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  1. Morgan IG, Rose KA, Ellwein LB, Refractive Error Study in Children Survey Group
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2010 Dec;88(8):877-84.
    PMID: 19958289 DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01800.x
    PURPOSE: To determine the natural end-point for refractive development during childhood.

    METHODS: Cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction was performed on 38, 811 children aged 5 and 15 in population-based samples at eight sites in the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC). Refractions (right eye) were categorized as myopic (≤-0.5 D), emmetropic (>-0.5 to ≤+0.5 D), mildly hyperopic (>+0.5 to ≤+2.0 D and hyperopic (>+2.0 D).

    RESULTS: At five sites (Jhapa - rural Nepal, New Delhi - urban India, Mahabubnagar - rural India, Durban - semi-urban South Africa and La Florida - urban Chile), there was <20% myopia by age 15. Mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category at all ages, except for Mahabubnagar where emmetropia became the marginally most prevalent category at ages 14 and 15. At the other sites (Gombak - semi-urban Malaysia, Shunyi - semi-rural China and Guangzhou - urban China), there was substantial (>35%) myopia by age 15. At these sites, mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category during early childhood, and myopia became the predominant category later. In Gombak district and Guangzhou, emmetropia was a minor category at all ages, with myopia increasing as mild hyperopia decreased. In Shunyi district, emmetropia was the most prevalent category over the ages 11-14.

    CONCLUSION: Emmetropia was not the predominant outcome for refractive development in children. Instead, populations were predominantly mildly hyperopic or substantial amounts of myopia appeared in them. This suggests that mild hyperopia is the natural state of refractive development in children and that emmetropia during childhood carries the risk of subsequent progression to myopia.

  2. Sinniah D, Narasimha G, Prathap K
    Acta Ophthalmol, 1980 Oct;58(5):819-24.
    PMID: 7211270
    Twenty children with retinoblastoma are reviewed who were treated at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 10-year-period. They constitute 6.6% of childhood malignancies and without exception all presented with advanced disease. Hereditary cases were notably absent in the the series probably because past cases have almost invariably succumbed without an opportunity to transmit the gene. With enucleation and radiotherapy six of the patients have survived from 2 to 12 years. The addition of vincristine and cyclophosphamide has not been associated with improved survival.
  3. Ashworth J, Flaherty M, Pitz S, Ramlee A
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2015 Mar;93(2):e111-7.
    PMID: 25688487 DOI: 10.1111/aos.12607
    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders, characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans within multiple organ systems including the eye. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with MPS, as well as the characteristics, diagnosis and management of patients with MPS and glaucoma.
  4. Chong PP, Tung CH, Rahman NA, Yajima M, Chin FW, Yeng CL, et al.
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2014 Nov;92(7):e569-79.
    PMID: 25043991 DOI: 10.1111/aos.12427
    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in primary and recurrent pterygia samples collected from different ethnic groups in the equatorial Malay Peninsula.
  5. Wu AL, Ling KP, Chuang LH, Chen KJ, Chen YP, Yeung L, et al.
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2020 Apr 03.
    PMID: 32243725 DOI: 10.1111/aos.14418
    PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term surgical outcomes of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) following vitrectomy with macular plug in highly myopic eyes.

    METHODS: Thirty-five cases of highly myopic eyes with MHRD in 35 patients who underwent an initially successful vitrectomy with macular plug and were followed up for at least 3 years were reviewed. The anatomical outcomes were evaluated by fundus examination, fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Myopic features after the surgery were differentiated according to recommendations of the Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) Study Group. The best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) before and after surgery were analysed as the functional outcome. Main outcome measures time-course changes in BCVA and complications.

    RESULTS: The mean patient age was 61.0 ± 11.4 years. The follow-up was 45.2 ± 8.6 months (ranged from 36 to 71 months). The mean axial length was 29.3 ± 1.2 mm. All eyes demonstrated attached retina, but 2 eyes (5.7%) developed reopened macular holes until the last follow-up. Complications of postoperative rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were detected in 2 eyes (5.7%) within 1 year and retina reattached after the secondary vitrectomy. Three cases (8.6%) of prolonged subretinal fluid lasting more than 1 year were detected but finally absorbed completely. Comparing 1-3 years postoperatively, myopic features showed significant progression of myopic maculopathy category (p = 0.035). Functionally, significantly improved BCVA could be maintained postoperatively between 6 months and 3 years. However, vision of 14 eyes (40.0%) worsened within 1-3 years postoperatively, and visual deterioration was associated with progression of myopic maculopathy (p = 0.004) and pre-existing disease of glaucoma (p = 0.006).

    CONCLUSIONS: A vitrectomy combined with macular plug provided favourable outcomes in the long term, over the ≥3-year follow-up period.

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