In this study, the potential for carbonaceous nanomaterials to be used as adsorbents for the mixed matrix membrane (MMM) microextraction and preconcentration of organic pollutants was demonstrated. For this method, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and single layer graphene (SLG) nanoparticles were individually incorporated through dispersion in a cellulose triacetate (CTA) polymer matrix to form a MWCNT-MMM and SLG-MMM, respectively. The prepared membranes were evaluated for the extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in sewage pond water samples. The extraction was performed by dipping a small piece of membrane (7 mm × 7 mm) in a stirred 7.5 mL sample solution to initiate the analyte adsorption. This step was followed by an analyte desorption into 60 μL of methanol prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. When the optimum SLG-MMM microextraction technique was applied to spiked sewage pond water samples, the detection limit of the method for the PAHs were in the range of 0.02-0.09 ng/mL, with relative standard deviations of between 1.4% and 7.8%. Enrichment factors of 54-100 were achieved with relative recoveries of 99%-101%. A comparison was also made between the proposed approach and standard solid phase extraction using polymeric bonded octadecyl (C18) cartridges.
Diabetes is a metabolic disease with a prolonged elevated level of glucose in the blood leads to long-term complications and increases the chances for cardiovascular diseases. The present study describes the fabrication of a ZnO nanowire (NW)-modified interdigitated electrode (IDE) to monitor the level of blood glucose. A silver IDE was generated by wet etching-assisted conventional lithography, with a gap between adjacent electrodes of 98.80 μm. The ZnO-based thin films and NWs were amended by sol-gel and hydrothermal routes. High-quality crystalline and c-axis orientated ZnO thin films were observed by XRD analyses. The ZnO thin film was annealed for 1, 3 and 5 h, yielding a good-quality crystallite with sizes of 50, 100 and 110 nm, and the band gaps were measured as 3.26, 3.20 and 3.17 eV, respectively. Furthermore, a flower-modeled NW was obtained with the lowest diameter of 21 nm. Our designed ZnO NW-modified IDE was shown to have a detection limit as low as 0.03 mg/dL (correlation coefficient = 0.98952) of glucose with a low response time of 3 s, perform better than commercial glucose meter, suitable to instantly monitor the glucose level of diabetes patients. This study demonstrated the high performance of NW-mediated IDEs for glucose sensing as alternative to current glucose sensors.
Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications.
The discovery of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) assay has led to the generation of aptamers from libraries of nucleic acids. Concomitantly, aptamer-target recognition and its potential biomedical applications have become a major research endeavour. Aptamers possess unique properties that make them superior biological receptors to antibodies with a plethora of target molecules. Some specific areas of opportunities explored for aptamer-target interactions include biochemical analysis, cell signalling and targeting, biomolecular purification processes, pathogen detection and, clinical diagnosis and therapy. Most of these potential applications rely on the effective immobilisation of aptamers on support systems to probe target species. Hence, recent research focus is geared towards immobilising aptamers as oligosorbents for biodetection and bioscreening. This article seeks to review advances in immobilised aptameric binding with associated successful milestones and respective limitations. A proposal for high throughput bioscreening using continuous polymeric adsorbents is also presented.
An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 μL (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required.
Despite the increasing number of usage of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in optical sensor application, the correlation between the analytical signals and the binding isotherms has yet to be fully understood. This work investigates the relationship between the signals generated from MIPs sensors to its respective binding affinity variables generated using binding isotherm models. Two different systems based on the imprinting of metal ion and organic compound have been selected for the study, which employed reflectance and fluorescence sensing schemes, respectively. Batch binding analysis using the standard binding isotherm models was employed to evaluate the affinity of the binding sites. Evaluation using the discrete bi-Langmuir isotherm model found both the MIPs studied have generally two classes of binding sites that was of low and high affinities, while the continuous Freundlich isotherm model has successfully generated a distribution of affinities within the investigated analytical window. When the MIPs were incorporated as sensing receptors, the changes in the analytical signal due to different analyte concentrations were found to have direct correlation with the binding isotherm variables. Further data analyses based on this observation have generated robust models representing the analytical performance of the optical sensors. The best constructed model describing the sensing trend for each of the sensor has been tested and demonstrated to give accurate prediction of concentration for a series of spiked analytes.
