RESULTS: The present study reveals that both vitexin and donepezil are able to bind at the close proximity of LPS binding site located at the TLR4/MD-2 complex with the binding energy of - 4.35 and - 9.14 kcal/mol, respectively. During molecular dynamic simulations, both vitexin and donepezil formed stable complex with TLR4/MD-2 throughout the 100 ns time length with the root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 2.5 Å and 4.0 Å, respectively. The root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) reveals that both compounds are stable. Interestingly, the radius of gyration (rGyr) for donepezil shows notable fluctuations when compare with vitexin. The MM-GBSA results showed that vitexin has higher binding energy in comparison with donepezil.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings suggest that vitexin is able to bind at the binding site of TLR4/MD-2 complex with more stability than donepezil throughout the course of 100 ns simulation. Hence, vitexin has the potential to be an antagonist candidate for LPS.
RESULTS: The production medium was first optimized using a statistical optimization approach to increase pectinase production. A maximal enzyme concentration of 76.35 U/mL (a 2.8-fold increase compared with the initial medium) was produced in a medium composed of (g/L): pectin, 32.22; (NH4)2SO4, 4.33; K2HPO4, 1.36; MgSO4.5H2O, 0.05; KCl, 0.05; and FeSO4.5H2O, 0.10. The cultivations were then carried out in a 16-L stirred tank bioreactor in both batch and fed-batch modes to improve enzyme production, which is an important step for bioprocess industrialization. Controlling the pH at 5.5 during cultivation yielded a pectinase production of 109.63 U/mL, which was about 10% higher than the uncontrolled pH culture. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivation using sucrose as a feeding substrate with a rate of 2 g/L/h increased the enzyme production up to 450 U/mL after 126 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Statistical medium optimization improved volumetric pectinase productivity by about 2.8 folds. Scaling-up the production process in 16-L semi-industrial stirred tank bioreactor under controlled pH further enhanced pectinase production by about 4-folds. Finally, bioreactor fed-batch cultivation using constant carbon source feeding increased maximal volumetric enzyme production by about 16.5-folds from the initial starting conditions.
RESULTS: Expression of TB antigen-LysM fusion genes was conducted in Escherichia coli, but this resulted in IBs deposition in contrast to the expression of TB antigens only. This suggested that LysM fusion significantly altered solubility of the TB antigens produced in E. coli. The non-denaturing NLS technique was used and optimized to successfully solubilize and purify ~ 55% of the recombinant cell wall-anchoring TB antigen from the IBs. Functionality of the recovered protein was analyzed via immunofluorescence microscopy and whole cell ELISA which showed successful and stable cell wall binding to L. plantarum (up to 5 days).
CONCLUSION: The presented NLS purification strategy enables an efficient and rapid method for obtaining higher yields of soluble cell wall-anchoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens-LysM fusion proteins from IBs in E. coli.
RESULTS: Here, we describe a luciferase/luciferin (XenoLuc) assay that could specifically measure changes in the proliferation of cancer cells in the co-culture system using two modified NPC patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTXs) cells: Xeno284-gfp-luc2 and XenoB110-gfp-luc2. Through this assay, we are able to show that the growth of NPC xenograft cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models was enhanced when co-cultured with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). In addition, potential applications of this assay in in vitro drug or inhibitor screening experiments are also illustrated.
CONCLUSIONS: XenoLuc assay is specific, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective for measuring the growth of luciferase-expressing cells in a co- or multiple-culture system. This assay may also be adapted for tumour microenvironment studies as well as drug screening experiments in more complex 3D co-culture systems.
RESULTS: Natamycin production was investigated under the effect of different initial glucose concentrations. Maximal antibiotic production (1.58 ± 0.032 g/L) was achieved at 20 g/L glucose. Under glucose limitation, natamycin production was retarded and the produced antibiotic was degraded. Higher glucose concentrations resulted in carbon catabolite repression. Secondly, intermittent feeding of glucose improved natamycin production due to overcoming glucose catabolite regulation, and moreover it was superior to glucose-beef mixture feeding, which overcomes catabolite regulation, but increased cell growth on the expense of natamycin production. Finally, the process was optimized in 7.5 L stirred tank bioreactor under batch and fed-batch conditions. Continuous glucose feeding for 30 h increased volumetric natamycin production by about 1.6- and 1.72-folds in than the batch cultivation in bioreactor and shake-flasks, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Glucose is a crucial substrate that significantly affects the production of natamycin, and its slow feeding is recommended to alleviate the effects of carbon catabolite regulation as well as to prevent product degradation under carbon source limitation. Cultivation in bioreactor under glucose feeding increased maximal volumetric enzyme production by about 72% from the initial starting conditions.
RESULTS: The constructed integration system comprises of a lactococcal promoter (PnisA or P170), phage attachment site (attP) from bacteriophage TP901-1, a signal peptide (USP45 or SPK1) for translocation of the target protein, and a PrtP344 anchor domain in the case of the integrative vectors for surface display. There were eight successfully constructed integrative vectors with each having a different combination of promoter and signal peptide; pS1, pS2, pS3 and pS4 for secretion, and pSD1, pSD2, pSD3 and pSD4 for surface display of desired protein. The integration of the vectors into the host genome was assisted by a helper vector harbouring the integrase gene. A nuclease gene was used as a reporter and was successfully integrated into the L. lactis genome and Nuc was secreted or displayed as expected. The signal peptide SPK1 was observed to be superior to USP45-LEISSTCDA fusion in the secretion of Nuc. As for the surface display integrative vector, all systems developed were comparable with the exception of the combination of P170 promoter with USP45 signal peptide which gave very low signals in whole cell ELISA.
