Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) is a user friendly and convenient dosage form. The study aimed to investigate the effect of polymers and wheat starch on the tablet properties of lyophilized ODT, with dapoxetine as model drug. Three polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, carbopol 934P and Eudragit® EPO) and wheat starch were used as matrix forming materials in preparation of lyophilized ODT. The polymeric dispersion was casted into a mould and kept in a freezer at -20 °C for 4 h before freeze dried for 12 h. It was found that increasing in HPMC and Carbopol 934P concentrations produced tablets with higher hardness and longer disintegration time. In contrast, Eudragit® EPO was unable to form tablet with sufficient hardness at various concentrations. Moreover, HPMC seems to have a stronger effect on tablet hardness compared to Carbopol 934P at the same concentration level. ODT of less friable was obtained. Wheat starch acted as binder which strengthen the hardness of ODTs and prolonged the disintegration time. ODT comprising of HPMC and wheat starch at ratio of 2:1 was found to be optimum based upon the tablet properties. The optimum formulation was palatable and 80 % of the drug was released within 30 min in the dissolution study.
The present study aimed to examine the chemical compositions of the essential oils of Beilschmiedia madang and their antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities. The major constituents of the essential oils of leaf and bark of B. madang were δ-cadinene (17.0 and 20.5 %), β-caryophyllene (10.3 and 6.7 %), α-cubebene (11.3 and 15.6 %), and α-cadinol (5.8 and 10.6 %). The essential oils were screened for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, and total phenolic content. The bark oil showed the highest β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching (90.3 % ± 0.2) and DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 212.0 µg/mL), while the highest phenolic content was exhibited by the leaf oil (94.5 % ± 0.3 mg GA/g). The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by the disc diffusion and micro dilution method. The leaf and bark oils showed moderate activity towards Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 125 µg/mL. For antifungal assay, the bark oil showed strong activity towards Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC value 62.5 µg/mL. Anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were evaluated against Ellman method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. The results showed that leaf oil gave significant percentage inhibition (I%: acetylcholinesterase 55.2 %, butyrylcholinesterase 60.4 %, tyrosinase 53.1 %).
A series of six/five member (E/Z)-Goniothalamin analogs were synthesized from commercially available (3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methanol/5-(hydroxymethyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one in three steps with good to moderate overall yields and their cytotoxicity against lymphoblastic leukemic T cell line (Jurkat E6.1) have been evaluated. Among the synthesized analogs, (Z)-Goniothalamin appeared to be the most active in cytotoxicity (IC50 = 12 μM). Structure-activity relationship study indicates that introducing substituent in phenyl ring or replacing phenyl ring by pyridine/naphthalene, or decreasing the ring size of lactones (from six to five member) do not increase the cytotoxicity.
Synthetic membranes are composed of thin sheets of polymeric macromolecules that can control the passage of components through them. Generally, synthetic membranes used in drug diffusion studies have one of two functions: skin simulation or quality control. Synthetic membranes for skin simulation, such as the silicone-based membranes polydimethylsiloxane and Carbosil, are generally hydrophobic and rate limiting, imitating the stratum corneum. In contrast, synthetic membranes for quality control, such as cellulose esters and polysulfone, are required to act as a support rather than a barrier. These synthetic membranes also often contain pores; hence, they are called porous membranes. The significance of Franz diffusion studies and synthetic membranes in quality control studies involves an understanding of the fundamentals of synthetic membranes. This article provides a general overview of synthetic membranes, including a brief background of the history and the common applications of synthetic membranes. This review then explores the types of synthetic membranes, the transport mechanisms across them, and their relevance in choosing a synthetic membrane in Franz diffusion cell studies for formulation assessment purposes.