A single line flow injection analysis (FIA) method that incorporated a preconcentrator column packed with C(18) particles and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was developed for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) in vegetable oils. The carrier stream was methanol/1.5 mM sodium acetate (pH 8) 80:20 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Calibration curve was well correlated (r(2)=0.9995) within the range of 1-200 mg L(-1) FFA (expressed as palmitic acid). Sampling rate of 40-60 h(-1) was achieved. Good agreement was found between the standard non-aqueous titrimetry method and the proposed method when applied to the determination of FFA in palm (crude, olein, and refined, bleached and deodorised) and other vegetable (soybean, rice bran, walnut, corn and olive) oils. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official method, especially in terms of simplicity, high sampling rate, economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost automated system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time.
A capillary electrophoretic method for the separation of the enantiomers of both ofloxacin and ornidazole is described. Several parameters affecting the separation were studied, including the type and concentration of chiral selector, buffer pH, voltage and temperature. Good chiral separation of the racemic mixtures was achieved in less than 16 min with resolution factors Rs=5.45 and 6.28 for ofloxacin and ornidazole enantiomers, respectively. Separation was conducted using a bare fused-silica capillary and a background electrolyte (BGE) of 50 mM H(3)PO(4)-1 M tris solution; pH 1.85; containing 30 mg mL(-1) of sulfated-beta-cyclodextrin (S-beta-CD). The separation was carried out in reversed polarity mode at 25 degrees C, 18 kV, detection wavelength at 230 nm and using hydrodynamic injection for 15 s. Acceptable validation criteria for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy were studied. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the enantiomers (ofloxacin enantiomer 1 (OF-E1), ofloxacin enantiomer 2 (OF-E2), ornidazole enantiomer 1 (OR-E1) and ornidazole enantiomer 2 (OR-E2)) were (0.52, 0.46, 0.54, 0.89) and (1.59, 1.40, 3.07, 2.70) microg mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of enantiomers of both ofloxacin and ornidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The computational calculations for the enantiomeric inclusion complexes rationalized the reasons for the different migration times between the ofloxacin and ornidazole enantiomers.
The development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method for the determination of the mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2) by using silica-based monolithic column is described. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (50:50, v/v) and purified by using a C(18) solid phase extraction-based clean-up column. Then, pre-column derivatization for the analyte using ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was carried out. The developed method involved optimization of mobile phase composition using methanol and phosphate buffer, injection volume, temperature and flow rate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase Chromolith(®) RP-18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm) at 30 °C and eluted with a mobile phase of a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column. The fluorescence excitation and emission were at 335 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The limits of detections were 0.01-0.04 μg g(-1) fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2), respectively. Good recoveries were found for spiked samples (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μg g(-1) fumonisins B(1) and B(2)), ranging from 84.0 to 106.0% for fumonisin B(1) and from 81.0 to 103.0% for fumonisin B(2). Fifty-three samples were analyzed including 39 food and feeds and 14 inoculated corn and rice. Results show that 12.8% of the food and feed samples were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (range, 0.01-0.51 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (0.05 μg g(-1)). The total fumonisins in these samples however, do not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union of 0.8 μg g(-1). Of the 14 inoculated samples, 57.1% contained fumonisin B(1) (0.16-41.0 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (range, 0.22-50.0 μg g(-1)). Positive confirmation of selected samples was carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, using triple quadrupole analyzer and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.
