidation. This investigation suggested promising heterogeneous catalysts for organic oxidation with PMS, showing a breakthrough in the barriers of metal leaching, acidic pH, and low efficiency of heterogeneous catalysis.
  14. He J, Sunarso J, Miao J, Sun H, Dai J, Zhang C, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2019 05 05;369:699-706.
    PMID: 30831522 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.02.070
    Effective regulation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), a widely used precursor of hair dye that is harmful to human health in large concentration, relies upon an accurate yet simple detection of PPD. In this context, amperometric electrode sensor based on perovskite oxide becomes attractive given its portability, low cost, high sensitivity, and rapid processing time. This work reports the systematic characterization of a series of Sr-doped PrCoO3-δ perovskite oxides with composition of Pr1-xSrxCoO3-δ(x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1) for PPD detection in an alkaline solution. PSC82 deposited onto glassy carbon electrode (PSC82/GCE) generates the highest redox currents which correlates with the highest hydrogen peroxide intermediates (HO2-) yield and the σ*-orbital (eg) filling of Co that is closest to unity for PSC82. PSC82/GCE provides the highest sensitivities of 655 and 308 μA mM-1 cm-2 in PPD concentration range of 0.5-2,900 and 2,900-10,400 μM, respectively, with a limit of detection of 0.17 μM. PSC82/GCE additionally demonstrates high selectivity to PPD and long term stability during 50 consecutive cyclic voltammetry scans and over 1-month storage period. The potential applicability of PSC82/GCE was also demonstrated by confirming the presence of very low concentration of PPD of below 0.5% in real hair dyes.
  15. Hu T, Qiu W, He B, Zhang Y, Yu J, Liang X, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2014;14:293.
    PMID: 25433675 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-014-0293-4
    In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described for Southeast Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with a strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of bat origin.
  16. Hu T, Zheng Y, Zhang Y, Li G, Qiu W, Yu J, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2012;12:305.
    PMID: 23268691 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-305
    The identification of new virus strains is important for the study of infectious disease, but current (or existing) molecular biology methods are limited since the target sequence must be known to design genome-specific PCR primers. Thus, we developed a new method for the discovery of unknown viruses based on the cDNA--random amplified polymorphic DNA (cDNA-RAPD) technique. Getah virus, belonging to the family Togaviridae in the genus Alphavirus, is a mosquito-borne enveloped RNA virus that was identified using the Virus-Discovery-cDNA RAPD (VIDISCR) method.
  17. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

  18. Pfister NT, Fomin V, Regunath K, Zhou JY, Zhou W, Silwal-Pandit L, et al.
    Genes Dev., 2015 Jun 15;29(12):1298-315.
    PMID: 26080815 DOI: 10.1101/gad.263202.115
    Mutant p53 impacts the expression of numerous genes at the level of transcription to mediate oncogenesis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the primary functional VEGF receptor that mediates endothelial cell vascularization, as a mutant p53 transcriptional target in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of VEGFR2 mediates the role of mutant p53 in increasing cellular growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Mutant p53 binds near the VEGFR2 promoter transcriptional start site and plays a role in maintaining an open conformation at that location. Relatedly, mutant p53 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex, which is required for remodeling the VEGFR2 promoter. By both querying individual genes regulated by mutant p53 and performing RNA sequencing, the results indicate that >40% of all mutant p53-regulated gene expression is mediated by SWI/SNF. We surmise that mutant p53 impacts transcription of VEGFR2 as well as myriad other genes by promoter remodeling through interaction with and likely regulation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Therefore, not only might mutant p53-expressing tumors be susceptible to anti VEGF therapies, impacting SWI/SNF tumor suppressor function in mutant p53 tumors may also have therapeutic potential.
  19. Shang X, Peng Z, Ye Y, Asan, Zhang X, Chen Y, et al.
    EBioMedicine, 2017 Sep;23:150-159.
    PMID: 28865746 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.015
    Hemoglobinopathies are among the most common autosomal-recessive disorders worldwide. A comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) test would greatly facilitate screening and diagnosis of these disorders. An NGS panel targeting the coding regions of hemoglobin genes and four modifier genes was designed. We validated the assay by using 2522 subjects affected with hemoglobinopathies and applied it to carrier testing in a cohort of 10,111 couples who were also screened through traditional methods. In the clinical genotyping analysis of 1182 β-thalassemia subjects, we identified a group of additional variants that can be used for accurate diagnosis. In the molecular screening analysis of the 10,111 couples, we detected 4180 individuals in total who carried 4840 mutant alleles, and identified 186 couples at risk of having affected offspring. 12.1% of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified by our NGS assay, which were undetectable by traditional methods. Compared with the traditional methods, our assay identified an additional at-risk 35 couples. We describe a comprehensive NGS-based test that offers advantages over the traditional screening/molecular testing methods. To our knowledge, this is among the first large-scale population study to systematically evaluate the application of an NGS technique in carrier screening and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.
  20. Machiela MJ, Zhou W, Karlins E, Sampson JN, Freedman ND, Yang Q, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 06 13;7:11843.
    PMID: 27291797 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11843
    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.
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