The aim of this study was to formulate cost effective taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of ondansetron, a bitter drug using different superdisintegrants by a wet granulation technique. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as a diluent and disintegrant in addition to aspartame as a sweetener were used in all formulations. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The tablets' hardness was maintained in the range of 2-3 kg and friability was <1% for all batches. All tablet formulations disintegrated rapidly in vitro within 5.83 to 33.0 sec. The optimized formulation containing 15% Polyplasdone XL-10 released more than 90% of drug within 5 min and the release was comparable to that of a commercial product. In human volunteers, optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and they disintegrated in the oral cavity within 12 sec. The stability results were also satisfactory. A pharmacokinetic study with the optimized formulation was performed in comparison with a reference (Zofer MD 8®) and they were found to be bioequivalent. In conclusion, a cost effective ondansetron orally disintegrating tablet was successfully prepared with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity.
The effects ofEurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Sexually normal male rats were treated twice daily with 500 mg kg(-1) of different fractions ofE. longifolia Jack for 10 days prior to test and were then observed for their copulatory behaviour with a receptive female in a copulation cage. Results showed that was a significant increase (p<0.05) in EL-1, EL-2, EL-3 but significant decrease (p<0.05) in both PEI-1 and PEI-2 in treated male rats as compared to the control male rats indicating thatE. longifolia Jack increased the sexual performance of the treated male rats by extending the duration of coitus and decreasing the refractory period between the different series of copulation. Hence, this preliminary work supports the folk use of this plant as having aphrodisiac property.
The tocotrienol vitamin E has potent antioxidant property, however absorption is low due to high lipid solubility. A self emulsifying preparation of tocotrienol rich vitamin E (SF-TRE) had been reported to increase their bioavailability. This randomized, placebo controlled, blinded end point clinical study aimed to determine the effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg daily of SF-TRE and placebo for two months on arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels. Assessment of arterial compliance by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI), plasma vitamin E, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were taken before and after 2 months' treatment in 36 healthy males. Un-supplemented tocotrienol levels were low, after treatment, all SF-TRE treated groups had significantly higher plasma alpha, delta and delta tocotrienol concentrations compared to placebo. Augmentation index change from baseline to end of treatment for groups placebo, 50, 100, and 200 mg were 2.22+/-1.54, -6.59+/-2.84, -8.72+/-3.77, and -6.27+/-2.67% respectively (p=0.049, 0.049, and 0.047 respectively). Groups 100 and 200 mg showed significant improvement after treatment with pulse wave velocity reductions of 0.77 m/s and 0.65 m/s respectively (p=0.007 and p=0.002). There was no effect of SF-TRE on serum lipids. We conclude that there was a trend towards improvement in arterial compliance with 2 months' of SF-TRE.
2α,3α,24-Thrihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oicacid (TEOA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the roots of Actinidia eriantha, exhibits significant cytotoxicity against SW620, BGC-823, HepG-2, A549 and PC-3 cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEOA in SW620 cells. We demonstrated that TEOA induced apoptosis through cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP in SW620 cells. In addition, evidence of TEOA-mediated autophagy included the induction of autophagolysosomes and activation of autophagic markers LC-3B and p62. Further analysis illustrated that TEOA promoted the phosphorylation of PERK and elF2α, followed by up-regulation of the downstream protein CHOP, suggesting the involvement of PERK/eIF2α/CHOP pathway and ER stress in TEOA-induced autophagy in SW620 cells. Meanwhile, TEOA-mediated PINK1, Parkin, ubiquitin and p62 activation revealed that TEOA induced specific autophagy-mitophagy in SW620 cells. Additionally, an antioxidant NAC attenuated the TEOA-induced mitophagy, indicating that TEOA triggers mitophagy via a ROS-dependent pathway. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel cellular mechanism of TEOA in the colon cancer cell line SW620, thus providing a molecular basis for developing TEOA into an anti-tumor candidate.
The development of novel drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer therapeutics has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple disorders. Advances in material chemistry, nanotechnology, and nanomedicine have revolutionized the practices of drug delivery. Stimulus-responsive material-based nanosized drug delivery systems have remarkable properties that allow them to circumvent biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Specifically, the development of novel nanocarrier-based therapeutics is the need of the hour in managing complex diseases. In this review, we have briefly described the fundamentals of drug targeting to diseased tissues, physiological barriers in the human body, and the mechanisms/modes of drug-loaded carrier systems. To that end, this review serves as a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems, with focus on their potential applications and impact on the future of drug delivery.
Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phytochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer duration can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.
Several novel 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) ethyl]-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazoles (3a-h) have been synthesized by the condensation of 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-1H-benzotriazole (2) and appropriate acid chlorides. 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-1H-benzotriazole (2) was synthesized by reacting 3-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)propanenitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in the presence of dimethylformamide. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR and PMR analysis. The titled compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by the cup plate method and anticonvulsant activity evaluated by the maximal electroshock induced convulsion method in mice. All synthesized compounds exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Compounds 5-(2-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazo-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)(4-aminophenyl)methanone 3d and 5-(2-(1 H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazo-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)(2-aminophenyl)methanone 3e elicited excellent anticonvulsant activity.
It has been reported that Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali has gained notoreity as a symbol of man's ego and strength by the Malaysian men because it increases male virility and sexual prowess during sexual activities. As such, the effects of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack were studied on the laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats after dosing them for 12 consecutive weeks. Results showed that 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack significantly increased (p<0.05) the leavator ani muscle to 58.56+/-1.22, 58.23+/-0.31, 60.21 +/-0.86 and 62.35 +/-0.98 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared with the control (untreated) in the uncastrated intact male rats and 49.23+/-0.82, 52.23+/-0.36, 50.21+/-0.66 and 52.35+/-0.58 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared to control (untreated) in the testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats. Hence, the pro-androgenic effect as shown by this study further supported the traditional use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.
The aim of this study is to provide evidence on the aphrodisiac property of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. An electric grid was used as an obstruction in the electrical copulation cage in order to determine how much an aversive stimulus the sexually naive male rat for both the treated with E. longifolia Jack and control groups were willing to overcome to reach the estrous receptive female in the goal cage. The intensity of the grid current was maintained at 0.12 mA and this was the intensity in which the male rats in the control group failed to crossover to reach the goal cage. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack continued to enhance and also maintain a high level of both the total number of successful crossovers, mountings, intromissions and ejaculations during the 9-12th week observation period. In conclusion, these results further enhanced and strengthened the aphrodisiac property of E. longifolia Jack.
The aim of this study was to prepare a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded double-walled microspheres using a fast degrading glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (Glu-PLGA) and a moderate-degrading carboxyl-terminated PLGA polymers to reduce the initial burst release and to eliminate the lag phase from the release profile of PLGA microspheres. The double-walled microspheres were prepared using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w/o/o/w) method and single-polymer microspheres were prepared using a conventional water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, thermal properties, in vitro drug release and structural integrity of BSA were evaluated in this study. Double-walled microspheres prepared with Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers with a mass ratio of 1:1 were non-porous, smooth-surfaced, and spherical in shape. A significant reduction of initial burst release was achieved for the double-walled microspheres compared to single-polymer microspheres. In addition, microspheres prepared using Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited continuous BSA release after the small initial burst without any lag phase. It can be concluded that the double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 can be a potential delivery system for pharmaceutical proteins.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) recently emerged as an appealing alternative to treat and prevent diseases ranging from cancer and Alzheimer's disease to COVID-19 with significant clinical outputs. The in vitro-transcribed mRNA has been engineered to mimic the structure of natural mRNA for vaccination, cancer immunotherapy and protein replacement therapy. In past decades, significant progress has been noticed in unveiling the molecular pathways of mRNA, controlling its translatability and stability, and its evolutionary defense mechanism. However, numerous unsolved structural, biological, and technical difficulties hamper the successful implementation of systemic delivery of mRNA for safer human consumption. Advances in designing and manufacturing mRNA and selecting innovative delivery vehicles are mandatory to address the unresolved issues and achieve the full potential of mRNA drugs. Despite the substantial efforts made to improve the intracellular delivery of mRNA drugs, challenges associated with diverse applications in different routes still exist. This study examines the current progress of mRNA therapeutics and advancements in designing biomaterials and delivery strategies, the existing translational challenges of clinical tractability and the prospects of overcoming any challenges related to mRNA.