Plant resins, and particularly dammars from the Dipterocarpaceae family, were widely used in the past, notably as part of caulking material. The organic composition of resins, already complicated, is not always preserved over time and can be considerably affected by ageing. Hence, their occurrence in archaeological items leads to the necessity to identify them taxonomically with precision. Resinous organic materials collected near and/or on wrecks discovered in South China Sea, supposed to contain dammar resins because of their geographical excavation context, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), together with freshly collected dammars, to establish taxonomic and alteration parameters allowing to identify dammar even in very altered samples or in mixtures together with other organic materials. This study specially focuses on three samples collected within or close to the M1J wreck, a Portuguese wreck lost in the Straight of Malacca during the 16th century. Our analyses establish that all three are made of dammar, two of them in association with pitch and bitumen. In addition, biodegradation biomarkers were detected in all these three samples, indicating that they were submitted to microbial degradation processes during their ageing.
A flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure for the determination of anisidine value (AV) in palm olein using a triiodide detector is described. Undiluted oil sample and chloramine-T reagent were added to a reaction chamber, and reaction was accelerated by applying a short vortex action (typically for 30 s). After allowing the emulsified oil phase to be separated from the aqueous phase (bottom layer), an aliquot of the aqueous phase (containing unreacted chloramine-T) was aspirated into a carrier stream that contained I(-) where the chloramine-T oxidized the I- to form I3(-) which was finally detected by a flow-through triiodide potentiometric detector. Variables that affect the FIA signals such as size of the reaction chamber, oil and reagent flow rates, chloramine-T concentration, vortex time, time for phase separation, carrier stream pH and injected volume were studied. The optimized FIA procedure is linear over 1.0-23.0 AV. The method exhibits good repeatabililty (R.S.D. of +/-3.16% (n = 4) for the determination of 5.0 AV) and a sampling rate of 40 samples per hour was achieved. Good correlation (r2 = 0.996 (n = 4)) between the proposed method and the manual American Oil Chemists' Society procedure was found when applied to the determination of twenty different types of palm olein samples.
To address immunocapture of proteins in large cohorts of clinical samples high throughput sample processing is required. Here a method using the proteomic sample platform, ISET (integrated selective enrichment target) that integrates highly specific immunoaffinity capture of protein biomarker, digestion and sample cleanup with a direct interface to mass spectrometry is presented. The robustness of the on-ISET protein digestion protocol was validated by MALDI MS analysis of model proteins, ranging from 40 fmol to 1 pmol per nanovial. On-ISET digestion and MALDI MS/MS analysis of immunoaffinity captured disease-associated biomarker PSA (prostate specific antigen) from human seminal plasma are presented.
Graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite was synthesised via a facile, green and efficient approach consisted of novel liquid phase exfoliation and solvothermal growth for sensing application. Highly pristine graphene was synthesised through mild sonication treatment of graphite in a mixture of ethanol and water at an optimum ratio. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) affirmed the hydrothermal growth of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles from zinc nitrate hexahydrate precursor. The as-prepared graphene/zinc oxide (G/ZnO) nanocomposite was characterised comprehensively to evaluate its morphology, crystallinity, composition and purity. All results clearly indicate that zinc oxide particles were homogenously distributed on graphene sheets, without any severe aggregation. The electrochemical performance of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry analysis. The resulting electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a linear range of 1-15 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The sensitivity of the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified hydrogen peroxide sensor was 3.2580 μAmM(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.4357 μM. An electrochemical DNA sensor platform was then fabricated for the detection of Avian Influenza H5 gene based on graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite. The results obtained from amperometry study indicate that the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor is significantly more sensitive (P
In recent years extensive numbers of molecular diagnostic methods have been developed to meet the need of point-of-care devices. Efforts have been made towards producing rapid, simple and inexpensive DNA tests, especially in the diagnostics field. We report on the development of a label-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid and simple detection of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) amplicons. A label-based m-LAMP lateral flow dipstick assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of target DNA template and a LAMP internal control. This biosensor operates through a label based system, in which probe-hybridization and the additional incubation step are eliminated. We demonstrated this m-LAMP assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes the re-emerging disease Leptospirosis. The lateral flow dipstick was developed to detect of three targets, the LAMP target amplicon, the LAMP internal control amplicon and a chromatography control. Three lines appeared on the dipstick, indicating positive results for all representative pathogenic Leptospira species, whereas two lines appeared, indicating negative results, for other bacterial species. The specificity of this biosensor assay was 100% when it was tested with 13 representative pathogenic Leptospira species, 2 intermediate Leptospira species, 1 non-pathogenic Leptospira species and 28 other bacteria species. This study found that this DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at concentrations as low as 3.95 × 10(-1) genomic equivalent ml(-1). An integrated m-LAMP and label-based lateral flow dipstick was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and serving as a point-of-care device.
