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  1. Che Muhamed AM, Mohamed NG, Ismail N, Aziz AR, Singh R
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2014 Apr;39(4):458-64.
    PMID: 24669987 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2013-0276
    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p < 0.017). Ratings of perceived exertion taken at the end of the TT10 km was lower in both CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial, although the difference was significant only between CMR and NOR (p < 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with either carbohydrate or placebo solution provided ergogenic benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.
  2. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Johns EJ
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2016 Feb;41(2):210-8.
    PMID: 26789093 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0411
    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p < 0.05) in FT rats compared with their untreated counterparts. The vasoconstriction response to all agonists was lower in F rats than in control rats by about 35%-65% (all p < 0.05). Vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and methoxamine but not Ang II were about 41%-75% higher in FT rats compared with F rats (all p < 0.05). Acute tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p < 0.05), compared with their untreated counterparts. Superoxide radicals play a crucial role in controlling renal vascular responses to adrenergic agonists in insulin-resistant rats. Chronic but not acute tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.
  3. James CA, Richardson AJ, Watt PW, Willmott AG, Gibson OR, Maxwell NS
    PMID: 28177747 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0349
    This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg(-1)), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O2max; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O2max). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training.
  4. Si LY, Kamisah Y, Ramalingam A, Lim YC, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2017 Jul;42(7):765-772.
    PMID: 28249121 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0506
    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) plays an important role in the initiation of cardiovascular diseases. Roselle, enriched with antioxidants, demonstrates high potential in alleviating hypertension. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of roselle supplementation of VED and remodelling in a rodent model with prolonged nicotine administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were administered with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine for 28 days to induce VED. The rats were given either aqueous roselle (100 mg/kg) or normal saline orally 30 min prior to nicotine injection daily. One additional group of rats served as control. Thoracic aorta was isolated from rats to measure vascular reactivity, vascular remodelling and oxidative stress. Roselle significantly lowered aortic sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction (Endo-(+) Cmax = 234.5 ± 3.9%, Endo-(-) Cmax = 247.6 ± 5.2%) compared with untreated nicotine group (Endo-(+) Cmax = 264.5 ± 6.9%, Endo-(-) Cmax = 276.5 ± 6.8%). Roselle also improved aortic response to endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (Endo-(+) Rmax = 73.2 ± 2.1%, Endo-(-) Rmax = 26.2 ± 0.8%) compared to nicotine group (Endo-(+) Rmax = 57.8 ± 1.7%, Endo-(-) Rmax = 20.9 ± 0.8%). In addition, roselle prevented an increase in intimal media thickness and elastic lamellae proliferation to preserve vascular architecture. Moreover, we also observed a significantly lowered degree of oxidative stress in parallel with increased antioxidant enzymes in aortic tissues of the roselle-treated group. This study demonstrated that roselle prevents VED and remodelling, and as such it has high nutraceutical value as supplement to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
  5. Bowtell JL, Aboo-Bakkar Z, Conway M, Adlam AR, Fulford J
    PMID: 28249119 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0550
    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5±3.0 y; BMI, 25.9±3.3 kg.m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ±3.3 y; BMI, 27.1±.4.0 kg.m-2). Pre- and post-supplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T MRI scanner while functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling (ASL) technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.
  6. Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Mohamed S, Jaarin K
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2019 04;44(4):373-380.
    PMID: 30216735 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0175
    The prolonged intake of diet containing repeatedly heated vegetable oil can cause hypertension in the long run.
    In this study, the effects of citrus leaf extract (CLE) supplementation on vascular reactivity, plasma nitrite, and aortic structure in hypertensive rats were investigated by the consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil [corrected]. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 56) were divided into 7 groups corresponding to the respective diets. For 16 weeks, 1 group was given standard rat chow (control) while other groups were given diets containing 15% w/w of palm oil, fresh palm oil (FPO), palm oil heated 5 times (5HPO), and palm oil heated 10 times (10HPO), with or without the incorporation of 0.15% w/w CLE (FPO+CLE, 5HPO+CLE, or 10HPO+CLE). Plasma nitrite levels were measured before and at 16 weeks of treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and aortae were harvested for measuring vascular reactivity and for microscopic study. CLE supplementation had significantly reduced the loss of plasma nitrite and attenuated the vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine in the 5HPO group but not in the 10HPO group. However, CLE had no significant effect on the vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. The elastic lamellae of tunica media in 5HPO, 10HPO, and 10HPO+CLE groups appeared disorganised and disrupted. Obtained findings suggested that CLE was able to enhance nitric oxide bioavailability that might dampen the vasoconstriction effect of phenylephrine.
  7. Ibrahim NS, Muhamad AS, Ooi FK, Meor-Osman J, Chen CK
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2018 Feb;43(2):180-186.
    PMID: 29024599 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0464
    To our knowledge, the efficacy of combined probiotic supplementation with circuit training has not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated the effects of probiotic supplementation combined with circuit training on isokinetic muscular strength and power and cytokine responses in young males. Forty-eight healthy sedentary young males were recruited and randomised into 4 separate groups: sedentary placebo control, probiotics (P), circuit training with placebo (CT), and circuit training with probiotics (CTP). Participants in the CT and CTP groups performed circuit training 3 times/week with 2 circuits of exercises from weeks 1-8 followed by 3 circuits of exercises from weeks 9-12. Participants in the P and CTP groups consumed multi-strain probiotics containing 3 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. lactis, L. casei, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum and B. infantis twice daily for 12 weeks. Measurements of body height and weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood samples, and isokinetic muscular strength and power were carried out at pre- and post-tests. Isokinetic knee strength and power in CT and CTP groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at post-test. In addition, interleukin (IL)-10 concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.0001) at post-test in P and CT but a trend toward significant increase in CTP (P = 0.09). Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in IL-6. This study suggests that 12 weeks of circuit training alone and the combination of circuit training and probiotic consumption improved muscular performance while circuit training alone and probiotics alone increased IL-10 concentration.
  8. Kamisah Y, Ang SM, Othman F, Nurul-Iman BS, Qodriyah HM
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2016 Oct;41(10):1033-1038.
    PMID: 27618413
    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.
  9. Ooi CH, Ng SK, Omar EA
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2020 May;45(5):513-519.
    PMID: 31675478 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0553
    There is emerging evidence that hydrogen-rich water (H2-water) has beneficial effects on the physiological responses to exercise. However, few studies investigate its ergogenic potential. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of H2-water ingestion on physiological responses and exercise performance during incremental treadmill running. In a double-blind crossover design, 14 endurance-trained male runners (age, 34 ± 4 years; body mass, 63.1 ± 7.2 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) were randomly assigned to ingest 2 doses of 290-mL H2-water or placebo on each occasion. The first bolus was given before six 4-min submaximal running bouts, and the second bolus was consumed before the maximal incremental running test. Expired gas, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded; blood samples were collected at the end of each submaximal stage and post maximal running test. Cardiorespiratory responses, RPE, and blood gas indices were not significantly different at each submaximal running intensity (range: 34%-91% maximal oxygen uptake) between H2-water and placebo trials. No statistical difference was observed in running time to exhaustion (618 ± 126 vs. 619 ± 113 s), maximal oxygen uptake (56.9 ± 4.4 vs. 57.1 ± 4.7 mL·kg-1·min-1), maximal HR (184 ± 7 vs. 184 ± 7 beat·min-1), and RPE (19 ± 1 vs. 19 ± 1) in the runners between the trials. The results suggest that the ingestion of 290 mL of H2-water before submaximal treadmill running and an additional dose before the subsequent incremental running to exhaustion were not sufficiently ergogenic in endurance-trained athletes. Novelty Acute ingestion of H2-water does not seem to be ergogenic for endurance performance. A small dose of H2-water does not modulate buffering capacity during intense endurance exercise in athletes.
  10. Ahmad SY, Friel JK, MacKay DS
    PMID: 31697573 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0359
    BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the effect of pure forms of sucralose and aspartame, in doses reflective of common consumption, on glucose metabolism.

