Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

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  1. Kooi OK, Ling CY, Rodzi R, Othman F, Mohtarrudin N, Suhaili Z, et al.
    PMID: 25392583
    BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. Smith (family Melastomaceae) is a shrub that has been used by the Malay practitioners of traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The present study aimed to determine the chemopreventive activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using the standard 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the initiation phase, the mice received a single dose of 100µl/100 µg DMBA (group I-V) or 100µl acetone (group VI) topically on the dorsal shaved skin area followed by the promotion phase involving treatment with the respective test solutions (100 µl of acetone, 10 mg/kg curcumin or MEMM (30, 100 and 300mg/kg)) for 30 min followed by the topical application of tumour promoter (100µl croton oil). Tumors were examined weekly and the experiment lasted for 15 weeks.

    RESULTS: MEMM and curcumin significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tumour burden, tumour incidence and tumour volume, which were further supported by the histopathological findings.

    CONCLUSION: MEMM demonstrated chemoprevention possibly via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the action of flavonoids like quercitrin.

  2. Kamba AS, Ismail M, Ibrahim TA, Zakaria ZA
    PMID: 25392577
    BACKGROUND: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance before use as delivery carrier. In this study we examine the biocompatibility of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cell line.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transmission and field emission scanning electron microscopy (TEM and FESEM) were used for the characterisation of CaCO3 nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity and genotoxic effect of calcium carbonate nanocrystals in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line using various bioassays including MTT, and Neutral red/Trypan blue double-staining assays. LDH, BrdU and reactive oxygen species were used for toxicity analysis. Cellular morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscope.

    RESULTS: The outcome of the analyses revealed a clear rod-shaped aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate nanocrystal. The analysed cytotoxic and genotoxicity of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cells using different bioassays revealed no significance differences as compared to control. A slight decrease in cell viability was noticed when the cells were exposed to higher concentrations of 200 to 400 µg/ml, while increase in ROS generation and LDH released at 200 and 400 µg/ml was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study has shown that CaCO3 nanocrystal is biocompatible and non toxic to NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. The analysed results offer a promising potential of CaCO3 nanocrystal for the development of intracellular drugs, genes and other macromolecule delivery systems.

  3. Swamy M, Suhaili D, Sirajudeen KN, Mustapha Z, Govindasamy C
    PMID: 25395704
    BACKGROUND: Increased nitric oxide (NO), neuronal inflammation and apoptosis have been proposed to be involved in excitotoxicity plays a part in many neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the neuro-protective effects of propolis, activities of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and caspase-3 along with NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were studied in cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) in rats supplemented with propolis prior to excitotoxic injury with kainic acid (KA).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA.

    CONCLUSION: Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Quah CC, Kim KH, Lau MS, Kim WR, Cheah SH, Gundamaraju R
    PMID: 25392585
    BACKGROUND: The preference for a fairer skin-tone has become a common trend among both men and women around the world. In this study, seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis were investigated for their in vitro and in vivo potentials in working as skin whitening agents. Seaweed has been used as a revolutionary skin repairing agent in both traditional and modern preparations. The high antioxidant content is one of the prime reasons for its potent action. It has been employed in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. For centuries, most medical practitioners in the Asian cultures have known seaweed as an organic source of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 and antioxidants. The present objective of the study was to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on human cell lines and guinea pigs.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seaweeds were extracted with ethanol and further fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity in human epidermal melanocyte (HEM), and Chang cells. Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream and tested on guinea pigs in dermal irritation tests and de-pigmentation assessments.

    RESULTS: Both Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis seaweeds showed significant inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase in the concentration tested. SPEt showed most potent cytotoxicity on HEM (IC50 of 36µg/ml), followed by SPHF (65µg/ml), and PTHF (78.5µg/ml). SPHF and SPEt reduced melanin content in skin of guinea pigs when assessed histologically.

    CONCLUSION: SPEt, SPHF and PTHF were able to inhibit HEM proliferation in vitro, with SPHF being most potent and did not cause any dermal irritation in guinea pigs. The results obtained indicate that SPHF is a promising pharmacological or cosmetic agent.

  5. Ng WJ, Ken KW, Kumar RV, Gunasagaran H, Chandramogan V, Lee YY
    PMID: 25435614
    BACKGROUND: Different researches on therapeutic effects of honey have been conducted in different regions; however the study on the potential antibacterial activity of Malaysian honey is still limited. In this study, antibacterial activities of different monofloral honey samples were tested against several common human pathogenic bacteria.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The well-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) techniques were employed to investigate the putative antibacterial activity of Malaysian monofloral honey from Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub (Tualang), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Gelam) and Durio zibethinus Murr. (Durian). Honey samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6518 and ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Enterococcus faecium LMG16192, Enterococcus faecalis LMG16216 and ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC14028 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883.