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite film of poly (4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (P4VP/MWCNT GCE) was used for the voltammetric determination of paracetamol (PCT). This novel electrode displayed a combined effect of P4VP and MWCNT on the electro-oxidation of PCT in a solution of phosphate buffer at pH 7. Hence, conducting properties of P4VP along with the remarkable physical properties of MWCNTs might have combined effects in enhancing the kinetics of PCT oxidation. The P4VP/MWCNT GCE has also demonstrated excellent electrochemical activity toward PCT oxidation compared to that with bare GCE and MWCNT GCE. The anodic peak currents of PCT on the P4VP/MWCNT GCE were about 300 fold higher than that of the non-modified electrodes. By applying differential pulse voltammetry technique under optimized experimental conditions, a good linear ratio of oxidation peak currents and concentrations of PCT over the range of 0.02-450 μM with a limit of detection of 1.69 nM were achieved. This novel electrode was stable for more than 60 days and reproducible responses were obtained at 99% of the initial current of PCT without any influence of physiologically common interferences such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. The application of this electrode to determine PCT in tablets and urine samples was proposed.
A simple adsorption/desorption procedure using a mixed matrix membrane (MMM) as extraction medium is demonstrated as a new miniaturized sample pretreatment and preconcentration technique. Reversed-phase particles namely polymeric bonded octadecyl (C18) was incorporated through dispersion in a cellulose triacetate (CTA) polymer matrix to form a C18-MMM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) namely diclofenac, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen present in the environmental water samples were selected as targeted model analytes. The extraction setup is simple by dipping a small piece of C18-MMM (7 mm × 7 mm) in a stirred 10 mL sample solution for analyte adsorption process. The entrapped analyte within the membrane was then desorbed into 100 μL of methanol by ultrasonication prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Each membrane was discarded after single use to avoid any analyte carry-over effect. Several important parameters, such as effect of sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were comprehensively optimized. The C18-MMM demonstrated high affinity for NSAIDs spiked in tap and river water with relative recoveries ranging from 92 to 100% and good reproducibility with relative standard deviations between 1.1 and 5.5% (n=9). The overall results obtained were found comparable against conventional solid phase extraction (SPE) using cartridge packed with identical C18 adsorbent.
A real-time ability to interpret the interaction between targeted biomolecules and the surface of semiconductors (metal transducers) into readable electrical signals, without biomolecular modification involving fluorescence dyes, redox enzymes, and radioactive labels, created by label-free biosensors has been extensively researched. Field-effect transistor (FET)- and capacitor-based biosensors are among the diverse electrical charge biosensing architectures that have drawn much attention for having charge transduction; thus, enabling the early and rapid diagnosis of the appropriate cardiac biomarkers at lower concentrations. These semiconducting material-based transducers are very suitable to be integrated with portable electronic devices for future online collection, transmission, reception, analysis, and reporting. This overview elucidates and clarifies two major electrical label-free systems (FET- and capacitor-based biosensors) with cardiac troponin (cTn) biomarker-mediated charge transduction for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. Advances in these systems are highlighted by their progression in bridging the laboratory and industry; the foremost technologies have made the transition from benchtop to bedside and beyond.