    METHODS: Healthy participants consumed pure forms of a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) mixed with water that were standardized to doses of 14% (0.425 g) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for aspartame and 20% (0.136 g) of the ADI for sucralose every day for two weeks. Blood samples were collected and analysed for glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and leptin.

    RESULTS: Seventeen participants (10 females and 7 males; age 24 ± 6.8 years; BMI 22.9 ± 2.5 kg/m2) participated in the study. The total area under the curve (AUC) values of glucose, insulin, active GLP-1 and leptin were similar for the aspartame and sucralose treatment groups compared to the baseline values in healthy participants. There was no change in insulin sensitivity after NNS treatment compared to the baseline values.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that daily repeated consumption of pure sucralose or aspartame for 2 weeks had no effect on glucose metabolism among normoglycaemic adults. However, these results need to be tested in studies with longer durations. Novelty: • Daily consumption of pure aspartame or sucralose for 2 weeks had no effect on glucose metabolism. • Daily consumption of pure aspartame or sucralose for 2 weeks had no effect on insulin sensitivity among healthy adults.

  11. Mohammed Yusof NL, Zainalabidin S, Mohd Fauzi N, Budin SB
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2018 Dec;43(12):1224-1232.
    PMID: 29726706 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0084
    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with cardiac functional and structural alteration, an initial event leading to cardiovascular complications. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been widely proven as an antioxidant and recently has incited research interest for its potential in treating cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of H. sabdariffa (roselle) polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) in type-1-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6/group): nondiabetic, diabetic alone (DM), diabetic supplemented with HPE (DM+HPE), and diabetic supplemented with metformin. Type-1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Rats were forced-fed with HPE (100 mg/kg) and metformin (150 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. Results showed that HPE supplementation improved hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia significantly (p < 0.05) in the DM+HPE compared with the DM group. HPE supplementation attenuated cardiac oxidative damage in the DM group, indicated by low malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein product. As for the antioxidant status, HPE significantly (p < 0.05) increased glutathione level, as well as catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities. These findings correlate with cardiac function, whereby left ventricle developed pressure in DM+HPE (79.13 ± 3.08 mm Hg) was higher significantly compared with DM (45.84 ± 1.65 mm Hg). Coronary flow of DM+HPE (17.43 ± 0.62 mL/min) was also greater compared with DM (13.02 ± 0.6 mL/min), showing that HPE supplementation improved cardiac contractility and relaxation rate significantly (p < 0.05). Histological analysis showed a marked decrease in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in DM+HPE compared with the DM group. Ultrastructural changes and impairment of mitochondria induced by diabetes were minimized by HPE supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that HPE is a potential cardioprotective agent in a diabetic setting through its hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, and antioxidant properties.
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