CONCLUSION: The engineered synthetic integrative vectors have the potential to be used for secretion or surface display of heterologous protein production in lactococcal expression system for research or industrial purposes, especially in live vaccine delivery.
RESULTS: In this study, L-cells were isolated from a primary intestinal cell line to create suitable target cells for insulin expression studies. The isolated cells displayed L-cell properties and were therefore used as an L-cell surrogate. Next, the isolated L-cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid consisting of an insulin gene located downstream of the GLP-1 promoter. The secretion tests revealed that an increase in glucose concentration from 5 mM to 25 mM induced insulin gene expression in the L-cells by 2.7-fold. Furthermore, L-cells quickly responded to the glucose stimulation; the amount of insulin protein increased 2-fold in the first 30 minutes and then reached a plateau after 90 minutes.
CONCLUSION: Our data showed that L-cells efficiently produced the mature insulin protein. In addition, the insulin protein secretion was positively regulated with glucose induction. In conclusion, GLP-1 promoter and L-cell could be potential candidates for diabetes gene therapy agents.
RESULTS: Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation with the novel strain can potentially improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate. B. salmalaya strain 139SI showed high potential to enhance biological treatment given its maximum NH3-N and COD removal efficiencies. The response surface plot pattern indicated that within 11 days and under optimum conditions (10% v/v inoculant, pH 6, and 35 °C), B. salmalaya strain139SI removed 78% of ammonia nitrogen. At the end of the study, biological and chemical oxygen demands remarkably decreased by 88% and 91.4%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that ammonia ions covered the cell surface of B. salmalaya strain139SI.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, novel resistant Bacillus salmalaya strain139SI significantly reduces the chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N content of landfill leachate. Leachate treatment by B. salmalaya strain 139SI within 11 days.
RESULTS: A novel approach of utilizing an in-trans protein surface display system of Lactobacillus plantarum carrying and displaying combination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subunit epitope antigens (Ag85B, CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0475 and Rv2031c) fused with LysM anchor motif designated as ACERL was constructed, cloned and expressed in Esherichia coli Rossetta expression host. Subsequently the binding capability of ACERL to the cell wall of L. plantarum was examined via the immunofluorescence microscopy and whole cell ELISA where successful attachment and consistent stability of cell wall binding up to 4 days was determined. The immunization of the developed vaccine of L. plantarum surface displaying ACERL (Lp ACERL) via the oral route was studied in mice for its immunogenicity effects. Lp ACERL immunization was able to invoke significant immune responses that favor the Th1 type cytokine response of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2 as indicated by the outcome from the cytokine profiling of spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the re-stimulation of the splenocytes from the immunized mice. Co-administration of an adjuvant consisting of Lactococcus lactis secreting mouse IL-12 (LcIL-12) with Lp ACERL was also investigated. It was shown that the addition of LcIL-12 was able to further generate significant Th1 type cytokines immune responses, similar or better than that of Lp ACERL alone which can be observed from the cytokine profiling of the immunized mice's spleen, lung and GIT.
CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a proof of concept in the development of L. plantarum as a carrier for a non-genetically modified organism (GMO) tuberculosis vaccine, which may be the strategy in the future for tuberculosis vaccine development.
RESULTS: A novel α-amylase (AmyA1) containing an open reading frame of 1482 bp was cloned from Antarctic psychrotolerant fungus G. pannorum and then expressed in the newly constructed Aspergillus oryzae system. The purified recombinant AmyA1 was approximate 52 kDa. AmyA1 was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 40 °C, and retained over 20% of maximal activity at 0-20 °C. The K m and V max values toward soluble starch were 2.51 mg/mL and 8.24 × 10-2 mg/(mL min) respectively, with specific activity of 12.8 × 103 U/mg. AmyA1 presented broad substrate specificity, and the main hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, and maltotetraose. The influence of AmyA1 on the quality of bread was further investigated. The application study shows a 26% increase in specific volume, 14.5% increase in cohesiveness and 14.1% decrease in gumminess in comparison with the control. AmyA1 was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and characterized. The immobilized enzyme showed improved thermostability and enhanced pH tolerance under neutral conditions. Also, magnetically immobilized AmyA1 can be easily recovered and reused for maximum utilization.
CONCLUSIONS: A novel α-amylase (AmyA1) from Antarctic psychrotolerant fungus was cloned, heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, and characterized. The detailed report of the enzymatic properties of AmyA1 gives new insights into fungal cold-adapted amylase. Application study showed potential value of AmyA1 in the food and starch fields. In addition, AmyA1 was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and characterized. The improved stability and longer service life of AmyA1 could potentially benefit industrial applications.
RESULT: The screening of six physical conditions by Plackett-Burman Design has identified pH, inoculum size and incubation time as exerting significant effects on lipase production. These three conditions were further optimised using, Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology, which predicted an optimum medium comprising pH 6, 24 h incubation time and 2% inoculum size. T1 lipase activity of 2.0 U/mL was produced with a biomass of OD600 23.0.
CONCLUSION: The process of using RSM for optimisation yielded a 3-fold increase of T1 lipase over medium before optimisation. Therefore, this result has proven that T1 lipase can be produced at a higher yield in P. guilliermondii.
RESULTS: In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.