Dengue Virus (DENV) has become one of the most serious arthropod-borne viral diseases, causing death globally. The existing methods for DENV detection suffer from the late stage treatment due to antibodies-based detection which is feasible only after five days following the onset of the illness. Here, we demonstrated the highly effective molecular electronic based detection utilizing silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process as a sensing device for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) related to DENV in an early stage diagnosis. To transform the fabricated devices as a functional sensing element, three-step procedure consist of SiNW surface modification, DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization were employed. The detection principle works by detecting the changes in current of SiNW which bridge the source and drain terminal to sense the immobilization of probe DNA and their hybridization with target DNA. The oxygen (O2) plasma was proposed as an effective strategy for increasing the binding amounts of target DNA by modified the SiNW surface. It was found that the detection limit of the optimized O2 plasma treated-SiNW device could be reduced to 1.985 × 10-14 M with a linear detection range of the sequence-specific DNA from 1.0 × 10-9 M to 1.0 × 10-13 M. In addition, the developed biosensor device was able to discriminate between complementary, single mismatch and non-complementary DNA sequences. This highly sensitive assay was then applied to the detection of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product of DENV-DNA, making it as a potential method for disease diagnosis through electrical biosensor.
The use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a sensing material is a new approach to overcome the selectivity and stability drawbacks of the optical chemical sensor (optode). In this study, non-plasticized PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride) as a support base, sodium morin-5-sulfonate (NaMSA) as a reagent and Aliquat 336 as a fixed carrier (ionophore) was prepared and its performance was tested for application in an optode to determine Al3+ ions. The results showed that PIM properties are greatly influenced by the membrane composition. The studies revealed that the optode response was dependent on film thickness, the presence of plasticizer, stirring effect, concentration of NaMSA, concentration of Aliquat 336 and pH of the aqueous solution used. The dynamic range of Al3+ ions concentration determined using this optode was linear from 5.19 × 10-7 to 6.00 × 10-5 mol L-1 and the calculated limit of detection (L.O.D.) was found to be 4.07 × 10-7 mol L-1. The maximum emission wavelength (λem) for the PIM based optode was 512 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the PIM revealed that a dense texture was formed. Fourier transform infra-red and thermal gravimetry analysis characterizations proved that all of the constituents of the PIM remain within the membrane. The PIM developed in this work was found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, and is sensitive and reusable. Lastly, the PIM was successfully applied as an optical sensor for determination of Al3+ ions in an aqueous solution.
We propose the use of water-based alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) ink for fast and user-friendly patterning of paper microfluidic devices either manually or using an inexpensive XY-plotter. The ink was produced by dissolving hydrophobic AKD in chloroform and emulsifying the solution in water. The emulsification was performed in a warm water bath, which led to an increased rate of the evaporation of chloroform. Subsequent cooling led to the final product, an aqueous suspension of fine AKD particles. The effects of surfactant and AKD concentrations, emulsification procedure, and cooling approach on final ink properties are presented, along with an optimized protocol for its formulation. This hydrophobic agent was applied onto paper using a plotter pen, after which the paper was heated to allow spreading of AKD molecules and chemical bonding with cellulose. A paper surface patterned with the ink (10 g L-1 AKD) yielded a contact angle of 135.6° for water. Unlike organic solvent-based solutions of AKD, this AKD ink does not require a fume hood for its use. Moreover, it is compatible with plastic patterning tools, due to the effective removal of chloroform in the production process to less than 2% of the total volume. Furthermore, this water-based ink is easy to prepare and use. Finally, the AKD ink can also be used for the fabrication of so-called selectively permeable barriers for use in paper microfluidic networks. These are barriers that stop the flow of water through paper, but are permeable to solvents with lower surface energies. We applied the AKD ink to confine and preconcentrate sample on paper, and demonstrated the use of this approach to achieve higher detection sensitivities in paper spray ionization-mass spectrometry (PSI-MS). Our patterning approach can be employed outside of the analytical lab or machine workshop for fast prototyping and small-scale production of paper-based analytical tools, for use in limited-resource labs or in the field.