    RESULTS: Marked variations were observed in the antibacterial activity of these honey samples. Durian honey failed to produce substantial antibacterial activity, whereas Tualang and Gelam honey showed a spectrum of antibacterial activity with their growth inhibitory effects against all of the tested bacterial species including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

    CONCLUSION: Present findings suggested Gelam honey possesses highest antibacterial effect among the tested Malaysian honey samples.

  6. Dharmalingam SR, Madhappan R, Ramamurthy S, Chidambaram K, Srikanth MV, Shanmugham S, et al.
    PMID: 25435611
    BACKGROUND: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity study using Swiss albino mice was performed in accordance with OECD guidelines. The EtAI and AqAI extracts of Aristolochia indica Linn were studied for antidiarrhoeal property using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and charcoal-induced gastrointestinal motility test in Swiss albino mice.

    RESULTS: Among the tested doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, the extracts reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhoea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extract delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control and the results were statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: Experimental findings showed that ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica Linn root possess significant antidiarrheal activity and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug in future.

  7. Swamy M, Norlina W, Azman W, Suhaili D, Sirajudeen KN, Mustapha Z, et al.
    PMID: 25435633
    BACKGROUND: Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain regions-cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) of rats supplemented with propolis and subjected to kainic acid (KA) mediated excitotoxicity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Rahim SM, Taha EM, Al-janabi MS, Al-douri BI, Simon KD, Mazlan AG
    PMID: 25435631
    BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations.

    RESULTS: C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference.

    CONCLUSION: C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.

  9. Saad LB, Hwi KK, Quah T
    PMID: 25371587
    BACKGROUND: There are severe adverse effects of analgesic drugs on human body. Extraction of analgesic drugs from natural products has therefore become the prime objective of the study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the pomegranate fruit.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and compared with aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.) which was considered as the standard drug. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of the plant species was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the writhing test, the index of pain inhibition (IPI) was 37% for ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), and 59% for aspirin. In the hot tail flick test, the ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), has shown significant analgesia reaching its peak at 60 min maximum possible analgesia (MPA), was 24.1% as compared with aspirin 37.5%. Hyperalgesia was successfully induced by the plantar test and the ethanol extract of pomegranate (100,150,200mg/kg, p.o.), reduced the hyperalgesia in a dose dependent manner comparable to aspirin at (100mg/kg, p.o.). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B.

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals.

  10. Nadri MH, Salim Y, Basar N, Yahya A, Zulkifli RM
    PMID: 25371571
    BACKGROUND: The ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of stems, leaves and fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa were screened for their antioxidant capacity and tyrosinase inhibition properties.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) were used to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. Tyrosinase inhibition effect was measured using mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay.

    RESULT: Ethyl acetate extract of P. macrocarpa's stem exhibited highest total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Meanwhile, chloroform extracts of leaves and fruits demonstrated potent anti-tyrosinase activities as compared to a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid.

    CONCLUSION: Since chloroform extracts of leaves and fruits have low antioxidant capacities, the tyrosinase inhibition effect observed are antioxidant independent. This study suggests direct tyrosinase inhibition by chloroform extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa.

  11. Chew YL, Lim YY, Stanslas J, Ee GC, Goh JK
    PMID: 25371595
    BACKGROUND: Flowers of Bauhinia kockiana were investigated for their anticancer properties.

    METHODS: Gallic acid (1), and methyl gallate (2), were isolated via bioassay-directed isolation, and they exhibited anticancer properties towards several cancer cell lines, examined using MTT cell viability assay. Pyrogallol (3) was examined against the same cancer cell lines to deduce the bioactive functional group of the phenolic compounds.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the phenolic compounds could exhibit moderate to weak cytotoxicity towards certain cell lines (GI50 30 - 86 µM), but were inactive towards DU145 prostate cancer cell (GI50 > 100 µM).

    CONCLUSION: It was observed that pyrogallol moiety was one of the essential functional structures of the phenolic compounds in exhibiting anticancer activity. Also, the carboxyl group of compound 1 was also important in anticancer activity. Examination of the PC-3 cells treated with compound 1 using fluorescence microscopy showed that PC-3 cells were killed by apoptosis.

  12. Alafiatayo AA, Syahida A, Mahmood M
    PMID: 25371557
    BACKGROUND: Natural products such as herbs, fruits, spices, beverages, vegetables are becoming more popular among scientific community and consumers because of their potential to arrest the effect of free radicals in human system. This study determined the total antioxidant capacity of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) used as spices and for medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used as the extraction solvent, 2,2 - diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) for free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Phenolic compounds were measured using Total flavonoid, Phenolic acid and Polyphenols content assay to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant capacity of the rhizomes and vitamin C as positive control.

    RESULTS: The results obtained revealed that Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale had the highest free radical scavenging capacity of 270.07mg/TE/g DW and 266.95mg/TE/g DW and FRAP assay, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale also gave the highest ferric reducing power of 231.73mg/TE/g DW and 176.26mg/TE/g DW respectively. For Phenolic compounds, Curcuma longa and Curcuma xanthorrhiza gave the highest values of flavonoid (741.36mg/NGN/g DW and 220.53mg/NGN/g DW), phenolic acid (42.71mg/GAE/g DW and 22.03mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (39.38mg/GAE/g DW and 38.01mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between Total antioxidant capacity and Phenolic compounds (R = 0.65 - 0.96).

    CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that extracts of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) rhizomes are a potential source of natural antioxidants and could serve as basis for future drugs and food supplements.

  13. Musa M, Nasir NF, Thirumulu KP
    PMID: 24653569
    Royal jelly is a nutritious substance produced by the young nurse bees and contains significant amounts of proteins which are important for cell growth and proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging.
  14. Vijayapandi P, Annabathina V, SivaNagaSrikanth B, Manjunath V, Boggavarapu P, Mohammed P AK, et al.
    PMID: 24082330
    The present investigation was aimed at determining the effects of hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Acorus calamus leaves (ACHE, ACAE, ACME and ACAQE) on cholinergic and histaminic system using isolated frog rectus abdominis muscle and guinea pig ileum. A dose dependent potentiation of Ach response (anticholinesterase like effect) was found with ACAE and ACME at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/ml, but at higher dose of ACAE, ACME, ACAQE and ACHE (5, 20 mg/ml) inhibit the Ach response (antinicotinic effect). These results revealed biphasic effect of Acorus calamus leaves extracts on acetylcholine induced contractile response in isolated frog rectus abdominis muscle preparation (i.e. potentiation effect at lower dose and inhibitory effect at higher dose). Studies on isolated guinea pig ileum demonstrated antihistaminic effect in a dose dependent manner (100-1000 µg/ml) with ACAE, ACME and ACAQE. In addition, the dose dependent inhibition of Ach response (antimuscarinic effect) was observed with ACAE and ACME. In conclusion, Acorus calamus leaves extracts exerts antinicotinic, anticholinesterase like activities in isolated frog rectus abdominis muscle and antihistaminic, antimuscarinic effect in guinea pig ileum. It has been suggested that these observed activities can be further studied for therapeutic potential of Acorus calamus leaves in the treatment of cognitive disorders and asthma.
  15. Mohamed M, Sulaiman SA, Jaafar H
    PMID: 23983363
    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats.
  16. Moniruzzaman M, Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 23983317
    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical activity, scientists are studying the effects of increasing individuals' antioxidant levels through diet and dietary supplements. Honey appears to act as an antioxidant in more ways than one. In the body, honey can mop up free radicals and contribute to better health. Various antioxidant activity methods have been used to measure and compare the antioxidant activity of honey. In recent years, DPPH (Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), ORAC (The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity), ABTS [2, 2-azinobis (3ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt], TEAC [6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox)-equivalent antioxidant capacity] assays have been used to evaluate antioxidant activity of honey. The antioxidant activity of honey is also measured by ascorbic acid content and different enzyme assays like Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Among the different methods available, methods that have been validated, standardized and widely reported are recommended.
  17. Nurul Syazana MS, Gan SH, Halim AS, Shah NS, Gan SH, Sukari HA
    PMID: 24146441
    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.
  18. Thent ZC, Lin TS, Das S, Zakaria Z
    PMID: 23983373
    Cardiovascular complications are one of the major causes of death in diabetes mellitus. Piper sarmentosum (P.s) is an herb that possesses antihyperglycaemic effects. The main aim of the study was to observe the histological changes in the heart and the proximal aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following P.s administration. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were equally randomized into four groups: control group supplemented with normal saline (C); control group supplemented with P.s (CTx) ; diabetic group supplemented with normal saline (D) and, diabetic group supplemented with P.s (DTx). Diabetes was induced by STZ (50mg/kg body weight) intramuscularly. P.s extract (0.125g/kg) was administered orally for 28 days, following four weeks of STZ induction. The cardiac and aortic tissues were collected and processed under different stains: Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), Masson's Trichome (MT) and Periodic Acid- Schiff (PAS). There were abnormal cardiomyocytes nuclei, disarray of myofibres and increase in connective tissue deposits in cardiac tissues of the diabetic untreated group. The thickness of tunica media and ratio of tunica intima to media were found to be significantly increased in the aorta of diabetic untreated group (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. There were degenerative changes in the proximal aorta in diabetic untreated groups. All the histological damages of cardiac and aortic tissues were found to be lesser in the diabetic treated groups. Supplementation with P.s extract prevented the oxidative damage arising from diabetes mellitus, and reduced its complications.
  19. Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L
    PMID: 22238476
    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.
  20. Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA
    PMID: 21731163
    Honey is rich in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. A wide range of phenolic constituents is present in honey like quercetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), acacetin, kaempferol, galangin which have promising effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular intake of phenolic compounds is associated with reduced risk of heart diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of phenolic compounds include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. In this review paper, we discussed the preventive role of polyphenols of honey against cardiovascular diseases.
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